Research4life Programmes (agora & oare)

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research4life Programmes (AGORA & OARE)

Authoring Skills ‘How to Write a Scientific Paper’ Exercises

  1. General Questions and Answers

  2. Structured Abstract

  3. Keyword Exercises

  4. Submission of Abstract to Appropriate Journal

  5. Bibliographic Citations

Complete Assignment 1 using Appendix 1 (General Questions and Answers), 2 & 3 using Appendix 2 (Open Access Articles). Complete assignment 4 using Appendix 3 (Article Abstracts and Summaries of Journals’ Scope) and Complete Assignments 5 using Appendix 4 (Bibliographic Data).

Assignment 1:

Answer the multiple-choice, true/false and matching questions in Appendix 1
Assignment 2:

For two of the five articles in Appendix 2, write a 150 word ABSTRACT using the applicable components of a Structured Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Envisioning the Research or Discussion Question

Consider the overall purpose of the research or discussion. What is author(s) trying to learn or to demonstrate or discuss?

METHODS: Documenting the Research Step

What does the author(s) wants to research or discuss, how the researcher has proceeded? The METHODS section should accurately, although concisely, summarize how the author will proceed in learning the answer the question(s) in the objective.

RESULTS: Reporting the Research

What has the author(s) discovered. It will probably report that he or she only made a modest discovery or perhaps some unexpected results. The RESULTS should be as accurate as possible for the sake of those trying to understand your research method and results.


The CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS should not introduce any information or ideas not already described elsewhere in your structured abstracts. Ideally, it should be limited in length, and can include an evaluation of your research and areas for further research.

For more information on Structured Abstracts, go to

Note: some Abstracts also include an introductory section titled BACKGROUND. It would contain a brief statement about previous studies and how this research fits into the body of literature.
Assignment 3:

  1. For two of the three articles not used for assignment #2 (Appendix 2), write 4-6 KEYWORDS.

  2. Complete Cab Abstracts or EBSCO Environmental Index searches using the keywords you assigned to the specific article(s). Note if the searches identify the original article or related articles. You may need to complete several searches with combined keyword terms.

Keywords are defined as:

significant words in the title, abstract or text of a work; some periodical indexes identify keywords in a separate data field, so that they can be searched without searching the full text of the document. Some indexes use such keywords in place of assigning standard subject headings to items. (
An important word in the abstract, title, subject heading, or text of an entry in an electronic database which can be used as a search term. (
Assignment 4:

For 2 of the 4 article abstracts in Appendix 3, decide which journal you would submit the article for publication. Cite 2 reasons why you have selected this journal.
Assignment 5:

From the bibliographic data in Appendix 4, use the Vancouver style to complete 2 bibliographic entries for:

  1. Book citations

  2. E-books

  3. Journal articles

  4. E-journals

  5. Internet documents

Note: The source for the formats and sample citations is:
Murdoch University. How to Cite References/Vancouver Style [Document on the

Internet]. Perth, Australia, The University; [updated 2008 February;

cited 2008 Feb 26 ]. Available from:
For additional information, go to the website.

Overview: A Reference List : What It Should Look Like

The reference list should appear at the end of your paper. Begin the list on a new page. The title References should be either left justified or centered on the page. The entries should appear as one numerical sequence in the order that the material is cited in the text of your assignment. The hanging indent for each reference makes the numerical sequence more obvious.

1. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2003.

2. Drummond PD. Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache.


3. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors.

In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

4. ..

  1. Book Citations: Standard format

#. Author/editor AA. Title: subtitle. Edition(if not the first). Vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. P. page number(s) (if appropriate).

Books: Single author or editor

1. Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2003.

2. Storey KB, editor. Functional metabolism: regulation and adaptation. Hoboken (NJ): J. Wiley & Sons; 2004.
Two or more authors or editors

3. Lawhead JB, Baker MC. Introduction to veterinary science. Clifton Park (NY):

Thomson Delmar Learning; 2005.

4. Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, Van Dorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed.

New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
No author

5. The Oxford concise medical dictionary. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press;

2003. p. 26.

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