Individual Website The Internet: a changing Force of the World



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Maryam Ali
Individual Website
The Internet: A Changing Force of the World
Senior Division

Works Cited



Primary Sources

American Electronic Association. AeA Press Release. N.p., 26 June 2002. Web. 2 Apr. 2013.

This is a press release from the American Electronic Association, and contains annual informational data compilations about the usage of the Internet. I used a quote from the CEO William T. Archey in my Economics impact page. The quote showcases the increase of jobs the Internet has created.

Barlow, John Perry. “Declaration of Independence for Cyberspace,” 8, Feb. 1996. Print.


This is an essay written by a vocal critic of the Communications Decency Act, a legislation which attempted to regulate the content of broadcast media on the Internet. John Perry Barlow outlined his objections to the legislation, claiming that there should be no censorship of cursing, nudity and discussion of certain subjects on the Internet. I used this to gain insight on the process of gaining free speech on the Internet.

Berners-Lee, Tim. “World Wide Web.” Web. 2 Feb 2013. <http://www.w3.org/History/19921 103-hypertext/www/TheProject.html.>

Berners-Lee first proposed the combination of software programs and networking protocols in 1989. This website provides information of the first Web page Berners-Lee created to demonstrate the power of hypertext links. This provides me with more insight into the numerous steps and developments that took place in order to formulate the modern-day Internet.

Berners-Lee, Tim with Mark Fischetti. Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by its Inventor. New York: Harper Collins, 1999. Print.

This book contains quotes from the inventors of the Internet explaining the motives of creating the World Wide Web. I used it to provide information of the formation of the Internet, as well as the social benefits of the Internet.

"Bill Gates on In-Person V.s. Online Education." Speech. Www.youtube.com. YouTube, 06 Aug. 2006. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.

This is a speech Bill Gates gave, expressing the benefits of an online-based education as opposed to an in-person education. I put an excerpt of this speech on the Social Impacts page of my website.

Clerf, Vinton. “How the Internet Came to Be.” The Online User’s Encyclopedia. 1993. Print.


Vinton Clerf is one of the pioneer developers of the Internet from UCLA. He participated in the first public demonstration of the ARPANet in 1972. I read an excerpt of his 1993 essay in which he describes his activities during the first 25 years in the history of the Internet. This provided me with an insider’s perspective on some of the most important points in the technical development of the network.

Cliff Nobles & Co. "The Horse." Rec. 29 Dec. 2012. Columbia Records, 1968. MP3.

"The Horse" is an American instrumental song that was produced and released in the 1960's, right near the time period the Internet was created in. I used this song on the front page of my website to create a feel for the historical time period.

Cisco. The Cisco Connected World Technology Report. Rep. Cisco, 2011. Web. 12 Feb. 2013.

This report contains Internet usage data from all over the world. I used this report on my Culture and Commerce page.

Cohen, Jared. "Technology's Role In the Arab Spring Protests." Interview by Steven Levy. Www.youtube.com. YouTube, 8 July 2011. Web. 4 Jan. 2013. .


This is an interview with Jared Cohen, Director of Google Ideas. He elaborates on the role Twitter and other social media tools have played in the Arab Spring demonstrations and protests. I used this to provide examples of political impacts of the Internet.

Crocker, Stephan D. "ARAPNET - First Internet." Living Internet. 26 Feb. 2006 .

This is an excerpt from Stephen D. Crocker, one of the people in charge of developing the software for ARPANet. I used this source to understand the historical context of the early development of the Internet.

Crocker, Steve. “RFC1,” April 7, 1969. Web. 4 May 2013. http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfcl/html

Steve Crcoker was a graduate student at UCLA who was responsible for writing software to

connect the university to the net. This is a memo he wrote to experts developing the ARPANet,

describing his group’s findings. This provided me with a documentation of the process of the

collaborative decision making that helped guide the development of the modern Internet.

Doherty, Alan O' "Charity Crowdsourcing Online: Can Social Media Make a Difference?" Web log post. Zook-it.com. N.p., 2013. Web. 08 May 2013. .
This blog post explores the impact of the Internet on Revolutions such as the Arab Spring. It specifically explores the impact of social media and the divergence of information globally through Facebook and Twitter to help raise awareness and support of revolutions. I used this on my Political Impacts page.

Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait.29 May 1959. White House. JPG image. 2 Jan. 2013.

This is an official photo of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the President who approved the

formation of the Internet. I used this in the Time and Place page of my website.

Fox, Susannah. “The Impact of the Internet on One Man’s Life.” E-patients.net. 13 Mar 2012. Web. 2 Oct 2012.

This article contains the first-hand account of the social impacts the Internet had on one specific individual living in the United States. I used it to formulate the basis of the social benefits of the Internet on my website.

Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. 3.0rd ed. New

York: Straus and Giroux Farrar, 2007. Print.

Thomas L. Friedman describes his conclusion that "the world is flat," because of the converging factors of the Internet. He provides quotes from CEOs of companies which outsource jobs worldwide. I used this source to understand the economic impacts of the Internet.

Gates, Bill. Remarks at New York Institute of Technology, October 28, 1999. Web. 03 Apr

2013. <www.microsoft.com/billgates/speeches/10-28Genl.asp>

In this 1999 speech at the New York Institute of Technology, Bill Gates describes osme of the potential uses of Internet technology in education. This was used to provide examples of the Internet’s potential advantages, particularly in the area of education.

Gates, Bill, and Collins Hemingway. Business @ the Speed of Thought: Using a Digital Nervous System. New York, NY: Warner, 1999. Print.

This is a book written by Bill Gates over the effect the Internet has on today's informational world. I used direct quotes of his in various places in my website.

Grady, Leigh. “Credit Card Scam,” Slamtheonlinescam.com. Web. 11 Nov. 2012

This is a first-hand account of an online consumer who experienced online scam and identity theft. I used this to understand negative economics effect of the Internet, which I used in my summary of the historical impact of the Internet.

Gralla, Preston. How the Internet Works. 7th ed. Indianapolis, IN: Que, 2004.

This informational text provides an overview of the technical aspects of the Internet’s operation. This gave me insight to details of the inner workings of routers, wireless networks, search engines, instant messaging, viruses, spyware, and many other aspects of the online experience. I used it to provide examples of positive and negative utilizations of the Internet.

Hafeez, Fatima. "Internet for the Student." Personal interview. 01 Apr. 2013.

This personal interview of a high school student at Cypress Lakes explores the uses the Internet provides for a teenage student in America. I used a direct quote from this interview in the Social Impacts page.

Hafner, Katy. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996. Print.


This book provides a first-hand account at the early development of the ARPANet in the 1960s. In this source, Katy explained the motives for the creation of the Internet. It contained direct quotes from one of the creators of the Internet, J.C.R. Licklider, which I used in the Social Motives page on my website.

Harty, Sarah. "The Internet: A Principal's Perspective." Personal interview. 01 Apr. 2013.

This personal interview of the Principal of Cypress Lakes High School provided information about education before the Internet, as well as certain regulations teachers have in regards to the Internet. I used direct quotes from this interview in my Social Impacts page.

Hogan, Matt. “Malicious YouTube Video.” Slamtheonlinescam.com. Web. 15 Nov. 2012

This video reveals the encounter an Internet user had with a virus which attacked his fils. This video reveals the negative impact the Internet can have when one encounters the common virus. I used the information presented as an example of a negative social impact of the Internet.

"How I Work: Bill Gates." Interview by CNN. Money 07 Apr. 2006: n. pag. Print.

This was an interview of Bill Gates conducted by a CNN magazine. Bill Gates talks about how he uses the Internet to get the majority of his news. I used a quote on my political impacts page.

Internet Crime Complaint Center. 2011 Internet Crime Report. Rep. N.p.: n.p., 2011. Print.


This is a compilation of Internet crimes reported to the FBI for the year 2011. I used this source to understand the negative social impacts of the Internet.

Kirstein, Peter. "Early Experiences with the ARPANET and INTERNET." University College London.

This is a report of the early development of the Internet, as well as the pioneer utilizations of the ARPANet. I used this to understand the historical context of the formation of the Internet.

Internet Society. “All About the Internet.” Web. 11 Nov 2012. <http://www.isoc.org/internet>

The online home of one of the Internet’s governing organizations, this site includes a wealth of

information about the development and growth of the network. I used this to visualize the

impacts the Internet had through its growth.

Internet Users in the World. 2012. Miniwatts Marketing Group. JPG image. 6 Jan. 2013
This is a primary source compilation of data by the Miniwatts Marketing Group. This is an image of a pie chart showing the distribution of Internet users in the world by region. I used it to show how the Internet connects people from all over the globe.

Maney, Kevin. “Your Computer May Not Be as Protected as You Think It Is.” USA Today. 15 Sept. 2004. Print.

This is a column for USA Today in which Kevin Maney recalls his struggles to rid his home computer of an Internet virus. This primary source was used to provide evidence for and showcase the negative effects of the Internet has on today’s society, such as the prevalence of viruses which can destroy data, steal personal information, corrupt system files, and render a computer worthless.

Markoff, John. "An Internet Pioneer Ponders the Next Revolution." New York Times on the Web. 20 Dec. 1999. New York Times. 26 Feb. 2006



.

This is a summary of John Markoff’s interview with Robert W. Taylor, a director of the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency Information Processing Techniques Office who came up with the idea for the Internet's precursor, the ARPAnet. He describes the potential of a computer network. I utilized this source to understand the motives behind the formation the ARPANet, the Internet’s predecessor.

National Museum of American History. “Birth of the Internet.” Web. 12 May 2013. Smithsonian.yahoo.com/birthoftheinterent.html

Compiled by the Smithsonian Institution and Yahoo!, this site offers information on important people, companies, and events in the history of the Internet and World Wide Web. I used this to provide information about the main people behind the creation of the Internet in my Historical Context section.



Nsf.org. National Science Foundation, n.d. Web. 09 May 2013. .
This is an interactive flash timeline which explores the years of development of the Internet, beginning with the 1960s through the 2000s. I used it to understand the motivations for the creation of the ARPANet, and the immediate and later impacts of the Internet.

One Million Women from Around the World Discuss Issues Via Social Media. Voanews.com. Voice of America, 4 May 2013. Web. 10 May 2013.
.
This is an online news video coverage of the first ever global conversation through social medias such as Twitter, Skype, and Facebook. I added a clip of this video to my Social Impacts page.

Online web search. Digital image. Www.halogendesigns.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Dec. 2012.

This is an image of a website search bar. I used this image to show how the Internet has easy

access to information.

Peters, Tom. "The Wow Project." Fast Company Apr. 1999: n. pag. Print.

This article written by Tom Peters explores the impact the Internet had on his own life socially, as it connected him to a world of information. I used a quote on my Culture and Commerce page.

Polly, Jean Armour. “Surfing the Internet: An Introduction.” Wilson Library Bulletin, June 1992. Print.

This is a first-hand account of Jean Armour Polly, – a librarian, author, and Web site reviewer – who is widely credited with coining the term “surfing” the Web. In this except, Polly shares her enjoyment of the valuable new resource of the Internet as she explores and searches for information. I used it to back up the claims of positive social effects of the Internet.

Quote from a High School Teacher. 29 Mar. 2013. Raw data. Cypress Lakes HIgh School, Katy.

A teacher voiced her opinion on the disadvantages of using the Internet for education. I quoted this on the Social Impacts page on my website.

Reed, Harper. "Harper Reed: Talking about Privacy." Interview. Www.youtube.com. YouTube, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 7 May 2013. .
Harper Reed, Chief Technology Officer for Barack Obama's 2012 re-election campaign, talks on the issue of privacy in the Internet Age. He describes that with the emergence social networks and technology, many issues with privacy are increasingly encountered. I used this to understand the social impacts of the Internet.

Reed, Harper. "....This Guy Ran the Tech That Won Obama Reelection." Interview by Jason Gilbert. News.yahoo.com. Yahoo!, 9 May 2013. Web. 12 May 2013. .


This is an interview of Harper Reed, the CTO for Obama's 2012 election. He tells what a crucial role social networking played in the re-election of President Obama. I used this to help understand the political impact of the Internet.

Richards, Sally. FutureNet: The Past, Present and Future of the Internet as Told by Its Creators and Vissionaries. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2002.

This text source provides direct excerpts from Internet pioneers Vint Clerf and Leonard Kleinrock as they reminisce about the challenges of bringing the Internet to life. I used this to understand the historical context, as well as took into account their speculations about the possible directions the technology may take in the future.

Sameer@TGC. Screenshot of Facebook messaging on an iPhone. Digital image. www.thegeeksclub.com. The Geeks Club, 22 Oct. 2011. Web. 02 Apr. 2013.

This is a screenshot an Internet user took of the many different conversations they are able to

have through Facebook messaging. I used this to show the ease of communication through the

Internet.

Segaller, Stephen. Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet. New York: TV Books, 1998.

This book provides an informative account of the history of the Internet through the personal stories of its creators. It gives me insight into the thought processes of the technological pioneers who contributed to the development, growth, and commercialization of computer networking. I used this on my Historical Context section.

Seely, Donn. “A Tour of the Worm,” 1988. Print

This is an excerpt from a paper Don Seely – a professor of computer science at the University of Utah – wrote to describe what happened during the infamous Internet Worm of 1988. This describes the effect that a mass virus had on the entire network system. I used this to help understand the negative impacts of the Internet.

Terrel, Shelly Sanchez. “The Internet’s Impact on Conferences Interview with Simon Greenall.” Youtube. Youtube, 4 Apr. 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012.

This interviewee explained a recent social impact of the Internet and how it helped them to connect with people online. I used it to promote the positive social impacts of the Internet.

Wihbey, John. "Internet Use and Democratic Demands: A Multinational, Multilevel Model of Internet Use and Citizen Attitudes about Democracy." Journalist's Resource (2012): n. pag. Web. 12 May 2012. .

This is a summary of the 2012 Ohio State University study over the democratic impact of the Internet on African and Asian countries. It provided me with a greater understanding of the Internet's global political impact.

Secondary Sources

Beau. "The Internet." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2013.

This website provided me with the synopsis of what happened during the creation of the Internet. I quoted this website in the Time and Place page on my website.

Dokoupil, Tony. “Is the Web Driving Us Mad?” Thedailybeast. 9 Jul 2012. Web. 15 Nov 2012

This secondary source investigates the negative effects of the Internet on our individual social lives. It’s important because it helped me explain the historical impact of the Internet socially.

Hillstrom, Kevin. The Internet Revolution. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 2005. Print.

This secondary source provided me with information of the impact the Internet had on the world, which I used in my research. It was important because it gave me examples of the ways the Internet impacted the world.

“Internet”. Wikipedia. 29 Oct 2012. Web. 1 Nov 2012.

This secondary source provided me with the historical background of the Internet. It was important because it gave me insight to the reasons and motives for the creation of the Internet.

Online web search. Digital image. www.migueltodaro.com. 2 Jan. 2013.

This is an image of a timeline showcasing the creation and immediate impacts of the Internet

from 1969, and shows the addition of users and features through the year 2007.

Online web search. Digital image. www.hill2dot0.com . 30 Dec. 2012

This is a timeline showing the metamorphosis of the Internet from its initial creation called ARPANet with 4 users and follows through its different versions with increasing numbers of users until it reaches the year 2005, with over 1 billion Internet users.

Online web search. Digital image. www.shapecollage.com. 4 Jan. 2013

This is an image of a Facebook icon. Facebook is a type of social network which allows people to connect with one another online. I used it to show an example of communication within society online.

Online web search. Digital image. www.prconversations.com. 5 Jan. 2013

This is an image of a Twitter icon. Twitter is a type of social networks which allows people to connect with one another online. I used it to show an example of one of the ways society connects through the Internet.

Online web search. Digital image. www.beet.tv. 2 Jan. 2013

This is an image of online news on CNN.com. This is a political example of how information is

spread online. I used it to show how people can access instant news through the Internet.

Kedem, Carmella. “The Social Impact of the Internet on Our Society.” www2.math.umd.edy. 1999. Web. 15 Nov 2012.

This secondary source is important because it explains in depth the specific impacts the Internet has had and continues to have on our society, and was used in my research.

Leiner, Barry M. “Brief History of the Internet”. Internetsociety.org. Web. 13 Oct 2012

This secondary source was used for y research of the historical background of the Internet. It’s important because it provided me with the origins of the formation of the Internet.

Nisbet, E. C., Stoycheff, E. and Pearce, K. E. (2012), Internet Use and Democratic Demands: A Multinational, Multilevel Model of Internet Use and Citizen Attitudes About Democracy. Journal of Communication, 62: 249–265.
This contains reports from a 2012 Ohio study of the democratic effect of the Internet on nearly 38,000 people living in 28 African and Asian countries during the period 2006-2008. This study concludes that increased Internet adoption holds the promise of fostering greater democracy in countries with certain preconditions. I used this data on my Political Impacts page.

Online web search. Digital image. 3 Jan. 2013.



This image shows a connected world - super fast broadband, brought about by fiber optic

connection has revolutionized telecommunications. I used this image as my homepage website

photo because it shows a world connected through the Internet.

Pecorino, Philip. “Impact of Internet and Communication Networks and Technologies on Concepts of and forms of Democratic Government and Rule.” www.qcc.cuny.edu. 2009. Web. 2 Nov. 2012

This secondary source was important because it provided evidence of the Internet’s impact on politics, and was used to back up my statements.

Stewart, Bill. “Internet History – Summary”. Livinginternet.com 7 Jan. 2000. Web. 10 Nov 2012.

This secondary source was used to provide me with the background history of the Internet. It’s important because it told me the cause of the formation of the internet.

“The Impact of the Internet,” Thinkquest.org. Web. 15 Nov. 2012

This secondary source is important because it reviews the different ways the Internet has impacted society. I used the information in this to formulate ideas for my paper over the historical impact of the Internet.

“Will the Web and Blogs Change How We Govern – and are Governed?” Japan Media Review. 27 Jun 2003. Web. 11 Nov 2012.



This secondary source was important because it examined the political effects of the Internet. It explores the idea that the Internet can influence our opinion and choices over the government.

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