The education system



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B I B L I O T E C A D I D O C U M E N T A Z I O N E P E D A G O G I C A

U n i t à i t a l i a n a d i E u r y d i c e

V i a B u o n a r r o t i 10 – 50122 – F i r e n z e

Tel. +39/055/23 80 325–384 – Fax 23 80 330–399

http://www.bdp.it - actions@bdp.it
THE EDUCATION SYSTEM

IN ITALY
(1998)


Unità Italiana di Eurydice

TABLE OF CONTENTS




TABLE OF CONTENTS 2

1. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC BACKGROUND 10

1.1. The political situation 10

1.2. Main legislative and executive authorities 10

1.2.1. Legislative authority 11

1.2.2. Executive authority 11

1.2.3. Ministries with powers over education 11

1.2.4. Regions - Institutional structure 11

1.2.5. Regional powers 12

1.2.6. Provinces and Communes - Institutional structure 12

1.3. Relations between State and Church 12

1.4. The Italian language and minority languages 12

1.5. Territory and population 13

1.6. Economic trends 13

1.7. Statistical data 13

2. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND LEGISLATION 15

2.1. Historical background 15

2.2. Basic legislation and principles 15

2.3. Compulsory education 16

2.4. General structure and key guidance moments 17

2.5. General administration 17

2.5.1. General administration at national level 18

2.5.1.1. Central general administration of nursery schools 19

2.5.1.2. Central general administration of primary and secondary education 19

2.5.1.3. Central general administration of higher education 19

2.5.2. Regional general administration 20

2.5.3. Powers of local authorities 21

2.5.3.1. Powers of Provinces 21

2.5.3.2. Powers of Communes 22

2.5.4. Administration and management of schools 22

2.5.4.1. Administration and management of nursery, primary lower and upper secondary schools 23

2.5.4.1.1. Head teachers 23

2.5.4.1.2. The School or Group Council 23

2.5.4.1.3. The Managing Director 24

2.5.4.1.4. Teachers' Assembly 'Collegio dei docenti' 24

2.5.4.1.5. Inter-section Council, Inter-class Council, Class Council 'Consiglio di classe'. 24

2.5.4.1.6. Administrative autonomy in technical and vocational schools and art institutes 25

2.5.4.2. Higher education: direction and management 25

2.5.4.2.1. University administration 25

2.5.4.2.2. Administration of departments 25

2.5.4.2.3. Faculty administration 26

2.6. Private education 26

2.6.1. Private education at a pre-school level 27

2.6.2. Private education at a primary level 28

2.6.3. Private education at a secondary level 28

2.6.4. Private education at a higher level 29

2.7. Internal co-ordination among the levels of education 30

2.8. Participation and consultation of the different social actors 30

2.8.1. National level 30

2.8.2. Provincial level 31

2.8.3. District level 31

2.8.4. Within the institutions 31

2.8.5. Other forms of participation 32

2.8.5.1. Forms of student participation 32

2.8.5.2. Involvement of the parents 32

2.9. Educational guidance services 33

2.9.1. Guidance in lower secondary schools 33

2.9.2. Guidance in upper secondary schools 34

2.9.3. Guidance in Higher Education 34

2.10. School calendar 34

2.10.1. The school year 35

2.10.2. Academic year 35

2.10.3. Weekly and daily timetable 35

2.10.3.1. Weekly and daily timetable at pre-school level 35

2.10.3.2. Weekly and daily timetable in primary education 35

2.10.3.3. Weekly and daily timetable in secondary education 36

2.10.3.4. Weekly and daily timetable in higher education 36

2.11. Geographical accessibility 37

2.12. School choice 37

2.12.1. School choice at pre-school, primary and lower secondary level 37

2.12.2. School choice at upper secondary level 37

2.12.3. Choice of higher education institution 37

2.13. Supervision and administrative inspections 38

2.14. Financing - Educational budget 38

2.15. Economic accessibility and financial aid 38

2.15.1. Economic contributions and financial aid at nursery school level 39

2.15.2. Economic contributions and financial aid at primary school level 39

2.15.3. Economic contributions and financial aid at lower secondary level 39

2.15.4. Economic contributions and financial aid at upper secondary level 39

2.15.5. Economic contributions and financial aid at higher education level 40

2.16. Statistical data 40

3. PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION 42

3.1. Background 42

3.2. Specific legislative background 42

3.3. Types of institutions 42

3.4. Entrance requirements 42

3.5. Levels and age groups 43

3.6. General objectives 43

3.7. Programme of studies, subjects and number of hours 43

3.8. Methods 44

3.9. Assessment of the Pupils 44

3.10. Special support measures for the pupils 44

3.11. Organisational and structural alternatives 44

3.12. Statistical data 44

4. PRIMARY EDUCATION 46

4.1. Background 46

4.2. Specific legislation 46

4.3. Types of Institutions 47

4.4. Entrance requirements 47

4.5. Levels and age groups 47

4.6. General objectives 48

4.7. Programmes of studies, subjects and number of hours 48

4.8. Methods 49

4.9. Assessment of the Students 50

4.10. Promotion 50

4.11. Final Examinations 50

4.12. Special measures for pupils 51

4.13. Organisational variations, alternative structures 51

4.14. Statistical data 51

5. SECONDARY EDUCATION 53

5.1. Background 53

5.2. Specific Legislation 53

5.3. General Description of Secondary Education Structure 53

5.3.1. Lower Secondary School 54

5.3.1.1. Structure of schools 54

5.3.1.2. Entrance Requirements 54

5.3.1.3. Levels and Age Groups 54

5.3.1.4. Optional Subjects 55

5.3.1.5. General Objectives 55

5.3.1.6. Programmes of Studies, Subjects and number of hours 55

5.3.1.7. Methods 56

5.3.1.8. Assessment of Students 57

5.3.1.9. Promotion - Educational Guidance 57

5.3.1.10. Certificates 57

5.3.1.11. Employment Opportunities, Training - Employment- Relationship 57

5.3.1.12. Special Measures for Pupils 57

5.3.2. Upper Secondary Education 58

5.3.2.1. Types of Institutions 58

5.3.2.2. Entrance requirements 58

5.3.2.3. Levels and age groups 58

5.3.2.4. Curricula and Specialisation 59

5.3.2.5. General Objectives 60

5.3.2.6. Curricula, subjects, number of hours 60

5.3.2.7. Methods 61

5.3.2.8. Assessment of Students 61

5.3.2.9. Promotion - Educational Guidance 61

5.3.2.10. Upper Secondary School Examination 62

5.3.2.11. Employment Opportunities, Employment-Training Ratio 63

5.3.2.12. Special Measures for Students 63

5.4. Organisational Variations, Alternative Structures. 63

5.5. Statistical Data 64

6. THIRD LEVEL EDUCATION 66

6.1. Historical Background 66

6.2. Specific Legislative Background 66

6.3. General Description of Third Level Education 67

6.3.1. Brief Training Courses after Secondary School 67

6.3.1.1. Types of Institutions 67

6.3.1.2. Entrance Requirements 67

6.3.1.3. Type and Field of Study, Orientation 68

6.3.1.4. General Objectives 68

6.3.1.5. Curricula, subjects, number of hours 68

6.3.1.6. Methods 69

6.3.1.7. Assessment of the Students 69

6.3.1.8. Promotion 69

6.3.1.9. Certification 69

6.3.1.10. Employment Opportunities, Training/Employment Relationship 69

6.3.1.11. Special Measures for the Students 69

6.3.2. Non- university Higher Education 69

6.3.2.1. Types of Institutions 70

6.3.2.2. Entrance Requirements 70

6.3.2.3. Orientation, Specialisation 70

6.3.2.4. General Objectives 71

6.3.2.5. Curriculum, subjects, number of hours 71

6.3.2.6. Methods 71

6.3.2.7. Assessment of the Students 71

6.3.2.8. Promotion - educational guidance 71

6.3.2.9. Certification 72

6.3.2.10. Employment Opportunities, Training-Employment Relationship 72

6.3.2.11. Special Measures for Students 72

6.3.3. University Education 72

6.3.3.1. University Diploma and Degree Courses 73

6.3.3.1.1. Types of Institutions 73

6.3.3.1.2. Entrance Requirements 74

6.3.3.1.3. Orientation, Specialisation 74

6.3.3.1.4. General Objectives 74

6.3.3.1.5. Curriculum, subjects, number of hours 75

6.3.3.1.6. Methods 75

6.3.3.1.7. Assessment of the Students 75

6.3.3.1.8. Promotion - Educational guidance 76

6.3.3.1.9. Certification 76

6.3.3.1.10. Employment Opportunities, Employment-Training Ratio 77

6.3.3.1.11. Special Measures for the Students 77

6.3.3.2. Research Doctorate 78

6.3.3.2.1. Types of Institutions 78

6.3.3.2.2. Entrance Requirements 78

6.3.3.2.3. Orientation, Specialisation 78

6.3.3.2.4. General Objectives 78

6.3.3.2.5. Programmes of Study, Subject, Schedules 78

6.3.3.2.6. Methods 78

6.3.3.2.7. Assessment 78

6.3.3.2.8. Promotion 79

6.3.3.2.9. Certification 79

6.3.3.2.10. Employment Opportunities, Training/Employment Relationship 79

6.3.3.2.11. Particular Measures for Students 79

6.3.3.3. Courses for Diplomas of Specialisation 79

6.3.3.3.1. Types of Institutions 79

6.3.3.3.2. Entrance Requirements 80

6.3.3.3.3. Branch of studies, Specialisation 80

6.3.3.3.4. General Objectives 80

6.3.3.3.5. Programmes of study, subjects, number of hours 80

6.3.3.3.6. Methods 80

6.3.3.3.7. Assessment of the Students 80

6.3.3.3.8. Promotion, Educational guidance 80

6.3.3.3.9. Certification 81

6.3.3.3.10. Employment Opportunities, Training/Employment Relationship 81

6.3.3.3.11. Particular Measures for the Students 81

6.3.3.4. Finishing Courses 81

6.4. Organisation Variants, Alternative Structures 81

6.5. Statistical Data 81

7. ADULT EDUCATION 85

7.1. Historical background 85

7.2. Specific Legislation 85

7.3. Organisms with Decisional Power - Financing 85

7.4. Organisms for Adult Education 86

7.5. Participation and consultation of the social partners 86

7.6. General Description of the Main Study Areas 86

7.6.1. Activities of the territorial centres 86

7.6.2. Evening classes for student workers in upper secondary school 87

7.6.3. Vocational training evening classes 87

7.7. Entrance Requirements 87

7.8. General Objectives 87

7.9. Programme of Studies, number of hours 87

7.10. Methods 87

7.11. Student Assessment 88

7.12. Certification 88

7.13. Teachers 88

7.14. Assessment of the students 88

7.15. Statistical Data 88

8. TEACHERS AND EDUCATORS 90

8.1. Initial Teacher Training 90

8.1.1. Initial Training of Nursery, Primary and Secondary School Teachers 90

8.1.1.1. Background 90

8.1.1.2. Specific Legislative Background 90

8.1.1.3. Organs with Decisional Power for Initial Training 90

8.1.1.4. Types of Institutions 91

8.1.1.5. Entrance Requirements 91

8.1.1.6. Programmes, Orientation, Specialisation 91

8.1.1.7. Methods 91

8.1.1.8. Assessment and Certification 91

8.1.1.9. Employment Opportunities - Training-Employment Relationship 91

8.1.2. Initial Training of Higher Education Teachers 91

8.2. Conditions of Service of Teachers 92

8.2.1. Conditions of Service of Nursery School, Primary and Secondary School Teachers 92

8.2.1.1. Historical Background 92

8.2.1.2. Specific Legislative Background 92

8.2.1.3. Organs with Decisional Power for Service Conditions 92

8.2.1.4. Access to the Profession, Employment Contract 93

8.2.1.5. Professional Status 94

8.2.1.6. Promotion, Advancement 94

8.2.1.7. Transfers, Professional Mobility 95

8.2.1.8. Dismissal, Career Change 95

8.2.1.10. Working time 96

8.2.1.11. Leaves and other absences from work 96

8.2.1.12. Pensions for termination of service 97

8.2.2. Conditions of Service for Teachers of Higher Education 97

8.2.2.1. Background 98

8.2.2.2. Legislative Background 98

8.2.2.3. Organs with Deciding Power for the Conditions of Service 98

8.2.2.4. Access to the Profession, Appointment 98

8.2.2.5. Professional Status 99

8.2.2.6. Promotion, Advancement 99

8.2.2.7. Transfers and Professional Mobility 99

8.2.2.8. Dismissal, Career Change 100

8.2.2.9. Retribution 100

8.2.2.10. Work Schedule 100

8.2.2.11. Leaves and Other Absences from Work 101

8.2.2.12. Pensions for Retirement from Service 101

8.3. In-Service Training 101

8.3.1. In-Service Training of Nursery, Primary and Secondary School Teachers 101

8.3.1.1. Background 101

8.3.1.2. Specific Legislative Background 102

8.3.1.3. Organisms with Decisional Powers for In-Service Training 102

8.3.1.4. Types of Institutions 102

8.3.1.5. Entrance Requirements 102

8.3.1.6. Study Programmes, Orientation, Specialisation 102

8.3.1.7. Methods 102

8.3.1.8. Evaluation - Certification 103

8.3.1.9. Employment Opportunities - Training-Employment Relationship 103

8.3.2. In-Service Training of Teachers of Higher Education 103

8.4. Other Personnel 103

8.4.1. Non-Teaching Personnel in Schools of All Types and Levels 103

8.4.2. Non-Teaching Personnel in the University 103

8.4.2.1. Management 104

8.4.2.2. Technical-Administrative Personnel 104

8.5. Statistical Data 104

9. EVALUATION OF THE TEACHING SYSTEM 106

9.1. Background 106

9.2. Institutional Self-Evaluation 106

9.2.1. Self-Evaluation and Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Levels of Teaching 106

9.2.2. Self-Evaluation at the Level of Higher Education 106

9.3. Evaluation at the Regional, Provincial and Local Levels 106

9.4. Evaluation at the National Level 107

9.4.1. Evaluation at the National Level of Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education 107

9.4.2. Evaluation of Higher Education at the National Level 108

9.5. Educational Research 108

9.5.1. Educational Research on the Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Levels 108

9.5.2. Educational Research at the Level of Higher Education 110

9.6. Statistical Data 110

10. SPECIAL EDUCATION 111

10.1. Background 111

10.2. Specific Legislative Background 111

10.3. Types of Institutions, Accommodations, Guidance 111

10.4. Co-ordination with Ordinary Teaching 112

10.5. Conditions for Admission, Diagnosis, Guidance 112

10.6. Levels and Age Groups 112

10.7. Teachers and Other Personnel, Specific Training 112

10.8. General Objectives 113

10.9. Study Programmes, Subjects, number of hours 114

10.10. Teaching methods 114

10.11. Pupil Evaluation 114

10.12. Promotion - Guidance 114

10.13. Certification 115

10.14. Employment Opportunities, Employment-Training Relationship 115

10.15. Other Organisations and Alternative Structures 115

10.16. Statistical Data 116

11. THE EUROPEAN DIMENSION OF EDUCATION 117

11.1. Legislative Picture and Lines of Educational Policy 117

11.2. The European dimension: the education system 118

11.3. The European Dimension: Intercultural Education 119

11.4. Statistical Data 120




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