Chicago papers start with a title page. The title of the paper should be 1/3 of the way down the page and centered. If there is a title and subtitle, the two should be on different lines, separated by a colon.
A Crow in the North:
Enduring the Hostilities of Indigenous Populations
About 2/3 of the way down the page should contain your name, the date, and any other information required by your instructor. Typically it will be the name and section of your class, and perhaps the name of your professor.
History 201: Exploration and Anthropology
Professor Taylor Lohman
September 25, 2013
In a Chicago paper, there are no headings or subheadings, and there is no need to write the title at the top of the page since there is already a title page. As with most papers Chicago papers should be written in third-person unless otherwise indicated by your instructor. Avoid using first-person (I, me, our) or second person language (you) and substitute those words with third-person language (One might think…). Chicago papers should be written with 12-point, Times New Roman font and should be double spaced. Margins should be one inch on each side, and the first sentence of each new paragraph should be indented a half inch.
Chicago style calls for page numbers at the top of each page on the right side. Some professors also like for your last name to be in the header to the left of the page number It is good to ask a professor their preference regarding the page number.
Chicago papers do not use in-text citations like the ones found in APA and MLA, but instead use either footnotes or endnotes.1 When inserting a footnote, one should make sure the number for the footnote directly follows the period, and is a regular number (1,2,3…) as opposed to a roman numeral (i,ii,iii).2 For more information on how to change the formatting of footnotes, consult the footnote/endnote guide sheet.3 Inserting a footnote will take you to the bottom of the page where you will write the information about the source. If instead your professor has asked for endnotes, inserting the number will bring you to the last page of your paper where all the sources are compiled as a comprehensive list.4 The footnotes and endnotes resemble bibliographic entries, but the formatting is different. Consult the footnote/endnote guide sheet for more information about how to format different types of footnotes.5
1 is an example of a book written in correct footnote format. A full footnote is only necessary the first time a source is used in the paper. After that, a shortened form may be used as shown in example. 2
When quoting something in your Chicago paper, you can simply “use regular
in-sentence quotation marks,” so long as your quote three lines long or less.6 If your If the same source is used for two or more consecutive footnotes and only the page number differs, one can simply write “Ibid” followed by a period, comma, space, the page number, and another period. If two or more consecutive footnotes have both source and page number in common, one can simply write Ibid followed by a period.
direct quote is four lines or more (eight lines or more is Chicago’s recommendation, but most professors ask for block quotes if the quote is over four lines) you will need to use a block quote. The sentence before a block quote should end with a colon, and there should be one space between this sentence and the block quote itself:
A block quote should be one space below the previous sentence, however the block quote itself should be single spaced. There should be no quotation marks put around the block quote, as the fact that it is in this format already implies that it is a quote. The entire block quote should be indented .5. As a stylistic choice some also choose to make the font in a block quote one size smaller. There should also be one line between the end of the block quote and the continuation of the paper.7 After that one space one can carry on writing the paragraph. To format your block quotation, simply highlight the section you would like to set off as a block quotation, right click, choose “Paragraph,” and from there you will be able to change the spacing and indentation.
As Chicago papers do not have headings or subheadings, your conclusion need not be sectioned off in any special way. It will simply be the last paragraph in your paper, where you will give a summary of your main ideas. Make sure that your conclusion does not contain any new ideas; a conclusion should simply be the wrap up in which you review the ideas you talked about in your paper, and essentially reiterate the ideas of your thesis statement.
Notes You do not need an endnotes page if you use footnotes, you will use one or the other, and endnote citations follow the same format as footnote citations.
1. Robert Baratheon, Account of the Conquest of the Southern Kingdom (New York: Penguin, 1996), 99-100. Book
Endnotes should be on their own page. The first line of each endnote should be indented half an inch, the endnotes should be single spaced, and there should be one line between each new note. Unlike with footnotes the note number is not raised and is followed by a period.
2. Baratheon, Account of the Conquest, 55. 3. Ibid., 443.
7. Taylor Jones and Mark Nutt, Winning Drive: The Truth Behind Olympic Gold (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 420. Book with Multiple Authors
8. Flynt Cole, “The American Fascination with International Espionage,” in The Rise and Fall of Cold War Popular Culture, ed. Michael Jones (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 55-56. Chapter in an Edited Work
10. Gavin Free, “What is Game Night? How Electronic Media is Contributing to the Degradation of Traditional Family Values,” New York Times, January 12, 2008, 67.
Newspaper Article 11. Angela Watercutter, “Feminist Take on Games Draws Crude Ridicule, Massive Support,” Wired, last modified June 14, 2012, http://www.wired.com/underwire/2012/06/anita-sarkeesian-feminist-games/. Article from a Website
Though Microsoft Word has a button to add endnotes, these endnotes are not in correct Chicago style. See the handout on how to add footnotes and endnotes to learn how to correctly add endnotes.
Baratheon, Robert. Account of the Conquest of the Southern Kingdom. New York: Penguin, 1996. Book
Cole, Flynt. “The American Fascination with International Espionage.” In The Rise and Fall of Cold War Popular Culture, edited by Michael Jones, 50-100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Chapter in an Edited Work
Gavin Free, “What is Game Night? How Electronic Media is Contributing to the Degradation of Traditional Family Values.” New York Times. January 12, 2008, 67. Newspaper Article
Jones, Taylor and Mark Nutt. Winning Drive: The Truth Behind Olympic Gold. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. Book with Multiple Authors
Smith, John. “Time and Relative Dimensions in Space.” Journal of Astrophysics 283, no. 5 (2000): 597-630. Journal Article
Watercutter, Angela. “Feminist Take on Games Draws Crude Ridicule, Massive Support.” Wired. Last modified June 14, 2012. http://www.wired.com/underwire/2012/06/anita-sarkeesian-feminist-games/. Web Article
Whether you use footnotes or endnotes, the paper will still need an additional bibliography on its own page at the end of the paper. Each citation should be single spaced with one line in between each entry. Each citation should have a hanging indent (highlight the citation, right click, choose paragraph, change indentation to ‘hanging’) and citations should be in order by author last name. Also make sure to note the fact that bibliography citations are formatted differently than footnote/endnote citations.
Chicago Footnote/Bibliography Citation Guide
AuthorFirstName AuthorLastName, Title of the Book (Publishing City: Publisher, YearPublished), Page Range.
Robert Baratheon, Account of the Conquest of the Southern Kingdom (New York: Penguin, 1996), 99-100.
Shortened Footnote Format:
Baratheon, Account of the Conquest, 99-100.
Baratheon, Robert. Account of the Conquest of the Southern Kingdom. New York: Penguin, 1996.
Book with Two or More Authors
AuthorFirstName AuthorLastName and AuthorFirstName AuthorLastName, Title of the Book (PublishingCity: Publisher, YearPublished), Page Range.
2Taylor Jones and Mark Nutt, Winning Drive: The Truth Behind Olympic Gold (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 420.
Shortened Footnote Format:
1Jones and Nutt, Winning Drive, 420.
Jones, Taylor and Mark Nutt. Winning Drive: The Truth Behind Olympic Gold. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Chapter in an Edited Work
AuthorFirstName AuthorLastname, “Title of the Chapter,” in Title of the book, ed. EditorFirstName EditorLastName (PublishingCity: Publisher, YearPublished), PageRange.
3Flynt Cole, “The American Fascination with International Espionage,” in The Rise and Fall of Cold War Popular Culture, ed. Michael Jones (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006) 55-56.
Shortened Footnote Format:
3Cole, “The American Fascination with International Espionage,” 45-47.
Cole, Flynt. “The American Fascination with International Espionage.” In The Rise and Fall of Cold War Popular Culture, edited by Michael Jones, 50-100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.