Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing (creating & using source cards and note cards)



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Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing (creating & using source cards and note cards)

Before we begin...

  • Two different types of index cards will be discussed in this PowerPoint: source cards and note cards.
  • Jones, S. 1
  • (2001).
  • Darwin’s ghost: The origin of species updated.
  • New York, NY: Ballentine Books.
  • APA Source Card (sample)
  • Book source with one author.
  • See OWL@Purdue and APA Style References entries.

Before we begin...

  • Two different types of index cards will be discussed in this PowerPoint: source cards and note cards.
  • II. Charles Darwin’s Life 1
  • “He [Charlie] was an inquisitive boy,”
  • Professor Johnston said.
  • Q 88
  • APA Note Card (sample)

Source cards

    • You will have FEWER source cards than note cards.
    • You will record all the information for an entry on your References page on its source card.
    • You will have one source card for EACH source you use to write your paper.
    • You will NUMBER each source card as you create the source card.
    • Once you decide to use a source, create a source card with all its source information.

Note cards

    • You will have numerous note cards. (75-100 for this paper.) You will have MANY MORE note cards than source cards. Each note card will have a number of a corresponding source card.
    • On the note card, you will write the number of its source card so that you know where the information came from when you use it.
    • The note card will contain a quotation (or specific factual information like statistics), a paraphrase, or a summary. Q, F, P, S
    • The note card will NOT contain any source information, only a source card number.

Before we begin... (APA Style)

  • Source cards
  • 5
  • Renard, A.
  • (2006).
  • Autism research.
  • The big book of childhood disorders.
  • New York, NY: McMillon.
  • Source
  • Card #
  • Each source card MUST contain all the proper information necessary to correctly complete its References entry in the required APA Style. The number of the source card has NOTHING to do with the order of the source’s References page entry. References page entries will be listed alphabetically.
  • Chapter in a book with one author.
  • See OWL@Purdue and APA Style References entries.

Before we begin... (APA Style)

  • Source cards
  • 5
  • Source
  • Card #
  • Each source card MUST contain all the proper information necessary to correctly complete its References entry in the required APA Style. The number of the source card has NOTHING to do with the order of the source’s References page entry. References page entries will be listed alphabetically.
  • Plath, S.
  • (2000).
  • The unabridged journals.
  • K.V. Kukil, (Ed.).
  • New York, NY: Anchor.
  • Edited book with one author.
  • See OWL@Purdue and APA Style References entries.

Before we begin... (APA Style)

  • Source cards
  • NOTE: Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL.
  • Source
  • Card #
  • Each source card MUST contain all the proper information necessary to correctly complete its References entry in the required APA Style. The number of the source card has NOTHING to do with the order of the source’s References page entry. References page entries will be listed alphabetically.

Before we begin... (APA Style)

  • OWL@Purdue References information
  • Basic Rules
  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
  • Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work.
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
  • If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
  • When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
  • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.

Before we begin... (APA Style)

  • Source cards
  • 5
  • Source
  • Card #
  • Each source card MUST contain all the proper information necessary to correctly complete its References entry in the required APA Style. The number of the source card has NOTHING to do with the order of the source’s References page entry. References page entries will be listed alphabetically.
  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
  • (Date of publication).
  • Title of article.
  • Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000
  • Article in an online periodical with two authors and doi. .
  • See OWL@Purdue and APA Style References entries.

Before we begin... (APA Style)

  • Source cards
  • 5
  • Source
  • Card #
  • Brownlie, D.
  • (2007).
  • Toward effective poster presentations: An
  • annotated bibliography.
  • European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12),
  • 1245-1283.
  • doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
  • Article in an online periodical with two authors and doi. .
  • See OWL@Purdue and APA Style References entries.
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/05/

Before we begin... (APA Style)

  • Source cards
  • 3
  • Source
  • Card #
  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/05/
  • Kenneth, I. A.
  • (2000).
  • A Buddhist response to the nature of human
  • rights.
  • Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8.
  • Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html
  • Article in an online periodical with two authors and NO doi. .
  • See OWL@Purdue and APA Style References entries.

Before we begin... (APA Style)

  • Note cards
  • IV. Symptoms of Autism 2
  • “Research at Emory University found that 29 percent of
  • autistic children over age thirteen did not present any distinct symptoms of Autism until they were five years old.” ~ Dr. Alex Renard,
  • Professor of Research in Childhood Disorders,
  • Emory University
  • Quotation 79
  • Source
  • Card #
  • To keep a count of the number of note cards you have, number them on the back.
  • This count has NOTHING to do with the order you use the information in your paper.
  • Page #

Before we begin... (APA Style)

  • BACK of Note cards
  • Andrew Bellington
  • English 2 Period 2
  • 1
  • To keep a count of the number of note cards you have, number them on the back.
  • This count has NOTHING to do with the order you use the information in your paper.
  • You will have 75-100 NOTE CARDS for this paper.

What’s the difference between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

  • Quotations must be identical to the original. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.
  • Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually only a bit shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
  • Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.

Why should I use quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?

  • provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
  • refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
  • give examples of several points of view on a subject
  • call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with
  • highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original
  • distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own
  • expand the breadth or depth of your writing

How do I start?

  • Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas.
  • Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is.
  • Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay.
  • Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly

Paraphrasing

  • A paraphrase is...
  • your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.
  • one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source.
  • a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.

Paraphrasing

  • Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...
  • it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.
  • it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.
  • the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.

Paraphrasing

  • 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing
  • 1. Highlight important concepts and reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
  • 2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
  • 3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. (This could be a section of your outline.)
  • 4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. DO NOT simply change some words or the order of information. Paraphrasing requires synthesis.
  • 5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.
  • 6. Record the source card number on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper. Always include the source card number on your note card.

Summarizing

  • A summary is much shorter than the original text. It should communicate the main idea of the text and the main supporting points – written “in your own words” – in a very brief form. It should give someone who has not read the original a clear and accurate overview of the text.

Summarizing

  • To summarize
  • Record the References page information (the author, title, year of publication and source of the text) on the source card for this source.
  • Skim the text. Note any sub-headings, or try to divide the text into sections.
  • Read the text carefully and highlight. Use a dictionary if necessary, and be prepared to read very difficult texts more than once.
  • Pay special attention to the first and last paragraphs. Try to identify the main idea or argument.
  • Identify the topic sentence in each paragraph.
  • Identify the main support for the topic sentence.
  • Write the topic sentence of your summary and / or the author’s main idea or argument on the note card. Record the corresponding source card number on your note card. Be sure to record the author’s name, the title of the text, the year of publication and any other information necessary to create the source’s References page entry on the source card.

What’s plagiarism?

  • Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information.
    • To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use:
  • another person’s idea, opinion, or theory;
  • any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings—any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge;
  • quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or
  • paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words.

Good or Bad?

  • Here’s the ORIGINAL text, from page 1 of Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s by Joyce Williams et al.:
  • The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived) which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade.
  • Here’s an UNACCEPTABLE paraphrase that is plagiarism:
  • The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.
  • Can you explain why it is plagiarism?

WHY????

  • The preceding passage is considered plagiarism for two reasons:
  • the writer has only changed around a few words and phrases, or changed the order of the original’s sentences.
  • the writer has failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or facts.
  • If you do either or both of these things, you are plagiarizing. NOTE: This paragraph is also problematic because it changes the sense of several sentences (for example, "steam-driven companies" in sentence two misses the original’s emphasis on factories).

Good or Bad?

  • Here’s the ORIGINAL text, from page 1 of Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s by Joyce Williams et al.:
  • The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived) which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade
  • Here’s an ACCEPTABLE paraphrase: Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. Steam-powered production had shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived in the US, they found work in these new factories. As a result, populations grew, and large urban areas arose. Fall River was one of these manufacturing and commercial centers (Williams 1).
  • Can you explain why it is acceptable?

WHY????

  • This is acceptable paraphrasing because the writer:
  • accurately relays the information in the original uses her own words.
  • lets the reader know the source of his/her information.

How often do I need to cite?

  • More specific information (statistics / exact info) or quotations must be cited immediately after the information is given.
  • A paragraph or two of general paraphrased information can be cited at the end of the paragraph(s) if the information is all from one source. Because the information of a paraphrase may be larger and less specific, the source citation may be put off a bit longer. BUT—if two or more sources are used in a paragraph or section, be sure to cite each source…and cite the first source BEFORE providing any information from a second source so as not to confuse the sources of information.

Questions??



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