Updated General Studies Mains syllabus for 2013 General Guide lines

Download 107.21 Kb.
Size107.21 Kb.

Updated General Studies Mains syllabus for 2013

General Guide lines: The focus Civil Services Main examination has shifted to General Studies paper. Now there are FOUR papers, each of 250 marks and combing them would entail 1200 marks that would determine the final outcome of the Mains results.

If you look at the syllabus below, it's very sketchy but requires a great deal of preparation. Paper-1 and 2 are same as old one and one can pick up further details going through the previous syllabus that is given here. Paper 3 that deals with Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management, is the new addition. It sounds vague but requires huge preparation. Paper-4 deals with Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude is of general nature.

The nature of questions will be such that a well prepared candidate will be to answer them comfortably but they must give relevant, meaningful and succinct answers to impress the examiner. The questions are meant to test the candidate's ability to analyze, and take a view on conflicting socio-economic goals, and objectives.

The questions will be such as to test a candidate's basic understanding of variety of subjects, which will have relevance for a career in the Civil Services. Here is a detailed list of General Studies papers. Candidates are advised to go through them minutely before starting their preparations.


Paper- 1

General Studies -I 250 Marks

(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)


General Studies -II: 250 Marks

(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)


General Studies -III 250 Marks

(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)


General Studies -IV 250 Marks

(Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)



(1) History of Modern India and Indian Culture

The History of Modern India will cover history of the Country from about the middle of nineteenth century and would also include questions on important personalities who shaped the freedom movement and social reforms. The part relating to Indian culture will cover all aspects of Indian culture from the ancient to modern times as well as principal features of literature, arts and architecture.

(2) Geogrphy of India

In this part, questions will be on the physical, economic and social geography of India.

(3) Constitution of India and Indian Polity

This part will include questions on the Constitution of India as well as all constitutional, legal, administrative and other issues emerging from the politico-administrative system prevalent in the country.

(4) Current National issues and topics of social relevance

This part is intended to test the candidate's awareness of current national issues and topics of social relevance in present-day India, such as the following:

(i) The Indian economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

(ii) Issues arising from the social and economic exclusion of large sections from the benefits of development.
(iii) Other issues relating to the development and management of human resource.
(iv) Health issues including the management of Public Health, Health education and ethical concerns regarding health-care, medical research and pharmaceuticals.
(v) Law enforcement, internal security and related issues such as the preservation of communal harmony.
(vi) Issues relating to good governance and accountability to the citizens including the maintenance of human rights, and of probity in public life.
(vii) Environmental issues, ecological preservation, conservation of natural resources and national heritage.


(1) India and the World

This part will include questions to test candidate's awareness of India's relationship with the world in various spheres such as the following:-

  • Foreign Affairs with special emphasis on India’s relations with neighbouring countries and in the region.

  • Security and defence related matters.

  • Nuclear policy, issues, and conflicts.

  • The Indian Diaspora and its contribution to India and the world.

(2) India’s Economic Interaction with the World

In this part, questions will be on economic and trade issues such as foreign trade, foreign investment; economic and diplomacy issues relating to oil, gas and energy flows; the role and functions of I.M.F., World Bank, W.T.O., WIPO etc. which influence India’s economic interaction with other countries and international institutions.

(3) Developments in the Field of Science & Technology, IT and space

In this part, questions will test the candidate's awareness of the developments in the field of science and technology, information technology, space and basic ideas about computers, robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology and related issues regarding intellectual property rights.

(4) International Affairs and Institutions

This part will include questions on important events in world affairs and on international institutions.

(5) Statistical analysis, graphs and diagrams

This part will test the candidate's ability to draw conclusions from information presented in statistical, graphical or diagrammatical form and to interpret them.

Candidates will be required to write an essay on a specific topic. The choice of subjects will be given. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

What is an Essay?

An essay is a piece of writing which is often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author etc.The importance of writing essays needs to be underlined because in Civil Services Main examination Essay is a separate paper whose marks are counted in the mains examination.

The Civil Services aspirants are requested to go through the essays listed in the essay contest page to have a proper understanding of the subject. You can also pick up the style of writing essays way ahead of the exams. You can also practice the skills of writing essays by participating in Civil Services India Essay writing contest. The best written essay can fetch you a free subscription of our Emagazine.

  • Question Papers of Essay

  • Suggested Strategy for Essay

  • Suggested Readings for Essay

  • Essay Contest


Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Agro ecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans. Climate change International conventions and global initiatives. Green house effect and global warming. Advance tools for ecosystem analysis Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

Cropping patterns in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of various cropping and farming systems. Organic and Precision farming. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops.

Important features and scope of various types of forestry plantations such as social forestry, agro-forestry, and natural forests. Propagation of forest plants. Forest products. Agro forestry and value addition. Conservation of forest flora and fauna.

Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications; cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds.

Soil- physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Soils of India. Mineral and organic constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants. Principles of soil fertility, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations, integrated nutrient management. Biofertilizers. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Efficient phosphorus and potassium use. Problem soils and their reclamation. Soil factors affecting greenhouse gas emission.

Soil conservation, integrated watershed management. Soil erosion and its management. Dry land agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilizing agriculture production in rain fed areas.

Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Rainwater harvesting. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of waterlogged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution. Irrigation projects in India.

Farm management, scope, importance and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resource use and budgeting. Economics of different types of farming systems. Marketing management strategies for development, market intelligence. Price fluctuations and their cost; role of co-operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural price policy. Crop Insurance.

Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of extension programmes, socio-economic survey and status of big, small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers. Training programmes for extension workers. Role of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) in dissemination of Agricultural technologies. Non Government Organization (NGO) and self- help group approach for rural development.


Cell structure, function and cell cycle. Synthesis, structure and function of genetic material. Laws of heredity. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploids and aneuploids. Mutations - and their role in crop improvement. Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.

History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin, evolution and domestication of crop plants, center of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources- conservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding, improvement of crop plants. Molecular markers and their application in plant improvement. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding. Heterosis and its exploitation. Somatic hybridization. Breeding for disease and pest resistance. Role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in crop improvement. Genetically modified crop plants.

Seed production and processing technologies. Seed certification, seed testing and storage. DNA finger printing and seed registration. Role of public and private sectors in seed production and marketing. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues, WTO issues and its impact on Agriculture.

Principles of Plant Physiology with reference to plant nutrition, absorption, translocation and metabolism of nutrients. Soil - water- plant relationship.

Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis- modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and anaerobic respiration; C3, C4 and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalilzation. Plant growth substances and their role in crop production. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy. Stress physiology draught, salt and water stress.

Major fruits, plantation crops, vegetables, spices and flower crops. Package practices of major horticultural crops. Protected cultivation and high tech horticulture. Post harvest technology and value addition of fruits and vegetables. Landscaping and commercial floriculture. Medicinal and aromatic plants. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.

Diagnosis of pests and diseases of field crops, vegetables, orchard and plantation crops and their economic importance. Classification of pests and diseases and their management. Integrated pest and disease management. Storage pests and their management. Biological control of pests and diseases. Epidemiology and forecasting of major crop pests and diseases. Plant quarantine measures. Pesticides, their formulation and modes of action.

Food production and consumption trends in India. Food security and growing population vision 2020. Reasons for grain surplus. National and international food policies. Production, procurement, distribution constraints. Availability of food grains, per capita expenditure on food. Trends in poverty, Public Distribution System and Below Poverty Line population, Targeted Public Distribution System (PDS), policy implementation in context to globalization. Processing constraints. Relation of food production to National Dietary Guidelines and food consumption pattern. Food based dietary approaches to eliminate hunger. Nutrient deficiency Micro nutrient deficiency : Protein Energy Malnutrition or Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PEM or PCM), Micro nutrient deficiency and HRD in context of work capacity of women and children. Food grain productivity and food security


Administrative Theory

1. Introduction:
Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration; Wilson’s vision of Public Administration; Evolution of the discipline and its present status; New Public Administration; Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, Privatisation , Globalisation; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public Management.

2. Administrative Thought:
Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory; Weber’s bureaucratic model – its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others); Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Simon’s decision-making theory; Participative Management (R. Likert, C. Argyris, D. McGregor).

3. Administrative Behaviour:
Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories – content, process and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Modern.

4. Organisations:
Theories – systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies, Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships; Regulatory Authorities; Public - Private Partnerships.

5. Accountability and control:Concepts of accountability and control;
Legislative, Executive and Judicial control over administration; Citizen and Administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary organizations ; Civil society; Citizen’s Charters; Right to Information; Social audit.

6. Administrative Law:
Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Administrative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tribunals.

7. Comparative Public Administration:
Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different countries; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models and their critique.

8. Development Dynamics:
Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; ‘Antidevelopment thesis’; Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries; Women and development - the self-help group movement.

9. Personnel Administration:
Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pay and service conditions; employer-employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct; Administrative ethics.

10. Public Policy:
Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.

11. Techniques of Administrative Improvement:
Organisation and methods, Work study and work management; e-governance and information technology; Management aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM.

12. Financial Administration:
Monetary and fiscal policies; Public borrowings and public debt Budgets - types and forms; Budgetary process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit.


Indian Administration

1. Evolution of Indian Administration:
Kautilya’s Arthashastra; Mughal administration; Legacy of British rule in politics and administration - Indianization of public services, revenue administration, district administration, local self-government.

2. Philosophical and Constitutional framework of government:
Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism; Political culture; Bureaucracy and democracy; Bureaucracy and development.

3. Public Sector Undertakings:
Public sector in modern India; Forms of Public Sector Undertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability and control; Impact of liberalization and privatization.

4. Union Government and Administration:
Executive, Parliament, Judiciary - structure, functions, work processes; Recent trends; Intragovernmental relations; Cabinet Secretariat; Prime Minister’s Office; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Departments; Boards; Commissions; Attached offices; Field organizations.

5. Plans and Priorities:
Machinery of planning; Role, composition and functions of the Planning Commission and the National Development Council; ‘Indicative’ planning; Process of plan formulation at Union and State levels; Constitutional Amendments (1992) and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice.

6. State Government and Administration:
Union-State administrative, legislative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Governor; Chief Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates.

7. District Administration since Independence:
Changing role of the Collector; Unionstate-local relations; Imperatives of development management and law and order administration; District administration and democratic decentralization.

8. Civil Services:
Constitutional position; Structure, recruitment, training and capacity-building; Good governance initiatives; Code of conduct and discipline; Staff associations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mechanism; Civil service neutrality; Civil service activism.

9. Financial Management:
Budget as a political instrument; Parliamentary control of public expenditure; Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area; Accounting techniques; Audit; Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

10. Administrative Reforms since Independence:
Major concerns; Important Committees and Commissions; Reforms in financial management and human resource development; Problems of implementation.

11. Rural Development:
Institutions and agencies since independence; Rural development programmes: foci and strategies; Decentralization and Panchayati Raj;73rd Constitutional amendment.

12. Urban Local Government:
Municipal governance: main features, structures, finance and problem areas; 74th Constitutional Amendment; Globallocal debate; New localism; Development dynamics, politics and administration with special reference to city management.

13. Law and Order Administration:
British legacy; National Police Commission; Investigative agencies; Role of central and state agencies including paramilitary forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insurgency and terrorism; Criminalisation of politics and administration; Police-public relations; Reforms in Police.

14. Significant issues in Indian Administration:
Values in public service; Regulatory Commissions; National Human Rights Commission; Problems of administration in coalition regimes; Citizen-administration interface; Corruption and administration; Disaster management.

Anthropology Syllabus for Main Examination


1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, theirscope and relevance:

(a) Social- cultural Anthropology.
(b) Biological Anthropology.
(c) Archaeological Anthropology.
(d) Linguistic Anthropology.

1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:

(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (PreDarwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s
rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adapt ive radiat ion, and
mosaic evolution).

1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:
(a) Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa - Australopithecines.
(b) Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus),Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis) , Asia(Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
(c) Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-auxsaints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
(d) Rhodesian man.
(e) Homo sapiens — Cromagnon ,Grimaldi and Chancelede.

1.7 The biological basis of life: The Cell,

DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute

Dating methods.
(b) Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
(i) Paleolithic
(ii) Mesolithic
(iii) Neolithic
(iv) Chalcolithic
(v) Copper-Bronze Age
(vi) Iron Age

2.1 The Nature of Culture: The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism.

2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.

2.3 Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy,hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo) ; Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy,polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).

2.4 Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups;functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.

2.5 Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal,

Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.

3 . Economic organizat ion: Meaning,scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunt ing and gather ing, fishing,swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.

4. Political organization and Social Control: Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.

5. Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magicoreligious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

6. Anthropological theories:
(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
(b) Historical particularism (Boas) ;Diffusionism (British, German and American)
(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
(d) Structuralism (L’evi - Strauss and E.Leach)
(e) Culture and personality (Benedict,Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora - du Bois).
(f) Neo - evolutionism (Childe, White,Steward, Sahlins and Service)
(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)
(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories(Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
(j) Post- modernism in anthropology

7. Culture, language and communication:

Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.

8. Research methods in anthropology:

(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
(b) Distinction between technique ,method and methodology
(c) Tools of data collection: observation,interview, schedules, questionnaire,Case study, genealogy, life-history,oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

9.1 Human Genetics : Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method,cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods,immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.

9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sublethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, HardyWeinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and nonconsanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
(b) Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX) , intersex and other syndromic disorders.
(c) Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat
(d) Genetic imprints in human disease,genetic screening, genetic counseling,human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and

metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups,HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes.Physiological character ist ics-Hb level , body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations –Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s
physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health

and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.

10. Concept of human growth and development: stages of growth - pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.

- Factors affecting growth and development genet ic, envi ronmental , biochemical , nutritional , cultural and socio-economic.- Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations - biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.

11.2 Demographic theories- biological,social and cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

12. Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology,

Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology,Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human
genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine , serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.


1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization — Prehistoric ( Palaeolithic ,Mesolithic , Neolithic and Neolithic - Chalcolithic). Protohistoric (Indus Civilization): Pre- Harappan, Harappan and postHarappan cultures. Contributions of tribal cultures to Indian civilization.
1.2 Palaeo – anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus ,Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
1.3 Ethno-archaeology in India : The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.

2. Demographic profile of India — Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population - factors influencing its structure and growth.

3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system — Varnashram,Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
3.2 Caste system in India- structure and characteristics, Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste,Caste mobility, Future of caste system,Jajmani system, Tribe- caste continuum.
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature- ManSpirit Complex.
3.4 Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.

4. Emergence and growth of anthropology in India-Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators.Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.

5.1 Indian Village: Significance of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations;Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processesof socio-cultural change in Indian society:
Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati raj and social change;
Media and social change.

6.1 Tribal situation in India – Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of tribal populations and their distribution.

6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities — land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems
of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanization industrialization on tribal populations.

7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes , Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.

7.2 Social change and contemporary tribalsocieties:
Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism; Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.

8.2 Tribe and nation state — a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.

9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups ) , their distribution , special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.

9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism, and ethnic and political movements


1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis. Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures; Fungal toxins; Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.

2. Cryptogams: Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes - structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.

3. Phanerogams:

Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymnosperms; Classification and distribution of gymnosperms; Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction; General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques.

Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.

Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.

Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families – Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae.

Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.

Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm - its development and function; Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony and apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.

4. Plant Resource Development: Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants; Vavilov’s centres of origin; Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibre, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes, latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

5. Morphogenesis: Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and dfferentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture; Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.


1. Cell Biology:

Techniques of cell biology; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells - structural and ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall), membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport; Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes); Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction; Mitosis and meiosis; Molecular basis of cell cycle; Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes – structure, behaviour and significance.

2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution:

Development of genetics; Gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over; Methods of gene mapping, including molecular maps (idea of mapping function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).

Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins;Genetic code and regulation of gene expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution – evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics:

Methods of plant breeding – introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding; Use of apomixes in plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering – methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and techniques - probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH.

Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV); Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square test); Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson); Correlation and regression.

4. Physiology and Biochemistry:

Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies; Photosynthesis – photochemical reactions; photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of phloem transport; Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation) – electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism; Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation; Importance of secondary metabolites; Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome); Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances – their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture; Growth indices, growth movements; Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology; Dormancy, storage and germination of seed; Fruit ripening – its molecular basis and manipulation.

5. Ecology and Plant Geography:

Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors; Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant succession; Concept of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.

Forest types of India - Ecological and economic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism, IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention on Biological Diversity; Farmers’ Rights and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles; Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species; Environmental Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.

Geography Syllabus for Main Examination


Principles of Geography

Physical Geography

i) Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ;Appl ied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, economic geology and environment

ii) Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.

iii) Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.

iv) Biogeography : : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

v) Environmental Geography : Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment ; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradat ion, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography

i) Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quant i tat ive revolut ion and locat ional analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.

ii) Economic Geography : : World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
iii) Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over - under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural - urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
iv) Regional Planning : Concept of a region; types of regions and methods of regionalisation; growth centres and growth poles; regional imbalances; environmental issues in regional planning; planning for sustainable development.
v) Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human Geography; Malthusian, Marxian and Demographic Transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Rostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
Note : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.


Geography Of India
1. Physical Setting:
Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western distur - bances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.

2. Resources:
Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

3. Agriculture:
Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and socialforestry; Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua - culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agr icul tural regional isat ion; agro-cl imat ic zones; agro- ecological regions.

4 . Industry :
Evolution of industries ; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.

5. Transport, Communication and Trade:
Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

6. Cultural Setting:
Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

7. Settlements:
Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional cla ssification of Indian cities ; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.

8. Regional Development and Planning:
Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area ,desert , drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects:
Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

10. Contemporary Issues:
Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides earth quakes , Tsunamis , floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development ; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper


The aim of the paper is to test the candidate's ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly in English.

The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :-

(i) Comprehension of given passages.
(ii) Precis Writing
(iii) Usage and Vocabulary
(iv) Short Essay

Note 1 : The Papers on English will be of Matriculation or equivalent standard and will be of qualifying nature only. The marks obtained in these papers will not be counted for ranking.

Note 2 : The candidates will have to answer the English and Indian Languages papers in English and the respective Indian language (except where translation is involved).


Answers must be written in Kannada.


A. History of Kannada Language

What is Language? General characteristics of Language. Dravidian Family of Languages and its specific features, Antiquity of Kannada Language Different Phases of its Development.

Dialects of Kannada Language : Regional and Social Various aspects of development of Kannada Language : phonological and Semantic changes. Language borrowing.

B. History of Kannada Literature

Ancient Kannada literature : Influence and Trends. Poets for study : Specified poets from Pampa to Ratnakara Varni are to be studied in the light of contents, form and expression : Pampa, Janna, Nagachandra.

Medieval Kannada literature : Influence and Trends.

Vachana literature : Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi.

Medieval Poets : Harihara, Ragha-vanka, Kumar-Vyasa.

Dasa literature : Purandra and Kanaka.

Sangataya : Ratnakaravarni

C. Modern Kannada literature :

Influence, trends and idealogies, Navodaya, Pragatishila, Navya, Dalita and Bandaya.


A. Poetics and literary criticism :

Definition and concepts of poetry : Word, Meaning, Alankara, Reeti, Rasa, Dhwani, Auchitya.

Interpretations of Rasa Sutra.

Modern Trends of literary criticism : Formalist, Historical, Marxist, Feminist, Post-colonial criticism.

B. Cultlural History of Karnataka

Contribution of Dynasties to the culture of Karnataka : Chalukyas of Badami and Kalyani, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara rulers, in literary context.

Major religions of Karnataka and their cultural contributions.

Arts of Karnataka : Sculpture, Architecture, Painting, Music, Dance-in the literary context.

Unification of Karnataka and its impact on Kannada literature.


Answers must be written in Kannada.

The paper will require first-hand reading of the Texts prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidates.



1. Vikramaarjuna Vijaya of Pampa (cantos 12 & 13), (Mysore University Pub.)

2. Vaddaraadhane (Sukumaraswamyia Kathe, Vidyutchorana Kathe)

B. Medieval Kannada Literature :

1. Vachana Kammata, Ed: K. Marulasiddappa K.R. Nagaraj (Bangalore University Pub.)

2. Janapriya Kanakasamputa, Ed. D. Javare Gowda (Kannada and Culture Directorate, Bangalore)

3. Nambiyannana Ragale, Ed., T.N. Sreekantaiah (Ta.Vem. Smaraka Grantha Male, Mysore)

4. Kumaravyasa Bharata : Karna Parva (Mysore University)

5. Bharatesha Vaibhava Sangraha Ed. Ta. Su. Shama Rao (Mysore University)


A. Modern Kannada Literature

1. Poetry : Hosagannada Kavite, Ed : G.H. Nayak (Kannada Saahitya Parishattu, Bangalore)

2. Novel : Bettada Jeeva-Shivarama Karanta Madhavi-Arupama Niranjana Odalaala-Devanuru Mahadeva

3. Short Story : Kannada Sanna Kathegalu, Ed. G.H. Nayak (Sahitya Academy, New Delhi).

4. Drama : Shudra Tapaswi-Kuvempu. Tughalak-Girish Karnad.

5. Vichara Saahitya : Devaru-A.N. Moorty Rao (Pub : D.V.K. Moorty, Mysore.)

B. Folk Literature :

1. Janapada Swaroopa-Dr. H.M. Nayak. (Ta. Vem. Smaraka Grantha Male, Mysore.)

2. Janapada Geetaanjali-Ed.D. Javare Gowda. (Pub : Sahitya Academy, New Delhi.)

3. Kannada Janapada Kathegalu-Ed. J.S. Paramashivaiah, (Mysore University.)

4. Beedi Makkalu Beledo. Ed. Kalegowda Nagavara (Pub : Bangalore University.)

5. Savirada Ogatugalu-Ed : S.G. Imrapura.

Download 107.21 Kb.

Share with your friends:

The database is protected by copyright ©www.sckool.org 2023
send message

    Main page