Unit 1: Paragraph to Short Essay part 1



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Unit 1: Paragraph to Short Essay part 1.

  • Monday, March 9th, 2009

About Writing…

  • Why do you write?
  • 2 quotes about writing (p.2)
  • Why did these professional writers write? Do you share their feelings in any way?

Writing: To tighten all ideas firmly & logically

  • Topic sentence
  • Unity
  • Coherence
  • Cohesion
  • Construction of Writings
  • Sentences
  • Words
  • Smallest units
  • Larger units
  • Paragraphs
  • Essays

Start from Writing a Paragraph

  • A paragraph is a group of sentences about a topic.
  • Topic sentence: to introduce the topic.
  • Supporting sentences: to support the idea in the topic sentence with explanations, reasons, and other details.
  • Concluding sentence: to bring the paragraph to an end.
  • (p.3)
  • Exercise: p.4

I. TOPIC SENTENCE

  • It introduce the topic. It also contains an idea/opinion about the topic (controlling idea).
  • The topic sentence must contain a specific idea.
  • The topic sentence implies the purpose of the paragraph.
  • The topic sentence usually appears as the first or second sentence of a paragraph.
  • Which of the following sentences is the best for a topic sentence? Why?
  • This paper is about America.
  • This paper is about American history.
  • My favorite period of American history is the Revolutionary War.
  • The Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4, 1776.
  • Exercise: p.6-7 (ex.5, 8)

II. UNITY

  • A paragraph has unity when all the sentences support one single idea.
  • The topic sentence must have one controlling idea. Otherwise, the paragraph loses focus.
  • The supporting sentences must support, demonstrate, prove, or develop the main idea in the topic sentence. No irrelevant sentences are needed.
  • The concluding sentences should restate the idea in the topic sentence.
  • Stories o Nepal (p.9)
  • The topic sentence?
  • The controlling idea?
  • One sentence is irrelevant. Find it. Why is it irrelevant?
  • Exercise: p.11 (ex.4)

III. COHERENCE

  • A paragraph is coherent if the ideas have a logical flow.
  • The relationship between sentences is clear and one idea connects to the other.
  • Important Rules for Acting On Stage (p.13)
  • How many rules does the writer give?
  • How does the writer arrange the points?
  • Here are some words that can be used to show the order of the items in your paragraph:
  • first,
  • second,
  • third,
  • in the morning,
  • in the afternoon,
  • in the evening,
  • at night,
  • next,
  • later,
  • after
  • and then
  • after that,
  • finally,
  • in the end,

IV. COHESION

  • Coherence 連貫性
  • Cohesion 緊密性
  • Relationship between ideas.
  • Relationships between sentences, or parts of sentences.
  • To use a pattern of organization.
  • Conjunctions
  • References
  • Structural sentences.
  • Ways of reaching cohesion:
  • Using connectives and connective phrases.
  • Using reference to a previously stated word or phrase by repetition, pronouns, or synonyms.
  • Arranging sentences into structural patterns.

A. Using connectives and connective phrases

  • The second sentence gives an illustration or example
  • The second sentence adds another point
  • The second sentence expresses a contrast
  • For example,
  • For instance,
  • For one thing,
  • To illustrate,
  • and, also, too, then, first, second, next, Furthermore, Moreover, In addition,
  • so, thus,
  • In fact,
  • Therefore,
  • As a result,
  • Accordingly,
  • In other words,
  • but, still, yet, However, Even so, Nevertheless, By contrast,
  • On the other hand,

1. Connective words

  • Many Americans think that Niagara Falls is the highest waterfall in the world. Angel Falls in Venezuela, at 3,212 feet, is roughly twenty times higher.
  • Many Americans think that Niagara Falls is the highest waterfall in the world. Angel Falls in Venezuela, at 3,212 feet, is roughly twenty times higher.
  • But

2. Connective phrases & clauses

  • Some arid regions of the world receive an average of only two- or three-hundredths of an inch of rain annually and may go for years without getting a drop. It usually comes in torrential downpours.
  • Some arid regions of the world receive an average of only two- or three-hundredths of an inch of rain annually and may go for years without getting a drop. But when the rain does come, it usually comes in torrential downpours.

B. Using reference to a previously stated word or phrase

  • Repeat words
  • Use pronouns
  • Create synonyms

1. Repetition

  • Agatha Christie earned world renown as the author of numerous mystery tales. But non of the fictional takes is more mysterious than the true story of her own disappearance in 1926. Waves of shock rumbled throughout the British public when the newspapers proclaimed that Christie had vanished. Not until several months later was she discovered, supposedly afflicted with amnesia, working as a nanny in Yorkshire manor house. To this day, her fans are intrigued because she was gone for so long without being discovered.
  • Topic sentence
  • Concluding sentence
  • Agatha Christie earned world renown as the author of numerous mystery tales. But non of the fictional takes is more mysterious than the true story of her own disappearance in 1926. Waves of shock rumbled throughout the British public when the newspapers proclaimed that Christie had vanished. Not until several months later was she discovered, supposedly afflicted with amnesia, working as a nanny in Yorkshire manor house. To this day, her fans are intrigued by the mystery of her disappearance.

2. Pronouns

  • Virgos are simple and gentle people, with a need to serve humanity. Careful and precise by nature, Virgos make excellent secretaries ad nurses. Virgos warm, shining eyes and their bright appearances conceal their burning desire for love.
  • Virgos are simple and gentle people, with a need to serve humanity. Careful and precise by nature, they make excellent secretaries ad nurses. Their warm, shining eyes and their bright appearances conceal their burning desire for love.

3. Synonyms

  • Landlords usually require a renter to sign a very complicated contract called a lease. It stipulates the length of time the person must stay in the apartment and the amount of rent he/she must pay. It can limit the number of people allowed to live in and restrict the renter from having pets. The agreement also includes the responsibilities of the landlord, such as providing adequate heat, garbage removal, and exterior maintenance.

C. Arranging sentences into structural patterns

  • Place parallel ideas into parallel structures.
  • Organize old and new information into proper sequences.

1. Parallel strucures

  • The 1960s brought to American pop music a fusion of radically different geographic and cultural influences. The influence of religion and mysticism which came from the East made popular such instruments as the table and the sitar. A Caribbean influence was southern in origin, branching into such forms as reggae and calypso, with their steel drums and marimbas.
  • The 1960s brought to American pop music a fusion of radically different geographic and cultural influences. From the East came the influence of religion and mysticism, which made popular such instruments as the table and the sitar. From the South came the Caribbean influence, branching into such forms as reggae and calypso, with their steel drums and marimbas.


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