The Literary Significance of The Catcher in the Rye

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The Literary Significance of The Catcher in the Rye
Even though The Catcher in the Rye is usually considered only a "minor" classic of American fiction, it is a

very popular novel that frequently provokes strong reactions—both positive and negative—from its readers.

In fact, The Catcher in the Rye is one of the most widely read and discussed works in the American literary

canon. Despite its widespread popularity and significant reputation, however, some critics argue that it is too

vulgar, immoral, and immature to be considered serious literature. Moreover, a few teachers and parents have

censored the novel because they feel that it will corrupt children who read it. While there are undoubtedly

subversive, or corrupt elements in the novel, arguments for censoring it generally misrepresent its more nobler

intentions and greatly exaggerate its subversive designs. Putting aside the overinflated claims of the novel's

most extreme critics and supporters, the diversity and intensity of readers' reactions to The Catcher in the Rye

suggest that the issues it raises are significant ones. Consequently, it seems likely that readers will continue to

have heated discussions about this "minor" classic for a long time to come.
One of the issues that has been debated ever since the novel's initial publication is whether or not it qualifies

as a significant work of literature. Does it offer significant insights into the complexities of human existence

and the development of American culture, or does it simply appeal to vulgar adolescent minds with its

obscene language, complaining about everything without developing any positive insights of its own? While

some of the initial reviews of The Catcher in the Rye were negative, critics later acknowledged it as a

significant literary work and demonstrated how the novel's narrative structure, themes, and character

development resemble other great works of literature. For example, Arthur Heiserman and James E. Miller's

essay, "J. D. Salinger: Some Crazy Cliff," helped establish the literary significance of The Catcher in the Rye

by showing how it belonged to the long tradition of epic quest narratives in western literature. Similarly,

Charles Kaplan's essay, "Holden and Huck: The Odysseys of Youth," points out similarities between The

Catcher in the Rye and Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn. Both novels are about a young man who tells the

story of his own personal odyssey using his own comical wisdom and colloquial everyday language. Critic

Lilian Furst compares The Catcher in the Rye to Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novels in the

Canadian Review of Comparative Literature. Helen Weinberg compares it to Franz Kafka's novels in The

New Novel in America while John M. Howell in his essay "Salinger in the Waste Land," compares it to T. S.

Eliot's poetry.

Perhaps the most interesting aspect about The Catcher in the Rye, however, is that it redefines the focus of the

literary text. Instead of focusing primarily on plot development like most traditional novels, The Catcher in

the Rye focuses more on character development. In fact, most of the plot is mundane and uneventful; it only

becomes interesting because Salinger makes the character of Holden and the perspective through which

Holden narrates the story interesting. Consequently, when reading The Catcher in the Rye it is important to

pay attention to how Salinger represents Holden's character, language, and world view. While some critics

simply dismiss Holden's character as purely negative, vulgar, whining, and cynical, a more balanced reading

of the novel could indicate that there is something more to Holden than his academic failures and adolescent

cynicism: He is perceptive, sensitive, creative, and even intelligent in his own way.
There are several ways that critics have attempted to describe Holden's positive characteristics, including

rather obvious childlike innocence. This quality is evident in a number of passages, including when Holden

expresses his desire to be a catcher in the rye who protects little children from falling over the edge of a cliff,

his fight with Stradlater for making sexual advances to Jane Gallagher, his inability to have sex with a

prostitute, and his tender dance with his sister. In his essay "The Saint as a Young Man," Jonathan Baumbach,

as other critics have, notes that Holden acts like a saint or savior of the innocent. It is this sensitive, innocent,

and childlike side of Holden that makes him a complex and endearing character in spite of his vulgarity and


Another way that critics have tried to show the positive side of Holden is by focusing on his demonstrated

ability to use language creatively. After all, the one course that Holden passes is English. Not only does

Holden write a good essay for himself but he also writes a good one for his roommate Stradlater. In addition

to writing, Holden is a natural actor and storyteller. He is often seen imitating his classmates or mimicking

roles from the movies. In fact, A. Robert Lee goes so far as to argue in his essay "Flunking Everything Else

Except English Anyway" that Holden continually performs himself by endlessly putting on a new mask and

new identity for each new situation. In the train scene for example, Holden makes up stories about one of his

classmates in order to please his classmate's mother; he not only adopts a new identity for himself, but he also

fabricates a whole new fictional history of life at Pencey. Speaking is another area of importance. Even if

Holden may not amount to much else, he is always a smooth talker who can keep the reader interested simply

by the way in which he creatively tells his story using the vernacular slang that American teenagers used in

the early 1950s.

While such positive interpretations of Holden correct reductive interpretations that simply dismiss Holden as

an immature cynic, Duane Edwards's essay, "Holden Caulfield: Don't Ever Tell Anybody Anything,"

advances an even more complex interpretation of Holden. Instead of trying either to redeem Holden as a saint

or to condemn him as a pessimist, Edwards argues that Holden is an ironic character who critiques his phony

culture but ends up participating in the same phony culture that he condemns. His argument becomes even

more interesting when readers remember that Holden is the novel's narrator. By making such an unorthodox

and unreliable character as Holden the narrator, Salinger subtly suggests that maybe readers cannot

completely trust everything Holden tells them about himself and the world in which he lives. Obviously, the

perspective of a cynical failure like Holden cannot be trusted completely as an accurate description of the way

things really are, but neither can his compassionate wit be dismissed entirely. Consequently, the reader must

always read between the lines like a detective looking for hints and clues that might help explain which of

Holden's insights are valid and which are as phony as the phoniness he condemns.

Moving beyond purely literary interpretations, The Catcher in the Rye can also be interpreted from the

perspective of the social sciences. In particular, many critics have advanced psychoanalytic interpretations of

the novel because it repeatedly explores questions relating to death, sexuality, and processes of both

psychological development and psychological breakdown. In general, these psychoanalytic interpretations

usually try to get beneath the surface of Holden's psyche to discover some hidden force that explains why

Holden thinks and acts the way that he does. One way to uncover the hidden layers of Holden's mind is to

look back on his childhood in order to find some significant or traumatic event that might explain his current

state of being. Clearly, one of the most traumatic, formative moments in Holden's childhood was the death of

his brother Allie. Throughout the novel, Holden repeatedly thinks about his dead brother. For example, when

Holden agrees to write a paper for his roommate Stradlater, he writes about Allie's baseball mitt. Or when

Holden starts to have a breakdown while walking around New York City, he pleads in his mind with Allie to

protect him. Perhaps as a result of this traumatic childhood experience involving death, Holden seems to be

somewhat obsessed with it. For example, when Phoebe asks Holden to name people that he enjoys, the only

people other than Phoebe that he can think of are all dead: Allie and James Castle, a boy who died at Holden's

school. This obsession with death, therefore, might be one clue that can offer insight into the inner workings

of Holden's mind.

Another place where one might find clues about Holden's psychological make−up is in his relationships with

other people and especially in his sexual or almost sexual relationships with women. Throughout the novel,

Holden is continually obsessed with women, but he rarely does anything about it. He likes Jane Gallagher, but

they never get beyond holding hands. He even orders a hooker to his hotel room, but he decides that he only

wants to talk. Instead of developing sexual or even intimate relationships with women, Holden seems to focus

most of his emotional energy on his younger sister, Phoebe. "While some critics have interpreted this as

evidence of Holden's repressed incestual desires and psychological immaturity, others have interpreted it as

simply an affectionate bond between siblings that demonstrates Holden's innocence. While the novel may not

provide any definitive explanation of Holden's sexuality, sexuality is clearly an important and interesting

aspect of his character.

A final way to interpret The Catcher in the Rye is to read it from a sociological perspective. Instead of simply

analyzing Holden's individual psychological make−up, a sociological analysis probes deeper into the social

and economic contexts that shape Holden's personality. Carol and Richard Ohmann's essay, "Reviewers,

Critics, and The Catcher in the Rye," offers an excellent example of such an interpretation. In their Marxist

analysis, the Ohmanns argue that critics' narrow focus on moral issues causes them to overlook how these

moral issues are related to broader social and economic contexts. By situating the novel in its broader

historical context at the beginning of the cold war, the Ohmanns argue that the novel is less about the morality

of Holden's internal psychological character than it is about the capitalist economic system that produces

Holden's character. As the Ohmanns point out, the people who Holden criticize are virtually all

representatives of a corrupt capitalist society. Mr. Haas is the phony headmaster who gets money for the

school by kissing up to wealthy parents while ignoring poorer parents; Mr. Ossenburger is the phony funeral

parlor owner who makes money off of personal tragedies; and the majority of Holden's classmates are simply

the spoiled children of similar bourgeois money−grabbers. As the Ohmanns demonstrate, Holden consistently

directs his strongest criticisms against the evils of capitalism: the commercialization of culture, class−based

social hierarchies, exploitative sexuality, phony image−minded people, etc. From a socioeconomic

perspective, therefore, The Catcher in the Rye portrays the manners and follies of the rising American

bourgeois class during the post−World War II era of rapid capitalist expansion, and Holden represents a

sensitive social critic who reveals the evils of this phony bourgeois society.

Source: Robert Bennett, in an essay for Novels for Students, Gale, 1997. Bennett is a doctoral candidate at the

University of California—Berkeley

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