Student Achievement Goal Setting: An Option for Connecting Teacher Performance to Academic Progress



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Student Achievement Goal Setting: An Option for Connecting Teacher Performance to Academic Progress

SECTION 1

  • An Overview of Student Achievement Goal Setting and Developing SMART Goals

Why Consider Student Achievement Goal Setting?

  • The Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria incorporate student academic progress as a significant component of the evaluation
  • For about 30 percent of teachers, student growth percentiles will be available.
  • For about 70 percent of teachers, other measures of academic progress will need to be identified.

What is student achievement goal setting?

  • Step 1:
  • Determine needs
  • Step 2:
  • Create specific learning goals based on pre-assessment
  • Step 4: Monitor student progress through on-going formative assessment
  • Step 3: Create and implement teaching and learning strategies
  • Step 5:
  • Determine whether the students achieved the goal

What are the purposes of Student Achievement Goal Setting?

  • Focus on student results
  • Explicitly connect teaching and learning
  • Improve instructional practices and teacher / education specialist performance
  • Tool for school improvement

Step 1: Determining Needs

  • Step 1:
  • Determine needs
  • Step 2:
  • Create specific learning goals based on pre-assessment
  • Step 4: Monitor student progress through on-going formative assessment
  • Step 3: Create and implement teaching and learning strategies
  • Step 5:
  • Determine whether the students achieved the goal
  • Ch. 1, pg. 5

Teacher E Grade 5

Step 2: Creating SMART Goals

  • Step 1:
  • Determine needs
  • Step 2:
  • Create specific learning goals based on pre-assessment
  • Step 4: Monitor student progress through on-going formative assessment
  • Step 3: Create and implement teaching and learning strategies
  • Step 5:
  • Determine whether the students achieved the goal

What is a student achievement goal?

  • Goal … a statement of an intended outcome of your work:
  • Student Learning
  • Distinct from Strategies
    • Strategies = Means
    • Goal = End
    • “Are you going to New York or by train?”

Writing a SMART Goal

Teacher E’s Goal

  • Goal Statement:
  • In current school year, each student will make measurable progress on the STAR assessment. Each student will gain at least one year’s growth in grade level equivalency.  
  • A good goal statement is one that is…
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Appropriate
  • Realistic
  • Time-bound

Sample SMART Goal

  • Specific: Focused on physical education, specifically the Presidential Fitness sub areas
  • Measurable: Identified Presidential Fitness Test to be used to assess goal
  • Appropriate: The teacher teaches the content and skills contained in the Presidential Fitness Tests.
  • Realistic: The goal of increasing student performance by 20% is realistic. It is not out of reach and yet not too easy.
  • Time-bound: Goal attainment can be addressed by the end of the year with the final Presidential Fitness Test.
  • During the school year, my sixth grade physical education students will improve performance by 20% on each of the Presidential Fitness Test sub areas.

How Smart is this goal?

  • Aspect of Goal Statement
  • Evidence
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Appropriate
  • Realistic
  • Time-Bound
  • Teacher G– Second Grade
  • During this school year, my students will improve on word knowledge and oral reading fluency.

Applying a Goal Setting Rubric

  • Goal Setting Rubric
  • Student Achievement Standard
  • Level of Performance
  • Unsatisfactory
  • Emerging
  • Proficient
  • Exemplary
  • Not Applicable
  • CANNOT MOVE FORWARD
  • Not Applicable
  • CANNOT MOVE FORWARD
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are rigorous, attainable and reflect acceptable growth during the course or school year
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are rigorous, attainable and reflect extraordinary growth beyond expectations during the course or school year
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are unrelated to identified student needs.

Teacher G’s Goal

  • Goal Setting Rubric
  • Student Achievement Standard
  • Level of Performance
  • Unsatisfactory
  • Emerging
  • Proficient
  • Exemplary
  • The teacher develops rigorous student learning and academic achievement goals
  • Not Applicable
  • CANNOT MOVE FORWARD
  • Not Applicable
  • CANNOT MOVE FORWARD
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are rigorous, attainable and reflect acceptable growth during the course or school year
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are rigorous, attainable and reflect extraordinary growth beyond expectations during the course or school year
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are unrelated to identified student needs.
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are related to identified student needs, but S.M.A.R.T. process needs refining.

Teacher G’s Baseline Data

Teacher G’s Baseline Data

Better goal for Teacher G?

  • Goal Statement:
  • During this school year, 100% of my students will improve in instructional reading level. Each student will move up at least a grade level in oral reading from fall to spring. Furthermore, students who are below grade level will increase their instructional reading level by 1.5 years.

How Smart is this goal?

  • Aspect of Goal Statement
  • Evidence
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Appropriate
  • Realistic
  • Time-Bound
  • Teacher H– Government Teacher
  • For the current school year, my students will have the knowledge and skills to be productive members of their society because they will be able to analyze primary and secondary source documents.

Applying a Goal Setting Rubric

  • Goal Setting Rubric
  • Student Achievement Standard
  • Level of Performance
  • Unsatisfactory
  • Emerging
  • Proficient
  • Exemplary
  • The teacher develops rigorous student learning and academic achievement goals
  • Not Applicable
  • CANNOT MOVE FORWARD
  • Not Applicable
  • CANNOT MOVE FORWARD
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are rigorous, attainable and reflect acceptable growth during the course or school year
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are rigorous, attainable and reflect extraordinary growth beyond expectations during the course or school year
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are unrelated to identified student needs.
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are related to identified student needs, but S.M.A.R.T. process needs refining.

Teacher H’s Goal

  • Goal Setting Rubric
  • Student Achievement Standard
  • Level of Performance
  • Unsatisfactory
  • Emerging
  • Proficient
  • Exemplary
  • The teacher develops rigorous student learning and academic achievement goals
  • Not Applicable
  • CANNOT MOVE FORWARD
  • Not Applicable
  • CANNOT MOVE FORWARD
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are rigorous, attainable and reflect acceptable growth during the course or school year
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are rigorous, attainable and reflect extraordinary growth beyond expectations during the course or school year
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are unrelated to identified student needs.
  • Student learning and academic achievement goals are related to identified student needs, but S.M.A.R.T. process needs refining.

Better goal for Teacher H?

  • Goal Statement:
  • During this school year, 100% of my students will improve in analyzing primary and secondary source documents. Each student will increase his/her ability to analyze documents by one level on the rating rubric. Furthermore, 75% of students will score at “proficient” or above.

SECTION 2

Teacher I 8th Grade Math Teacher

  • Goal Statement
  • For the school year, all of my students will demonstrate measurable growth in mathematics. At least 80% of my students will meet or exceed the benchmark of 50th percentile or above on the percentile rank distribution for STAR.
  • Baseline Data
  • Percentile Rank Distribution of Students on the STAR* Mathematics Assessment
  • *Acronym Stands for the Standardized Test for Assessment of Reading (STAR)

Step 3: Create and Implement Strategies

  • Step 1:
  • Determine needs
  • Step 2:
  • Create specific learning goals based on pre-assessment
  • Step 4: Monitor student progress through on-going formative assessment
  • Step 3: Create and implement teaching and learning strategies
  • Step 5:
  • Determine whether the students achieved the goal

Teacher I 8th Grade Mathematics Teacher

  • Incorporate SCANS skills by attending a workshop and integrating it into instruction
  • Track progress of students using STAR assessments
  • Incorporate student goal setting
  • Strategies

Step 4: Monitoring Student Progress and Making Adjustments

  • Step 1:
  • Determine needs
  • Step 2:
  • Create specific learning goals based on pre-assessment
  • Step 4: Monitor student progress through on-going formative assessment
  • Step 3: Create and implement teaching and learning strategies
  • Step 5:
  • Determine whether the students achieved the goal

Monitoring Student Progress

  • Monitor both student progress toward goal attainment AND strategy effectiveness
  • Make adjustments to strategies as needed

Teacher I 8th Grade Math Teacher

  • Goal Statement
  • For the school year, all of my students will demonstrate measurable growth in mathematics. At least 80% of my students will meet or exceed the benchmark of 50th percentile or above on the percentile rank distribution for STAR.
  • Baseline and Mid-Year Data
  • Percentile Rank Distribution of Students on the STAR* Mathematics Assessment
  • *Acronym Stands for the Standardized Test for Assessment of Reading (STAR)

Teacher I 8th Grade Mathematics Teacher

  • I attended the SCANS workshop and incorporated this approach into my lessons. I have not yet incorporated computers but will work with the Instructional Technology teacher.
  • Informal assessment data and STAR data indicate that at least 38 of my students are continuing to struggle with mathematics concepts.
  • I plan to meet with the mathematics coach to discuss specific needs and develop intervention plans for students. I also plan to organize tutoring for struggling students. Goal setting seems to be working with students but some students are discouraged when they can visually see that they are not meeting their goals. I will work with students to set realistic, incremental goals.
  • Mid-Year
  • Reflection

Step 5: Determining Goal Attainment

  • Step 1:
  • Determine needs
  • Step 2:
  • Create specific learning goals based on pre-assessment
  • Step 4: Monitor student progress through on-going formative assessment
  • Step 3: Create and implement teaching and learning strategies
  • Step 5:
  • Determine whether the students achieved the goal

Teacher I 8th Grade Math Teacher

  • Goal Statement
  • For the school year, all of my students will demonstrate measurable growth in mathematics. At least 80% of my students will meet or exceed the benchmark of 50th percentile or above on the percentile rank distribution for STAR.
  • Baseline and Mid-Year Data
  • Percentile Rank Distribution of Students on the STAR* Mathematics Assessment
  • *Acronym Stands for the Standardized Test for Assessment of Reading (STAR)

SECTION 3

  • Determining Goal Attainment

Teacher J High School English Teacher

  • Professional’s Name: Teacher J
  • Worksite Yourtown High School Job Title: English Teacher School Year _______
  • I. Setting (Describe the population and special learning circumstances)
  • I teach two classes of grade 10 English students. I have a total of 57 students. Twenty-nine percent of my students qualify for services and have IEPs.
  • II. Content/Subject/Field Area (The area/topic addressed based on learner achievement, data analysis, or observational data)
  • I will focus on expository and persuasive essay writing. Last year only 35% of my students scored proficient on the essay portion of the state writing test.
  • III. Baseline Data (What does the current data show?)
  • I administered both an expository writing prompt and a persuasive writing prompt and scored it using a 6-point rubric in which a score of 4 is proficient. The data show that 28% of my students scored 4 points or better on the expository writing sample and 20% of my students scored 4 points or better on the persuasive writing sample.
  •  Data attached
  • IV. Goal Statement (Describe what you want learners/program to accomplish)
  • For the current school year, 100% of my students will make measurable progress on both expository writing and persuasive writing. By the end of the school year, 75% of my students will score 4 points or better on the expository writing sample and 75% of my students will score 4 points or better on the persuasive writing sample.
  • Strategy
  • Measurable By
  • Target Date
  • Use modified pacing to attend to student needs
  • Copies of modified pacing
  • Ongoing (September– May)
  • Use frequent formative assessment with students to provide feedback and modify instruction.
  • Lesson Plans
  • Copies of teacher-made formative assessments
  • Ongoing (September – May)
  • Incorporate focused instruction in key content areas as prescribed by the State Standards
  • Lesson Plans
  • Ongoing (September – May)
  • Number and Percent of Students Earning Each Score Point on the Essays
  • Unscorable
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • Expository
  • 3 (5%)
  • 7 (12%)
  • 12 (21%)
  • 19 (33%)
  • 8 (14%)
  • 5 (9%)
  • 3 (5%)
  • Persuasive
  • 2 (4%)
  • 9 (16%)
  • 14 (25%)
  • 23 (40%)
  • 5 (9%)
  • 4 (7%)
  • 2 (4%)
  • Baseline Data (September Assessment)
  • Number of Students

Teacher J’s Goal

  • A good goal statement is one that is…
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Appropriate
  • Realistic
  • Time-bound
  • Goal Statement
  • For the school year, all of my students will make measurable progress on both expository writing and persuasive writing. By the end of the school year, 75% of my students will score 4 points or better on the expository writing sample and 75% of my students will score 4 points or better on the persuasive writing sample.

Steps in the Mid-Year Review Process

  • Step 1
  • Collect and reflect on informal and formal mid-year data
  • Step 2
  • Reflect on progress toward goal
  • Step 3
  • Reflect on effectiveness of strategies
  • Step 4
  • Adjust strategies

Teacher J English Teacher

  • Number and Percent of Students Earning Each Score Point on the Essays
  • Unscorable
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • Expository – Baseline
  • 3
  • (5%)
  • 7 (12%)
  • 12 (21%)
  • 19
  • (33%)
  • 8 (14%)
  • 5
  • (9%)
  • 3
  • (5%)
  • Expository – Mid-year
  • 2
  • (4%)
  • 4
  • (7%)
  • 11
  • (19%)
  • 22
  • (39%)
  • 10
  • (18%)
  • 6
  • (11%)
  • 2
  • (3%)
  • Persuasive – Baseline
  • 2
  • (4%)
  • 9 (16%)
  • 14 (25%)
  • 21
  • (37%)
  • 5
  • (9%)
  • 4
  • (7%)
  • 2
  • (4%)
  • Persuasive – Mid-year
  • 1
  • (2%)
  • 2
  • (4%)
  • 18
  • (32%)
  • 19
  • (33%)
  • 8
  • (14%)
  • 6
  • (11%)
  • 3
  • (5%)
  • Goal Statement
  • For the school year, all of my students will make measurable progress on both expository writing and persuasive writing. By the end of the school year, 75% of my students will score 4 points or better on the expository writing sample and 75% of my students will score 4 points or better on the persuasive writing sample.

Expository Essay

  • Score Points for Rubric Essay
  • Number of Students

Persuasive Essay

  • Score Points for Rubric Essay
  • Number of Students

Teacher’s Mid-year Reflection on Strategies Teacher J English Teacher

  • Strategy
  • Progress
  • Use modified pacing to attend to student needs
  • Changed instruction to address student deficiencies in writing
  • Use frequent formative assessment with students to provide feedback and modify instruction.
  • Used frequent formative assessments for writing skills; Used formative assessments to address student deficiencies; Assessments indicate that a majority of students continue to have deficiencies in one or more areas
  • Incorporate focused instruction in key content areas as prescribed by the State Standards
  • Developed mini-targeted lessons to address specific writing skills with students

Teacher’s Mid-year Reflection Continued Teacher J English Teacher

  • Strategy
  • Adjustment(s)
  • Use modified pacing to attend to student needs
  • Continue to use modified pacing; Ensure that modified pacing is based on formative assessment data
  • Use frequent formative assessment with students to provide feedback and modify instruction
  • Target formative assessments to focus on specific writing skills according to student deficiencies
  • Incorporate focused instruction in key content areas as prescribed by the State Standards
  • Differentiate instruction in key content areas using formative assessment data
  • Use Peer and Self-Assessment
  • Work with students on evaluating their own work and the work of their classmates using the writing rubric; Determine the ability of students to apply the rubric; Track peer, self, and teacher ratings to determine consistency

Teacher J English Teacher

  • Number and Percent of Students Earning Each Score Point on the Essays
  • Unscorable
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • Expository – Baseline
  • 3
  • (5%)
  • 7 (12%)
  • 12 (21%)
  • 19
  • (33%)
  • 8 (14%)
  • 5
  • (9%)
  • 3
  • (5%)
  • Expository – End of Year*
  • 0
  • (0%)
  • 1
  • (2%)
  • 4
  • (7%)
  • 10
  • (18%)
  • 31
  • (54%)
  • 6
  • (11%)
  • 5
  • (9%)
  • Persuasive – Baseline
  • 2
  • (4%)
  • 9 (16%)
  • 14 (25%)
  • 21
  • (37%)
  • 5
  • (9%)
  • 4
  • (7%)
  • 2
  • (4%)
  • Persuasive – End of Year*
  • 0
  • (0%)
  • 1
  • (2%)
  • 6
  • (11%)
  • 11
  • (19%)
  • 23
  • (40%)
  • 10
  • (18%)
  • 6
  • (11%)
  • Goal Statement
  • For the school year, all of my students will make measurable progress on both expository writing and persuasive writing. By the end of the school year, 75% of my students will score 4 points or better on the expository writing sample and 75% of my students will score 4 points or better on the persuasive writing sample.
  • *Percentages may not equal 100% due to rounding.

Expository Essay

  • Score Points for Rubric Essay
  • Number of Students

Persuasive Essay

  • Score Points for Rubric Essay
  • Number of Students

Did Teacher J meet his goal?

  • Type of Essay
  • Percentage of Students Receiving a 4 or better

Did Teacher J meet his goal?

  • Type of Essay
  • Percentage of Students Receiving a 4 or better

What does research say about goal setting for student achievement?

  • Linked to mastery learning
    • 1 standard deviation higher on average compared with conventional instruction (Bloom, 1984)
    • Includes formative assessments, frequent corrective feedback
  • Linked to enhancing pre-requisite cognitive skills
    • .7 standard deviation higher on average compared with conventional instruction (Walberg, 1984)
    • Includes initial skills assessment and teaching prerequisite skills that are lacking
  • Linked to assessment for learning
    • Formative assessment in the classroom can result in increases in student learning up to two grade levels (Assessment Reform Group, 2000)
  • Linked to standards-based performance assessment
    • Schools in Loveland, CO, were among highest percentage increase in student performance after implementing standards-based performance assessment (Stronge & Tucker, 2000)
  • Linked to standards-based instruction
    • 18-41 percentage point gains when teachers set and communicate clear goals for learning (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
  • Linked to data-based decision-making
    • School districts that show multiple (i.e., 3 or more) years of improvement use data to make decisions and encourage teachers to use student learning data to make instructional decision (Cawelti, 2004; Langer & Colton, 2005; Togneri & Anderson, 2003)

Based on what you have learned today, what assessment data sources would be appropriate for …

  • Establishing baseline data and determining goal attainment?
  • Progress monitoring goal progress throughout the year?

Based on what you have learned, what do you see as the benefits and challenges of student achievement goal setting?

  • Benefits
  • Challenges

Common Challenges

  • Data access & analysis
    • Robustness of data system
    • Teacher & administrator skills
  • Sufficient & appropriate assessments
  • Writing SMART goals
  • Clarifying the acceptable amount of progress
  • Developing instructionally-based strategies
    • See Marzano et al., Schmoker, Collins, Blankstein, Fullan, etc., etc….

Setting student achievement goals…

  • Focuses on student results
  • Connects teaching with learning
    • Improved instruction in the classroom
  • Contributes to school improvement


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