Some important terms used in research work

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  • Citation
  • A reference or listing of the key pieces of information about a work that make it possible to identify and locate it again. The elements of a citation normally include author, title, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication for a book; and journal title, volume, number, issue, year, and page numbers for an article or for a journal reference


  • Reference
  • What we quoted in the text consists of author name (Not inverted), title and pages of sources it could be as footnote, at the end of chapter or at the end of thesis.


  • Bibliography
  •  In the context of academic research, a list of books or references to sources cited, for further reading, usually printed at the end of an article or in the back matter of a book includes author name inverted, title, year, place of publication, publisher.


  • Foot Note 
  • Any note used to further explain a detail outside of the main text. The term usually refers to notes at the bottom of a page
  • OP Cited (for reference already given in list)
  • op. cited ref No 11, H.M Deitel
  • Ibid (for the same reference use )

Various Style Manuals

  • APA – American Psychological Association
  • MLA – Modern Language Association
  • Chicago Style – Chicago Manual of Style
  • Turabian Style – based on Chicago Style
  • Harvard Referencing System
  • ASA – American Sociological Association
  • CBE - Council of Biology Editors

What is the APA Style?

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
  • In 1929, the APA published a manual with instructions for authors on how to prepare manuscripts for publication in psychology journals
  • Later used for theses, term papers, etc.
  • Latest edition 5th in 2001
  • Widely used in the social sciences

General Guidelines-1

  • Type or print on one side only of heavy, white, unruled paper
  • Paper size: 8½ X 11 inches
  • Double-space the entire paper
  • Left justify text only
  • Leave a minimum one-inch margin on the sides, top, and bottom of each page
  • Number pages consecutively in the top right corner, beginning with the title page
  • Just before the page number, use a shortened form of the title as a header

General Guidelines-2

  • Font size 12-point
  • Times Roman or Courier are acceptable typefaces
  • Only black toner
  • Indent paragraphs 5-7 spaces
  • No more than 27 lines of text per page


  • Five levels
  • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
  • Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
  • Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
  • Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading, ending with a period, with following text starting on the same line.


  • In general write as words all numbers from one to nine and use numerals for all numbers 10 and over.
  • Never begin a sentence with a numeral.


  • Within paragraph or sentence: use lowercase letter in parentheses
  • Participants considered (a) some alternative courses of action, (b) the factors influencing the decision, and (c) the probability of success.
  • Separate paragraphs: number each paragraph with an arabic numeral, followed by a period
  • 1. Begin with paragraph indent. Type second and succeeding lines flush left.
  • 2. The second item begins a new paragraph.


  • Grade
  • Number of Viewing Hours
  • Reading Level
  • First Grade
  • 5 - 10 hours
  • 2.8
  • Second Grade
  • 16 - 20 hours
  • 2.6
  • Third Grade
  • 11 - 15 hours
  • 4.2
  • Note. Reading level refers to average reading level for students in that year and month of school.
  • Table 2 Reading Level for First Through Third Graders Children


  • Figure 2. Pie chart of total sales
  • Computing Systems 42%
  • Imaging and Printing Systems 41%
  • IT Services 14%
  • Other 3%


  • In-text citation also called Parenthetical citation Author-date reference
  • Reference list

Information Needed for Citation

  • Author or Authoring Body
  • Date of publication
  • Title of the work
  • Publisher of the work & place of publication
  • Title of the Source, if work is part of something else, i.e.. journal, encyclopedia, website
  • Location information within the Source, i.e.. Volume, issue #, page or paragraph numbers
  • Retrieval date, if electronic format

Author’s Name in Sentence

  • Schwepps (1998) states that the solution sat dormant for several months before any of the employees tested it (p. 743).

Author’s Name in Parentheses

  • When the solution had been sitting for a number of months, the employees tested for bacteria (Schwepps, 1998).

Short Quotations

  • When fewer than 40 words
  • Put prose quotations in running text
  • Put quote marks around quoted material
  • Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text

Example – Short Quotations

  • Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p. 11).
  • A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p. 11).

Long Quotations

  • When 40 words or more
  • In block form
  • Indent 5-7 spaces and omit the quotation marks. If the quotation has internal paragraphs, indent the internal paragraphs a further 5-7 spaces
  • Do not use quotation marks
  • Double space the block quote
  • Cite the source after the end punctuation of the quote

Example – Long Quotations

  • Meile (1993) found the following:
    • The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even when real drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)

Secondary Reference

  • In 1947 the World Health Organization proposed the following definition of health. “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” (World Health Organization, as cited in Potter & Perry, 2001, p. 3).

Parenthetical Citations – Multiple Authors

  • 2 authors – cite both names separated by & Example: (Kosik & Martin, 1999, p. 127)
  • 3-5 authors – cite all authors first time; after first time, use et al. Example: (Wilson et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors – cite first author’s name and et al. Example: (Perez et al., 1992)

Parenthetical Citations – Multiple Citations

  • Multiple sources from same author – chronological order, separated by comma Example: (Burke, 1998, 1999, in press)
  • Within same year: Example: (Burke, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press)

Parenthetical Citations – Multiple Citations

  • Multiple sources – separated by semicolon, alphabetical order Example: (Burke, 1998; Perez, 1992; Wilhite, 2001)
  • Personal communication (not included in references)
  • Example: (T.K. Lutes, personal communication, September 19, 2001)

Handling Parenthetical Citations

  • Sometimes additional information is necessary . . .
  • More than one author with the same last name
  • (H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)
  • Two or more works in the same parentheses
  • (Caruth, 1996; Fussell, 1975; Showalter, 1997)
  • Specific part of a source
  • (Jones, 1995, chap. 2)

Handling Parenthetical Citations

  • If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title:
  • Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers”
  • Citation: (“California,” 1999)

Sample Parenthetical Citations

  • Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996).
  • However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6).

Reference List

  • Place the list of references cited at the end of the paper
  • Start references on a new page
  • Begin each entry flush with the left margin
  • Indent subsequent lines five to seven spaces (hanging indent)
  • Double space both within and between entries
  • Italicize the title of books, magazines, etc.

Capitalization in Reference List

  • Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word after a colon or dash, and proper nouns in titles of books, articles, etc.
  • Capitalize all major words and all words of four letters or more in periodical titles.

Reference List Order

  • Arrange sources alphabetically beginning with author’s last name
  • If author has more than one source, arrange entries by year, earliest first
  • When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation as the first author of a group, list the one author entries first
  • If no author given, begin entry with the title and alphabetize without counting a, an, or the
  • Do not underline, italicize or use quote marks for titles used instead of an author name

Example – Reference List Order

    • Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control …
    • Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of …
    • Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors …
    • Kumpfer, K. L. (2002). Prevention …
    • Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Smith, P., …
    • Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Preventions …

Group Author

      • American Psychological Association.
      • (2001). Publication manual of the
      • American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington,
      • DC: Author.

Book with one author

    • Carter, R. (1998). Mapping the mind.
    • Berkeley, CA: University of
    • California Press.

Book with two authors

  • Struck, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979).
  • The elements of style (3rd ed.).
  • New York: Macmillan.

Book with six or more authors

  • Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N.,
  • Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L.,
  • et al. (2000). An experimental
  • evaluation of…

Book with no author

  • Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary
  • (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA:
  • Merriam-Webster.

Book with editors

  • Allison, M. T., & Schneider, I. E. (Eds.).
  • (2000). Diversity and the recreation
  • profession: Organizational
  • perspectives. State College, PA:
  • Venture.

Chapter in Book

    • Stern, J. A., & Dunham, D. N. (1990).
    • The ocular system. In J. T.
    • Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.),
    • Principles of psychophysiology:
    • Physical, social, and inferential
    • elements (pp. 513-553). Berkeley,
    • CA: University of California Press.

Multivolume book

  • Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959-1963). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1-6). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Journals with Continuous Pagination

    • Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the
    • typical eyewitness. American
    • Psychologist, 48, 574-576.

Journals with Pagination by Issue

    • Sellard, S., & Mills, M. E. (1995).
    • Administrative issues for use of
    • nurse practitioners. Journal of
    • Nursing Administration, 25(5),
    • 64-70.

Article in press

  • Jones, R. (in press). The new healthcare lexicon. Journal of Health.


  • Misumi, J., & Fumita, M. (1982). Effects
  • of PM organizational development in
  • supermarket organization. Japanese
  • Journal of Experimental Social
  • Psychology, 21, 93-111. [Abstract]
  • Psychological Abstracts, 1982, 68,
  • Abstract No. 11474


    • Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29).
    • Seeing the mind. Science, 262,
    • 673-674.


    • Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30).
    • Obesity affects economic, social
    • status. The Washington Post, pp.
    • A1, A4.


  • Blaser, L. (1996). Relativity . In Gale
  • encyclopedia of science (Vol. 15,
  • pp. 82-86). New York, Gale
  • Encyclopedia Co.


  • Ho, M. (2000). Coping strategies of
  • counselling professionals.
  • Unpublished master’s thesis,
  • Nanyang Technological University,
  • Singapore.


  • National Institute on Mental Health. (1980).
  • Drug abuse [videotape]. Bethesda:
  • Author.

Electronic sources

    • Velmans, M. (1999). When perception
    • becomes conscious. British
    • Journal of Psychology, 90, 543-
    • 566. Retrieved May 25, 2001,
    • from the Expanded Academic
    • ASAP database.

Web page

  • Green, C. (2000, April 16). History & philosophy of psychology web resources. Retrieved May 22, 2001,
  • from

Professional paper from Internet

  • Jacob, B. & Shoemaker, N. (n.d.). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: An interpersonal tool for system administrators. Retrieved October 19, 2003 from:

Stand-Alone Web Document with no author or date

  • GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.).
  • Retrieved January 17, 2003, from

Sample Reference List

  • References Calvillo, D. (1999). The theoretical development of aggression. Retrieved August 21, 2002 from: Flory, R. K. (1969a). Attack behavior as a function of minimum inter-food interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 12, 825-828. Flory, R. K. (1969b). Attack behavior in a multiple fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Psychonomic Science, 16, 383-386. Flory, R. K. & Everist, H.D. (1977). The effect of a response requirement on schedule- induced aggression. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9, 383-386. Gentry, W. D. (1968). Fixed-ratio schedule-induced aggression. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11, 813-817.

Formatting for Theses

  • Preliminary pages
  • Bibliography instead of Reference List
  • Left-hand margin 1½ inch
  • Single spacing in tables, long quotations, within references
  • Figure caption is typed below

For More Information

  • APA Manual Website:

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