Social Management Framework madhya pradesh higher education quality improvement project (mpheqip) Draft

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Social Management Framework




April 15, 2015

Department of Higher Education,

Government of Madhya Pradesh



All India Council for Technical Education


Comptroller and Auditor General


Country Partnership Strategy


Disbursement Linked Indicators


Department of Higher Education (Government of Madhya Pradesh)


Detailed Project Request


Eligible Expenditure Program


Environment Management Framework


Financial Management


Gross Domestic Product


Gross Enrollment Ratio


Gender Equity and Social Inclusion


Government of Madhya Pradesh


Grievance Redress Mechanism


Grievance Redressal Service


Gross State Domestic Product


Higher Education/Higher Education Institution


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development


International Development Association


Indian Rupee


Internal Quality Assurance Cell


Interim Unaudited Financial Report


Key Performance Indicator


Monitoring and Evaluation


Ministry of Human Resource Development (Government of India)


Management Information System


Madhya Pradesh Laghu Udyog Nigam


National Assessment and Accreditation Council


National Sample Survey


Project Directorate


Project Development Objective


Procurement Risk Assessment Management System


Public Works Department


Results Based Financing


Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan


Scheduled Caste /Scheduled Tribe


State Higher Education Council


Social Management Framework


Tribal Development Plan


Technical Education Quality Improvement Project




University Grants Commission


United States Dollar


        1. Introduction

        2. Project Summary

        3. Profile of the State and its People

        4. Social Assessment Findings

        5. Legal and Policy Framework

        6. Implementation Arrangement

        7. Annex-1: Social Systems Assessment


This Document has been prepared by the Department of Higher Education, Government of Madhya Pradesh for the World Bank assisted Madhya Pradesh Higher Education Quality Improvement Project (MPHEQIP) and it has two parts: Social Management Framework and Social Assessment. The Social Systems Assessment (SSA) presents a larger social and institutional context to planning and implementing MPHEQIP and has been prepared with compiling useful data, information, and analyses of various issues from primary and secondary sources. The SSA makes no claims to original scholarly analysis of issues discussed herein, and has relied on the works of various scholars and information providers that have been cited in the footnotes. Any failure to cite any contributor’s name and information source in the footnotes is regretted. The Social Assessment is attached in Annex-1. The Social Systems Assessment was prepared with the help of Dr. Nira Burra, with assistance of Mr. Sandesh Lokhande.

The Social Management Framework (SMF) provides: (a) Tribal Development Plan and (b) Gender and Social Inclusion Guidelines, and (d) Implementation Arrangements. The SMF has been prepared based on stakeholder consultations held at different levels.


    1. India is a lower middle-income country with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita of US$1,499 (2013 US$). It has made considerable progress in economic growth and poverty reduction over the past ten years. The country experienced high economic growth during 2001-11, with an average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth of 7.9% per annum. From 2005-10, 53 million people were brought out of poverty. Human development outcomes also improved during this period, with under-5 year mortality decreasing from 88.1 to 58.6 per 1000 live births; and primary school net enrollment increasing from 85.7% to 98.9%. Yet, a number of challenges exist, notably, a deceleration of economic growth following the global financial crisis and high levels of inequality. Economic growth slowed in the recent past, decelerating from 9.6% in 2010 to 5% in 2013, but is expected to recover, reaching 6.4% in 2015 and 7% in 2016. The forecast for inequality is less optimistic, with economic inequality and differences in human development outcomes remaining stark, especially across regions, caste and gender. A child belonging to the richest income quintile has an under-5 year mortality rate that is 3.3 times lower than one born into the poorest quintile, and a person from the richest quintile has 2.5 times more years of education than one from the poorest quintile. Importantly, nearly 50% of India lives in 14 low income/special category states with poverty rates close to 40% — and faces the reality of poor development outcomes.

    1. Madhya Pradesh (MP) is a low-income state, with a population of 73 million, of which 75% live in rural areas. While average human development indicators in MP resemble the national average, rural areas, women, and Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe (SC/ST) groups face significant disadvantages. For example, the percentage of people with education above the primary level is 36% (national average is 44%); in urban areas, over 47% of the population has completed at least primary school; in rural areas, less than 29% has. Within rural areas, attainment is particularly poor for disadvantaged groups: only 19% of STs and 20% of women have education levels beyond the primary level. Infant mortality rate and Under-5 year mortality rate differ by 5-7 extra deaths per 1000 live births for girls compared to boys, and more than 20 extra deaths per 1000 live births for STs. Madhya Pradesh has nearly 15% of the country’s ST population.

    1. India’s 12th Five Year Plan (2012-17), based on the pillars of faster, sustainable, and inclusive growth, emphasizes increasing the supply of highly-skilled workers to drive the economy, as well as helping low-income states catch up with their more advanced neighbors. In its Vision 2018 document (December, 2013), MP has outlined forward-looking plans for the state’s development. In higher education it has identified reforms include performance based funding of higher education institutions (HEIs), HEIs pursuing self-determined reforms, and ICT enabled education.

    1. Higher education in India has been expanding rapidly, with enrollment doubling from 8.4 million students to 17 million students from 2001-11. These students are enrolled in 665 universities and 24120 colleges. Universities, whether government or private, are established by an Act of Parliament or of the State Legislative Assembly. With the exception of private universities, the respective government, central or state, is the primary funder of key categories of expenses — salaries, buildings and equipment. Universities must follow the guidelines and notifications issued by the University Grants Commission (UGC) to be eligible for central government funds. This apart, universities are autonomous, in that they have relative freedom to determine the academic, financial and administrative aspects of their functioning. The exact degree of freedom is specified in their respective Acts. Colleges in India, whether government or private, are categorized into the following types: constituent colleges, affiliated colleges and autonomous colleges. Constituent colleges are established as part of a university. Affiliated colleges are expected to follow the curricular and examination guidelines of their affiliating universities. Autonomous colleges, in theory, have freedom over curriculum and examination decisions. Colleges are granted autonomy based upon the recommendation of the UGC in consultation with the respective government and the university concerned.

    1. Nearly 10% of all students in higher education in India are enrolled in university/colleges in MP. These 1.6 million students attend 36 universities and 1316 colleges in the state.1 In 2012-13, MP’s Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in higher education was 19.5%, close to the national average of 21.1%. However, in the age group 18 to 23 years, only 13.1% of SC students and 7.5% of ST students were enrolled in higher education. Enrollment rates for women students in MP are especially low, with only 36% of enrollments comprising women students, relative to a national average of 45%. Moreover, there are major concerns over quality and relevance. A recent Bank study, ‘Making Engineering Graduates in India Employable (2015)’ finds that employers are most likely to reject newly graduated engineers for poor technical skills. Across India (except MP), 74.5 % employers stated that weak technical skills was the most important reason for rejecting a job applicant; in MP the 77.5% employers stated the same.

    1. Madhya Pradesh with 2815 colleges has a share of 6.23 percent of all colleges in India and ranks 7 in the country in this context. In terms of access, Madhya Pradesh has 25 colleges per lakh population, the same as the all India average of 25 colleges per lakh population. In terms of average enrolment per college, the state stands at 551, lesser than the all India average of 703. Total enrolment of students in regular mode in higher education institutes of Madhya Pradesh is around 14.01 lakhs. Madhya Pradesh has around 413 government colleges, 75 government aided colleges, 789 private unaided colleges and 5 government institutes catering to students from the 51 districts of the state. Out of the total colleges in the state, 67 percent are affiliated to universities, and the remaining is constituent/ university colleges, PG/ off campus or recognized centers by the universities. In terms of management, colleges in the state are dominated by the private unaided colleges. The institutions of higher education are concentrated in the more developed districts like Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior and Jabalpur. There are six state universities established under the Madhya Pradesh Vishwavidyalaya Adhiniyam,

    1. 1973 (MP Universities Act, 1973), which also act as affiliating bodies for all government and private colleges in the state. Three universities and 32 of the 431 government colleges have active National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) accreditation as of March 3, 2015. Eight government colleges have been granted autonomous status by the University Grant Commission (UGC). As per UGC, there are, two central universities and 19 state universities in Madhya Pradesh.

    1. In 2012, a major review of the higher education sector in MP was carried out by the World Bank, resulting in the report ‘Madhya Pradesh Higher Education Reforms: Policy Options’. In addition to the two core challenges of access and equity, low quality was identified as a fundamental concern. Only about half of an incoming cohort of students graduate at the end of three years, and an even smaller percent finding employment. The report and project preparation work have identified the following critical issues in the higher education sector in MP:

      1. Limited autonomy: The importance of autonomy in academic, financial and administrative issues has been emphasized in universities and colleges across the country repeatedly since the First Education Commission (1964-66). Actual practice in Madhya Pradesh — as in other states — shows that colleges have little autonomy in any of the matters noted above, and thereby, little control over key decisions regarding quality improvement (even when they are labelled as autonomous). Often, universities too have limited autonomy from their respective government in these matters. At the college-level, the problem has been compounded by the system of affiliation, whereby every college must be affiliated to a university. Such top-down control constrains the ability of colleges to design labor-market relevant curricula and conduct examinations in a timely manner. Importantly, the need to seek permission from a higher entity at every stage limits faculty motivation and innovation.

      1. Inadequate resources and inefficient systems/practices: MP’s higher education system suffers from a shortage of human resources as well as financial resources. Government colleges in MP suffer from high faculty vacancy rates; nearly 30% of the 8,000 posts sanctioned by the state government were vacant in 2012. In terms of financial resources, although the total budget on higher and technical education has more than doubled between 2009 and 2014 from $151.12 million to $313.4 million and average utilization has exceeded 100 percent over the period, project preparatory work suggests that funding will both need to increase as well as be better managed if MP is to meet its goals in higher education.2 Importantly, there are no clear funding mechanisms/ performance-based criteria regarding central and state funding. Further, there are key shortcomings in audit systems, inadequate computerization of internal FM systems and large vacancies of non-teaching staff, as a result of which much of the administrative work gets assigned to the already over-burdened teaching staff. Transition rates of students from one year to the next, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, are low, with the drop-out rate being the highest between the first and the second years of study. Finally, the tendency to open colleges without a careful analysis of costs and benefits has meant that institutions are small in size, with average enrollment at 609 students (all-India average is 707). This puts a fundamental constraint on quality improvement since most institutions do not have a critical mass of students (and therefore budget) or qualified faculty to offer quality education and other student services, and carry out research.

      1. Poor governance, leadership and accountability: As in most states in India, the higher education system in MP is characterized by a series of governance challenges. First, limited autonomy means that a university vice-chancellor or college principal has little flexibility in making key management decisions or in choosing his/her own administrative or teaching staff. Second, the affiliation system has reduced the relationship between universities and affiliating colleges to a minimalistic administrative one. One consequence is that a single university with nearly a hundred colleges affiliated to it imposes the same curriculum and examinations on all; individual colleges cannot adapt curricula to the needs and interests of their students. Third, there is little coordination between different state higher education entities and the Department of Higher Education (DHE), between the UGC and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), and between colleges and universities. Fourth, quality assurance procedures are weak or non-existent. At present, less than 5 percent of colleges in the state are accredited by NAAC3 despite a major push in recent years. Finally, the system is characterized by rampant politicization, with appointments of vice-chancellors, faculty and non-teaching staff open to political influence, weakening the ability of the system to function on a merit-based transparent manner.

      1. The private HE is fairly substantial in MP. As of 2012-13, 54% of colleges and over a third of higher education students in MP study at private unaided institutions which receive no financial support from the GOMP. Both the government and private HE sectors have grown rapidly in recent years; however, the core issues of quality and relevance remain concerns for both parts of the sector.



      1. The development objective of the proposed project is to improve student outcomes in selected higher education institutions and to increase the effectiveness of the higher education system in Madhya Pradesh.

      1. Implementation Area: The project shall be implemented across the state (51 districts) including in districts inhabited by the tribal population groups.

      1. Project Beneficiaries: Project interventions will benefit all higher education students enrolled in Universities and Colleges that are overseen by the Department of Higher Education (DHE), their faculty, administrators and the officers of the DHE, the State Higher Education Council (SHEC), the RUSA Project Directorate which will be the main implementing agency of the project, members of Governing Bodies in Colleges and Universities, and other relevant key bodies in the higher education sector. It is expected that approximately 1 million students, 10,000 academic staff, and 1400 administrators and officers in nearly 200 government colleges and university departments and key state entities will benefit directly from project interventions. Indirect beneficiaries will include employers (both within and outside the state) who will have a more skilled higher education graduates’ pool to choose from, households who can expect higher income streams in the future due to the earnings of more productive graduates, and investors who can benefit from the greater presence of higher quality human capital and research output in the state. The MPHEQIP will also contribute to filling public goods gaps in the state by strengthening the information and coordination networks between higher education institutions, potential and current students, administrators and employers and investors. Improving opportunities for access to good quality education, the MPHEQIP will contribute to more equitable distribution of higher education resources to students belonging to disadvantaged groups.

      1. Results Indicators: Progress towards meeting the PDO goals will be assessed using the following key performance indicators (KPIs):

• On time graduation rates of undergraduate students (disaggregated by gender/SC/ST)

• Student satisfaction levels of those in final year of studies

• Number of HEIs which are accredited by NAAC

• Number of HEIs which publish an annual report in the prescribed format

• Number of project beneficiaries

    1. PROJECT DESCRIPTION: The MPHEQIP has three components: (i) Component 1: Grants support to HEIs for improving institutional performance along the following dimensions - excellence, equity, employability, access, and governance, (ii) Component 2: State Level Initiatives to strengthen sector governance, and (iii) Component 3: Improving System Management.

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