School: name: academic writing



Download 27 Kb.
Date13.12.2016
Size27 Kb.
#3758
  • SCHOOL:
  • NAME:
  • ACADEMIC WRITING
  • DATE:
  • OCTOBER – FEBRUARY 2010
  • Languages

FIRST BIMESTER

  • FIRST BIMESTER

PARAGRAPH

  • PARAGRAPH
    • It is a group of related sentences that discuss usually only one idea
    • It can be short (one sentence) or it can be long (ten sentences)
    • The number of sentences is not important since it depends on the number we need in order to develop the main idea clearly
    • It may be one part of a longer piece of writing such as an essay or a book
  • How do we mark a paragraph?
  • By indenting the first word about a half inch (five spaces on a typewriter or computer)
  • Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics. First of all, gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion. Therefore, it is suitable for jewerly, coins, and ornamental purposes. Gold never needs to be polished and will remain beautiful forever. For example, a Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was made 25 centuries ago. Another important characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science. For many years, it has been used in hundreds of industrial applications, such as photography and dentistry. The most recent use of gold is in astronauts’ suits. Astronauts wear gold-plated heat shields for protection when they go outside spaceships in space. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.
  • PARAGRAPH
  • Topic sentence: It states the main idea of the paragraph
  • Supporting sentences: They explain the topic sentence by giving more information about it
  • Concluding sentence: It signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader important points to remember
  • “Concluding sentences are customary for stand-alone paragraphs. Paragraphs that are parts of a longer piece of writing usually do not need concluding sentences”

THE TOPIC SENTENCE:

  • THE TOPIC SENTENCE:
  • Every good paragraph has a topic sentence
  • It is the most important sentence in a paragraph
  • It indicates what the paragraph is going to discuss
  • It is helpful for the writer and the reader
  • It is a complete sentence
  • Important points to remember
  • 2. It contains both a topic and a controlling idea
  • 3. It is the most general statement in the paragraph. It does not give any specific details.
  • Working with children Working with children requires patience and love
  • Being a successful student takes motivation and discipline
  • TOPIC CONTROLLING IDEA
  • The Arabic origin of many English words is not always obvious

Position of topic sentences

  • The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. (pag. 5)
  • Sometimes a topic sentence comes at the end. In this case, the paragraph often begins with a series of examples or facts. The topic sentence at the end is the conclusion from the examples or facts. (pag. 6)

The topic: It names the subject of the paragraph

  • The topic: It names the subject of the paragraph
  • Topic Sentence
  • The controlling idea: It limits or controls the topic to a specific area that you can discuss in the space of a single paragraph
  • The two parts of a topic sentence
  • For example: Convenience foods are easy to prepare
  • TOPIC CONTROLLING IDEA

SUPPORTING SENTECES

  • They explain or prove the topic sentence. They provide specific details that support the topic sentence.
  • There are several kinds of specific details:
      • Examples
      • Statistics
      • Quotations

CONCLUDING SENTENCE

  • It signals the end of the paragraph
  • It leaves the reader with the most important ideas to remember
    • By summarizing the main points of the paragraph
    • By repeating the topic sentence in different words

A paragraph does not always need a concluding sentence.

  • A paragraph does not always need a concluding sentence.
  • For single paragraphs, especially long ones, a concluding sentence is helpful to the reader because it is a reminder of the important point.
  • A concluding sentence is not needed for every paragraph in a multiparagraph essay

End-of-paragraph signals followed by a comma

  • End-of-paragraph signals followed by a comma
  • Finally, Lastly,
  • In brief, Therefore,
  • In conclusion, Thus,
  • Indeed, To sum up,
  • In short,

End-of-paragrpah signals not followed by a comma

  • End-of-paragrpah signals not followed by a comma
  • The evidence suggests that ….
  • There can be no doubt that ….
  • These examples show that ….
  • We can see that ….

UNITY

  • UNITY
    • It is an important element of a good paragraph
    • It means that a paragraph discusses one and only one main idea from beginning to end.
      • For example: The advantages of owning a compact car
          • The disadvantages
  • Gas economy and low maintenance costs
  • Gas economy and easier parking
    • Every supporting sentence must directly explain or prove the main idea.

COHERENCE

  • COHERENCE
    • It is an element of a good paragraph
    • It comes from the Latin verb cohere that means “hold together”
    • It means that the movement from one sentence to the next must be logical and smooth.
    • There must not be sudden jumps. Each sentence should flow smoothly into the next one.
  • There are four ways to achieve coherence:
  • 2. Use consistent pronouns
  • 3. Use transition signals to link ideas
  • 1. Repeat key nouns
  • 4. Arrange your ideas in logical order

REPETITION OF KEY NOUNS

  • REPETITION OF KEY NOUNS
    • It is the easiest way to achieve coherence
    • There is no fixed rule about how often to repeat key nouns or when to substitute pronouns.
    • We should repeat a key noun instead of using a pronoun when the meaning is not clear.
  • If we don’t wish to repeat a key noun again and again, we can use synonyms or expressions with the same meaning
  • When using pronouns, it is important to make sure we use the same person and number throughtout our paragraph.
  • Don’t change of person or number.
  • CONSISTENT PRONOUNS

TRANSITION SIGNALS

  • They are like traffic signs that tell the reader when to go forward, turn around, slow down, and stop.
  • They are expressions such as first, finally, and however, or phrases such as in conclusion, on the other hand, and as a result. Subordinators (when, although), coordinators (and, but), adjectives (another, additional), and prepositions (because of, in spite of) can serve as transition signals.
  • They give a paragraph coherence because they guide our reader from one idea to the next.

It will depend on our topic and purpose. It is important to arrange our idea in some kind of order that is logical to a reader accustomed to the English way of writing.

  • It will depend on our topic and purpose. It is important to arrange our idea in some kind of order that is logical to a reader accustomed to the English way of writing.
    • Chronoligical order: It refers to order by a sequence of events or steps in a process
    • Logical division of ideas: It refer to a topic that is divided into parts, and each part is discussed separately.
    • Comparison / contrast: It refers to the simmilarities and/or differences between two or more item that will be discused.
  • LOGICAL ORDER

SUPPORTING DETAILS: FACTS, QUOTATIONS, AND STATISTICS

  • SUPPORTING DETAILS: FACTS, QUOTATIONS, AND STATISTICS
    • Academic writing normally requires that you support your ideas and opinions with facts, statistics, quotations, and similar kinds of information. It is possible for you to get these kinds of supporting details from outside sources such as:
      • Books
      • Magazines
      • Newspapers
      • Web sites
      • Personal interviews, and so on

FACTS VERSUS OPINIONS

  • FACTS VERSUS OPINIONS
    • Opinions are subjective statements based on a person’s beliefs or attitudes. They are not acceptable as support.
    • English is an easy language to learn
    • Nevertheless, it is acceptable to express opinions in academic writing. So, if we express an opinion we must support it with facts.
    • Facts are objective statements of truths
    • At sea level, water boils at 100 degrees Celcius
  • Example:
  • Fashion models are unnaturally thin.
  • The average model weights 25 percent less than the average woman of the same height.
  • Photographs of ultrathin fashion models send the wrong message to girls and young women.
  • Opinion
  • Fact, but needs proof
  • Specific supporting detail

USING OUTSIDE SOURCES

  • USING OUTSIDE SOURCES
    • Personal experience
    • Gather quotations and statistics by performing an experiment, taking a survey, or interviewing people
    • In the library
    • On the Internet
  • Where can we find specific supporting details to support our ideas?
  • We can quote it
  • There are three ways to insert outside information into your own writing
  • 2. We can summarize it
  • 3. We can paraphrase it

PLAGIARISM

  • It is using someone else’s words or ideas as if they were our own, and it is a serious offense.
  • When we use information from an outside ource without acknowledging that source, we are guilty of plagiarism.
  • One way to avoid plagiarism is to always put quotation marks around words that you copy exactly.
    • You do not need to use quotation marks if you change the words
  • We are guilty of plagiarism if we fail to cite the source of outside information even if we are paraphrasing

Citing a source is a two-step process

  • Citing a source is a two-step process
    • Insert a short reference in parentheses at the end or at the beginning of each piece of borrowed information. This short reference is called an in-text citation
    • Prepare a list describing all our sources completely. This list is title “Works Cited” and appears as the last page of your paper.
  • To cite a source means:
  • to tell where you got the information

QUOTATIONS

  • A quotation can be a sentence, several sentences or a short paragraph.
  • Quotations from reliable and knowledgeable sources are good supporting details.
  • There are two kinds of quotations
  • Direct: We copy another person’s exact words and enclose them in quotation marks

If we want to introduce borrowed information we can use the phrase according to or a reporting verb such as: assert declare maintain report claim insist mention say write suggest state

Indirect Quotations

  • They are called reported speech because what the speaker said or wrote is reported indirectly without using quotation marks.
  • Indirect quotations are introduced by the previously mentioned reporting verbs, and the word that is used to clarify.

STATISTICS

  • They are good supporting details which can be used with the previously mentioned reporting verbs when citing.

ESSAY

  • According to Oshima and Hogue (2006) “an essay is a piece of writing several paragraphs long. It is about one topic, just as a paragraph is.”
  • The principles of organization of a paragraph and an essay are the same. For this reason, if you can write a good paragraph, you can write a good assay.
  • An assay must have unity and coherence.

The Three Parts of an Essay

  • ESSAY
  • INTRODUCTION
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BODY
  • CONCLUSION

Introduction

  • Introduction
  • It contains two parts:
      • A few general statements (important to attrack our reader’s attention)
      • A thesis statement (necessary to state the main idea of the essay)
  • Body
  • It contains one or more paragraphs:
      • Each one of the paragraphs develops a subdivision of the topic. So, the numer of paragraphs will vary.
  • Conclusion
      • It consists of a summary of the main points discussed in the body

The Introductory Paragraph

  • General statements
    • They introduce the general topic
    • They attrack the reader’s interest
  • Thesis statement
    • It states the specific topic
    • It may lists subtopics of the main topic
    • It may indicate the pattern of organization of the essay
    • It is normally the last sentence in the introductory paragraph

Body paragraphs

  • They should be organized according to some sort of pattern such as chronological order or comparison/contrast.
  • Basic pattern:
  • Logical division of ideas
  • It is useful to divide our topic into subtopics
  • and then discuss subtopic in a separate paragraph

Concluding paragraph

  • Concluding paragraph
  • It is the final paragraph and has three purposes:
      • It signals the end of the essay.
      • It remains the reader of the main points. It can be done in one of the following two ways:
          • Summarizing the subtopics
          • Paraphrasing the thesis
      • It leaves the reader with our final thoughts on the topic.

Essay Outlining

  • Before writing an essay it is important to organize and plan before beginning to write.
  • Outline:
  • It organizes our thoughts and keeps us on track once you begin to write

Chronological Order

  • According to Oshima and Hogue (2006)”it is a way of organizing ideas in the order of their occurrence in time. Chronological order has all sorts of uses.” We can use it to:
    • tell stories,
    • relate historical events
    • write biographies and autobiographies
    • explain processes and procedures
    • Such essays are called “how to” essays or process essays.

How to organize a process essay

  • According to Oshima and Hogue (2006, the following three keys helps us to organize a process essay.
    • Discuss the steps in the order in which they occur.
    • Write a thesis statement that names the process and indicates time order.
    • Use chronological order signal words and phrases to indicate the time sequence

The process essay needs a thesis statement that indicates the time order.

  • The process essay needs a thesis statement that indicates the time order.
  • Expressions:
  • The process of …
  • The procedure for …
  • Example:
  • Heating water by solar radiation is a simple process.
  • Sometimes, the thesis statement tells the number of teps in the process and may even name the steps. (see page 84)

In a process essay it is important the use of transition signals since they help us to be very clear about the sequence of steps.

  • In a process essay it is important the use of transition signals since they help us to be very clear about the sequence of steps.
    • Chronological Order Signals Words and Phrases
  • First, first of all, finally, now, etc
    • Subordinators
  • After, before, when, etc
    • Others
  • For five minutes, in 2005, a few weeks later

Cause and Effect Essays

  • Cause and effect essay is another common pattern of essay organization. It is used to discuss the reasons (causes) for something, the results (effects), or both causes and effects.
  • Cause/Effect
  • Chain organization

Block organization

  • Block organization
    • First, you can discuss all the causes as a block (the number of paragraphs will depend on the number of causes). Then, you can discuss all the effects together as a block.
    • You can discuss either causes or effects first
    • You can discuss only causes or only effects.

Chain organization

  • Chain organization
    • In this pattern causes and effects are linked to each other in a chain.
  • One event causes a second event, which in turn causes a third event, and so on.
  • According to Oshima and Hogue (2006) “Chain organization usually works better than block organization when the causes and effects are too closely linked to be separated

Words and Phrases that show cause/effect relationship

  • Cause signal words
  • Coordinators: for
  • Subordinators: because, since, as
  • Others: to result from, due to, the effect of, ect.

Effect signal words

  • Effect signal words
  • Transition words or phrases: as a result, consequently, etc.
  • Coordinators: so
  • Others: the cause of, the reason for, etc.

Comparison/Contrast Essays

  • We use them to explain the similarities and the differences between two items.
  • How to organize it?
  • By using point-by-point organization
  • Each point of comparison becomes the topic of a paragraph
      • Introduction: Thesis statement: One way to decide between two job offers is to compare them on important points
      • Body
          • Salary
          • Benefits
          • Opportunities for advancement
      • Conclusion

By arranging all the similarities together in a block and all the differences together in a block.

  • By arranging all the similarities together in a block and all the differences together in a block.
      • Introduction
      • Thesis statement: One way to decide between two job offers is to compare them on important points.
      • Body
          • Similarities
          • 1. Benefits
          • 2. Commute distance from home
          • Differences
          • 1. Salary
          • 2. Opportunities for advancement
          • 3. Workplace atmosphere
      • Conclusion

Comparison and Contrast Signal Words

  • Comparison and Contrast Signal Words
  • Comparison
  • Transition words and phrases: similarly, also, etc.
  • Subordinators: just as, as
  • Coordinators: and, both …. and, etc.
  • Others: to compare to/with

Contrast

  • Contrast
  • Transition words and phrases: however, nevertheless, etc.
  • Subordinators: although, though, etc
  • Coordinators: but, yet
  • Others: despite (+noun), in spite of (+noun)

Paraphrase

    • According to Oshima and Hogue (2006), paraphrasing means rewriting information from an outside source in your own words without changing the meaning.
    • A paraphrase is almost as long as the original since in your rewriting you include all or nearly all of the content of the original passage.

How to write a good paraphrase?

      • Use your own words and sentence structure
      • Your paraphrase can be approximately the same length as the original.
      • You do not need to change the meaning of the original.

Summarizing

  • Refering to the main ideas in as few of your own words as possible. It is shorter than the paraphrase.
  • How to write a good summary?
      • Use your own words and sentence structure
      • Include the most important points and main suppoting points.
      • You do not need to change the meaning of the original

THANK YOU

  • THANK YOU



Download 27 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©www.sckool.org 2023
send message

    Main page