Review of the curriculum 3

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Table of Contents


1. Preface 2

2. 1. Society and social development as the keystones of sustainable development 2

2.1. 1.1. Content 2

2.2. 1.2. Review of the curriculum 3

2.3. 1.3. Questions, tasks 10

3. 2. Global demographical processes, problems I. 11

3.1. 2.1. Content 11

3.2. 2.2. Review of the curriculum 11

3.3. 2.3. Questions, tasks 20

4. 3. Global demographical processes, problems II. 20

4.1. 3.1. Content 20

4.2. 3.2. Review of the curriculum 20

4.3. 3.3. Questions, tasks 26

4.4. 4.1. Content 27

4.5. 4.2. Review of the curriculum 27

4.6. 4.3. Questions, tasks 35

4.7. 5.1. Content 35

4.8. 5.2. Review of the curriculum 35

4.9. 5.3. Questions, tasks 41

4.10. 6.1. Content 42

4.11. 6.2. Review of the curriculum 42

4.12. 6.3. Questions, tasks 52

5. 7. Regional characterics of international migration 52

5.1. 7.1. Content 52

5.2. 7.2. Review of the curriculum 52

5.3. 7.3. Questions, tasks 60

5.4. 8.1. Content 60

5.5. 8.2. Review of the curriculum 60

5.6. 8.3. Questions, tasks 68

6. 9. Problems of urbanising world II. 68

6.1. 9.1. Content 68

6.2. 9.2. Review of the curriculum 68

6.3. 9.3. Questions, tasks 71

7. 10. Human resources, human resource development – the role of human factors in the socio-economic development 71

7.1. 10.1. Content 71

7.2. 10.2. Review of the curriculum 71

7.3. 10.3. Questions, tasks 77

8. 11. Socio-spatial disparities in educational attainment of the population 77

8.1. 11.1. Content 77

8.2. 11.2. Review of the curriculum 77

8.3. 11.3. Questions, tasks 84

9. 12. The cultural and cultivational polarization of society 85

9.1. 12.1. Content 85

9.2. 12.2. Review of the curriculum 85

9.3. 12.3. Questions, tasks 89

10. References 89






society as resource and risk I.








Dr. Antal Tóth




Eszterházy Károly College


This course is realized as a part of the TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0038 project.

1. Preface

Geographer MSc started in 2011/12 school year in the Department of Geography, in the Eszterházy Károly College. Students can choose between two unique specializations: resource and risk analysis and regional manager.

Students of geographer specialized in resource and risk analysis will be able to explore new resources, the sustainable utilization of them, in addition the recognition and rational moderation of global and local environmental risks.

Besides natural and physical geographical knowledge the integration of topics relating to society and social environment into the educational program is provided, since these are necessary in the world of 21th century that can be characterized with the appreciation of human resources and risks as well. 

Course of society as resource and risk is involved into the differentiated professional knowledge of the specialization, in the third semester as lecture, in the fourth as seminar.

Present e-teaching material is made for the lecture of the course, it is the continuation of seminar e-teaching material.

However many literature are available in the topic, according to our knowledge there is not any academic textbook or lecture note, which would present knowledge relating to society with similar thematic and aspect.

I would like to express my thanks for my helpful and supporting colleagues, who contributed to make this lecture note, Dr. György Kajati associate professor, Zsuzsa Piskóti-Kovács and Enikő Kovács junior researchers.

2. 1. Society and social development as the keystones of sustainable development

2.1. 1.1. Content

Definition of the society; explanation of sustainability and sustainable development; role of the society in the process of sustainable development.

2.2. 1.2. Review of the curriculum

The definition of the society

There is no absolute definition about the society.

“A society is a group of people involved with each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.”[1]

In common sense, the society indicates a large group of people, whose members live together according to a sense of order. The term society came from the Latin word societas, which in turn was derived from the noun socius.

“The social sciences use the term of the society on semi-closed (or semi-opened) groups of people who constitute a social system; where most of the interactions occur between the group members and here take place the social influence and social impact as well. More abstractly, the society is the network of social relations between independent entities. The term society, also often used as communities based on reciprocal relationship system.”[2]

The political perspective of the term often means the community of citizens of a country. The phrasing of Giddens, A. (1997) is that “The society is a group of people who are the subjection of a given political rule; living in separate areas; and having a different identity compared to the groups of people around them.”

Sociologists place societies into the following categories: hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agrarian, urban, industrial and post-industrial societies.

Sustainability and sustainable development

The term of “sustainability” or “sustainable development” first appeared in the international literature in the early 1980s. The monograph[3] of Lester R. Brown about the sustainable development of the society got general recognition, which was published in 1981. In this monograph, Brown linked the growth of the population with the utilization of natural resources; by to solve the minimizing of the quality and quantity destruction of the natural environment.

By the decision of the United Nations General Assembly in 1985, the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) started to operate with independent professionals by the leading of the Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland. The Commission released its report in 1987, called “Our Common Future” (also known as the Brutland Report); outlined the possibility of a new era of economic growth, that builds global implementation of sustainable development; preserves natural resources; and which could be the solution to overcome the pervasive poverty in most of the developing countries as well.[4]

The report defined the term of sustainable development: “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Transition to Sustainability in the 21st Century: The Contribution of Science and Technology: a Statement of the World's Scientific Academies; Tokyo, 2000).[5] The aim is to create harmony between man and his environment, together with people-to-people relations (Rakonczai, J. 2003)

According to the phrasing of Herman Daly: “the sustainable development is the achieving of continuous social welfare; increasing without exceeding the limits of ecological carrying capability.”

Sustainable development is an activity designated to reach and maintain social progress – equitable living conditions, social welfare – and economic development; and preserve environmental conditions. So the sustainable development recognizes and answers the purpose to ensure the equal right to the proper standard of living of the successive generations.[6]

The sustainable development is based on three pillars: social, economical and environmental pillars (Figure 1.1). All the three should be taking into account together with their interactions; they have to be weighted up in the course of different development strategies, elaboration of programs; concrete actions and arrangements.[7]

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