Psychology chapter 15 Personality What is Personality?



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PSYCHOLOGY

  • Chapter 15
  • Personality

What is Personality?

  • Personality
    • an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
    • basic perspectives
      • Psychoanalytic
      • Humanistic

The Psychoanalytic Perspective

  • From Freud’s theory which proposes that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality

The Psychoanalytic Perspective

  • Freudian Slips…. “When you say one thing and mean your mother” Accidents reveal our unconscious thoughts and desires.

The Psychoanalytic Perspective

  • Psychoanalysis
    • Freud’s theory of personality that attributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
    • techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

The Psychoanalytic Perspective

  • Free Association
    • in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious
    • person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

The Psychoanalytic Perspective

  • Unconscious
    • according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories
    • contemporary viewpoint- information processing of which we are unaware

Personality Structure

  • Id
    • contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy
    • strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
    • operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

Personality Structure

  • Superego

Personality Structure

  • Ego
    • the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality
    • mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality
    • operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

Personality Structure

  • Freud’s idea of the mind’s structure

Personality Development

  • Psychosexual Stages
    • the childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
  • Oedipus Complex
    • a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

Personality Development

  • Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
  • Stage Focus
  • Oral Pleasure centers on the mouth--
  • (0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewing
  • Anal Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder
  • (18-36 months) elimination; coping with demands for control
  • Phallic Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with
  • (3-6 years) incestuous sexual feelings
  • Latency Dormant sexual feelings
  • (6 to puberty)
  • Genital Maturation of sexual interests
  • (puberty on)

Personality Development

  • Identification
    • the process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos
  • Fixation
    • a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved

Defense Mechanisms

  • Defense Mechanisms
    • the ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
  • Repression
    • the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

Defense Mechanisms

  • Denial
    • Refusal to accept a circumstance or situation exists

Defense Mechanisms

  • Regression
    • defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

Defense Mechanisms

  • Reaction Formation
    • defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
    • people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings

Defense Mechanisms

  • Projection
    • defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
  • Rationalization
    • defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions

Defense Mechanisms

  • Displacement
    • defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
    • as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet

Defense Mechanisms

  • Sublimation
    • defense mechanism that shifts unacceptable social behaviors of aggression toward a more acceptable social behavior
    • Angry people take boxing lessons instead of just punching people.

Assessing the Unconscious

  • Projective Test
    • a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    • a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

Assessing the Unconscious--TAT

Assessing the Unconscious

  • Rorschach Inkblot Test
    • the most widely used projective test
    • a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach
    • seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

Assessing the Unconscious--Rorschach

Neo-Freudians

  • Alfred Adler
    • importance of childhood social tension
  • Karen Horney
    • sought to balance Freud’s masculine biases
  • Carl Jung
    • emphasized the collective unconscious
      • concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history

Carl Jung

  • Added the collective unconscious
    • The part of the mind that contains inherited instincts, memories and symbols that are common to everyone
  • Archetypes
    • The universal symbols that all people inherit
      • Examples: The Self: how to represent your personality to the world
      • The Shadow: The “darker side” of your personality

Alfred Adler

  • Added the inferiority complex
    • Develop our personality by trying to compensate for weaknesses and avoid feeling inadequate

Alfred Adler

  • Birth Order Research
    • Personality is reflective of the order in which siblings are born

Humanistic Perspective

  • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
    • studied self-actualization processes of productive and healthy people (e.g., Lincoln)

Humanistic Perspective

  • Self-Actualization
    • the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved
    • the motivation to fulfill one’s potential

Humanistic Perspective

Humanistic Perspective

  • Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
    • focused on growth and fulfillment of individuals
      • genuineness
      • acceptance
      • empathy

Humanistic Perspective

  • Unconditional Positive Regard
    • an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
  • Self-Concept
    • all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?”

Biological Perspective

  • Endomorph -The Endomorph is physically quite 'round', and is typified as the 'barrel of fun' person. They tend to have:
  • Wide hips and narrow shoulders, which makes them rather pear-shaped. Quite a lot of fat spread across the body, including upper arms and thighs. They have quite slim ankles and wrists.
  • Psychologically, the endomorph is Sociable, Fun-loving, Love of food, Tolerant, Even-tempered, Good humored, Relaxed, With a love of comfort
  • William Sheldon - three personalities based on their physical make-up.
  • Ectomorph - The Ectomorph is a form of opposite of the Endomorph. Physically, they tend to have:
  • Narrow shoulders and hipsA thin and narrow face, with a high forehead. A thin and narrow chest and abdomen. Thin legs and arms. Very little body fat
  • Psychologically they are Self-conscious, Private, Introverted, Inhibited, Socially anxious, Artistic, Intense, Emotionally restrained, Thoughtful
    • Mesomorph -The mesomorph is somewhere between the round endomorph and the thin ectomorph. Physically, they have the more 'desirable' body, and have:
  • Large head, broad shoulders and narrow waist (wedge-shaped). Muscular body, with strong forearms and and thighs. Very little body fat. They are generally considered as 'well-proportioned'.
  • Psychologically, they are Adventurous, Courageous, Indifferent to what others think or want, Assertive/bold, Zest for physical activity, Competitive, With a desire for power/dominance, And a love of risk/chance

Social-Cognitive Perspective

  • Social-Cognitive Perspective
    • views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons and their social context

Social-Cognitive Perspective

Social-Cognitive Perspective

  • Personal Control
    • our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless
  • Reciprocal Determinism
    • Albert Bandura (The Bobo Doll guy)
    • behavior and conduct of a person is influenced by his social environment as well as personal factors. Also the behavior of a person can create an impact on his surroundings

Social-Cognitive Perspective

  • External Locus of Control
    • the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determine one’s fate
  • Internal Locus of Control
      • the perception that one controls one’s own fate

Social-Cognitive Perspective

  • Learned Helplessness
    • the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

Social-Cognitive Perspective

  • Learned Helplessness
  • Uncontrollable
  • bad events
  • Perceived
  • lack of control
  • Generalized
  • helpless behavior

Social-Cognitive Perspective

  • Positive Psychology
    • the scientific study of optimal human functioning
    • aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive

Exploring the Self

  • Spotlight Effect
    • overestimating others noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
    • Most often in teens
  • Self Esteem
    • one’s feelings of high or low self-worth
  • Self-Serving Bias
    • readiness to perceive oneself favorably

Exploring the Self

  • Individualism
    • giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
  • Collectivism
    • giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly

Exploring the Self

  • Morality Defined by individuals Defined by social networks
  • (self-based) (duty-based)
  • Attributing Behavior reflects one’s personality Behavior reflects social
  • behaviors and attitudes and roles
  • Concept Individualism Collectivism
  • Self Independent Interdependent
  • (identity from individual traits) identity from belonging)
  • Life task Discover and express one’s Maintain connections, fit in
  • uniqueness
  • What matters Me--personal achievement and We-group goals and solidarity;
  • fullfillment; rights and liberties social responsibilities and
  • relationships
  • Coping method Change reality Accommodate to reality
  • Relationships Many, often temporary or casual; Few, close and enduring;
  • confrontation acceptable harmony valued

Gordon Allport

  • The Origin of Trait Theory
  • In an essay entitled Pattern and Growth in Personality, Gordon Allport recounted his experience of meeting psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. In 1922, Allport traveled to Vienna, Austria to meet the famous psychoanalyst. After entering Freud's office, he sat down nervously and told a story about a young boy he had seen on the train during his travels to Vienna. The boy, Allport explained, was afraid of getting dirty and refused to sit where a dirty-looking man had previously sat. Allport theorized that the child had acquired the behavior from his mother, who appeared to be very domineering.
  • Freud studied Allport for a moment and then asked, "And was that little boy you?”
  • Allport viewed the experience as an attempt by Freud to turn a simple observation into an analysis of Allport's supposed unconscious memory of his own childhood. The experience would later serve as a reminder that psychoanalysis tended to dig too deeply. Behaviorism, Allport suggested, did not dig deeply enough. Instead, Allport chose to reject both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and embraced his own unique theory of personality.
  • Began trait theories by identifying common traits - traits that apply to everyone and cardinal traits - traits that apply to one’s persona(i.e. Scrooge)

Contemporary Research-- The Trait Perspective

  • Trait
    • a characteristic pattern of behavior
  • Personality Inventory
    • a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors
    • used to assess selected personality traits

Contemporary Research-- The Trait Perspective

  • Barnum Effect : is a term that is used in psychology.  It is the tendency for people to accept very general or vague characterizations of themselves and take them to be accurate.  A good example of this can be seen when people believe what is said about them in psychometric tests, personality profiles, astrological predictions, and so on. This phenomenon is named after P. T. Barnum, who believed that a good circus had "a little something for everybody.”

The Trait Perspective

  • Hans and Sybil Eysenck use two primary personality factors as axes for describing personality variation
  • UNSTABLE
  • STABLE
  • choleric
  • melancholic
  • phlegmatic
  • sanguine
  • INTROVERTED
  • EXTRAVERTED
  • Moody
  • Anxious
  • Rigid
  • Sober
  • Pessimistic
  • Reserved
  • Unsociable
  • Quiet
  • Sociable
  • Outgoing
  • Talkative
  • Responsive
  • Easygoing
  • Lively
  • Carefree
  • Leadership
  • Passive
  • Careful
  • Thoughtful
  • Peaceful
  • Controlled
  • Reliable
  • Even-tempered
  • Calm
  • Touchy
  • Restless
  • Aggressive
  • Excitable
  • Changeable
  • Impulsive
  • Optimistic
  • Active

The Trait Perspective

  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    • the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests
    • originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use)
    • now used for many other screening purposes

The Trait Perspective

  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test profile
  • Hysteria
  • (uses symptoms to solve problems)
  • Masculinity/femininity
  • (interests like those of other sex)
  • T-score
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
  • 0 30 40 50 60 70 80
  • Hypochondriasis
  • (concern with body symptoms)
  • Depression
  • (pessimism, hopelessness)
  • Psychopathic deviancy
  • (disregard for social standards)
  • Paranoia
  • (delusions, suspiciousness)
  • Psychasthenia
  • (anxious, guilt feelings)
  • Schizophrenia
  • (withdrawn, bizarre thoughts)
  • Hypomania
  • (overactive, excited, impulsive)
  • Social introversion
  • (shy, inhibited)
  • Clinically
  • significant
  • range
  • After
  • treatment
  • (no scores
  • in the clinically
  • significant range)
  • Before
  • treatment
  • (anxious,
  • depressed,
  • and
  • displaying
  • deviant
  • behaviors)

The Trait Perspective

  • Myers-Briggs Test
  • Expanded on the Eyesenck theory
  • evaluates personality type and preference based on the four Jungian psychological types:
    • extraversion (E) or introversion (I)
    • sensing (S) or intuition (N)
    • thinking (T) or feeling (F)
    • judging (J) or perceiving (P)
  • Your personality type consisted of your four letters

The Trait Perspective

  • The “Big Five” Personality Factors
  • Trait Dimension Description
  • Emotional Stability Calm versus anxious
  • Secure versus insecure
  • Self-satisfied versus self-pitying
  • Extraversion Sociable versus retiring
  • Fun-loving versus sober
  • Affectionate versus reserved
  • Agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless
  • Trusting versus suspicious
  • Helpful versus uncooperative
  • Conscientiousness Organized versus disorganized
  • Careful versus careless
  • Disciplined versus impulsive

The Trait Perspective

  • Personality researchers have proposed that there are five basic dimensions of personality. the five categories
  • Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness.
  • Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors.
  • Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details.
  • Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness.
  • Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests.

The Trait Perspective



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