Questions by Jordan Brownstein, Ani Perumalla, Emma Stevens, Sam Rombro, Sarang Yeola, Will Alston, Weijia Cheng, Naveed Chowdhury, Justin Hawkins
1. One of these creatures supported a ruby that supported an angel that supported the world, and he himself was supported by the fish, Bahamut. A child that became one of these creatures was born from a fire with a body covered in armor of diamonds. That one of these animals served as (*) Shiva’s mount. Besides Nandi, another of these animals had a white scarab mark under its tongue. That one of these animals was a herald of Ptah named Apis. Poseidon sent a white one of these creatures to Minos. Daedalus constructed a device for Pasiphae in order for her to have sex with one of these animals. For 10 points, name this animal, the father of the Minotaur.
ANSWER: bulls [prompt on “cattle” or “cows”]
2. A pair of Scotsmen named Chapman and Myllar brought one of these objects to Edinburgh, and Aldus Manutius used one in Venice. The earliest products of these objects are called incunabula. The creator of Recalls of the Histories of Troy, William Caxton, introduced this sort of device to England. The first of these devices utilized a (*) screw previously used in wine production and was developed in the city of Mainz. That one of these devices made the use of woodblocks obsolete and was based on movable type. For 10 points, name this technology invented by Johannes Gutenberg, who used it to create a 42-line Bible.
ANSWER: printing presses [or movable type until read; prompt on “printers” or “presses”]
3. A poem by this author asks “O, wilt thou therefore rise from me?” at the title time of day while another poem compares lovers lying in bed to “sepulchral statues.” This poet of “Break of Day” and “The Ecstasy” wrote a poem that begins by stating “For God’s sake hold your tongue, and let me love.” Another poem by this author states “thy firmness makes my circle just” after comparing souls to (*) compasses and commands “So let us melt, and make no noise.” A sonnet by this poet begins “Death, be not proud.” For 10 points, name this English metaphysical poet of “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning” and a bunch of Holy Sonnets.
ANSWER: John Donne
4. The West Buttress Route is the easiest way to climb this mountain. Chris McCandless starved to death in a park named for this mountain, which also features a pair of interlocking moose antlers. The longest glacier on the slopes of this mountain is the Kahiltna. This mountain’s indigenous name means “the tall one” in (*) Athabaskan languages. That name was officially adopted in August 2015 by order of President Obama. For 10 points, name this Alaskan mountain, the tallest peak in North America.
ANSWER: Denali [or Mount McKinley]
5. This compound can be synthesized in the Boudouard reaction, an important process in blast furnaces, and it is reacted with water to form hydrogen gas in a shift reaction. Four molecules of this compound combine with impure nickel in the Mond process. This compound binds to (*) myoglobin with an affinity 60 times higher than oxygen, and it similarly binds to hemoglobin with an affinity 230 times as high. This compound is a major component of vehicle exhaust, and can quickly kill you if you leave your car running in a small space. For 10 points, name this compound with formula CO.
ANSWER: carbon monoxide [or CO until read]
6. After renouncing his role in this event, Samuel Sewall authored the anti-slavery tract The Selling of Joseph. During this event, the concept of “effluvia” inspired the baking of cakes made of rye and urine, which were then fed to dogs. The tract Wonders of the Invisible World was written to defend its author, Cotton Mather, for his participation in these events. They used (*) spectral evidence, and began when Betty Parris and Abigail Williams blamed their bizarre behavior on the West Indian slave Tituba. For 10 points, name this series of hearings and executions targeting supposed sorcerers in a Massachusetts town.
ANSWER: Salem witch trials [or anything indicating a hunt for witches in Salem]
7. Work on this continent led Victor Turner to theorize that the liminal period of rites of passages produced a feeling called communitas. A text set on this continent discusses the example of a granary collapse and the ritual poisoning of chickens. Evans-Pritchard did fieldwork among the Nuer people on this continent. A book about an ethnic group from this continent with an introduction by (*) Malinowski controversially defends female genital mutilation. Melville Herskovits disputed the idea that people from this continent lost their culture on the Middle Passage. For 10 points, what continent’s Kikuyu people are the subject of Jomo Kenyatta’s Facing Mount Kenya?
8. The complaint of a musician from this country that he had nothing to play on his new viola inspired another composer to create a piece named for this country that was inspired by a Lord Byron poem. A musician from here dazzled audiences with his ability to play left and right handed pizzicato, as well as nearly three octaves on four strings. Hector Berlioz’s second symphony, titled (*) Harold in this country, was written at the encouragement of a musician from here who composed twenty-four difficult caprices for violin. For 10 points, name this country home to Niccolò Paganini and the most common language of musical notation.
9. In a poem in this language, a king helps the Armenians fight off an invasion of wild boars. A poem in this language begins “Listen to the reed and the tale it tells, / How it sings of separation.” This language was used for a poem which describes people outside a tavern yelling “Open then the door!” and also states “The Moving Finger writes; and, having writ, Moves on.” A (*) set of poems written in this language was translated into English by Edward Fitzgerald and contains the line “A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread—and Thou.” For 10 points, name this language used by Rumi, Omar Khayyam, and Ferdowsi, who wrote Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran.
ANSWER: Persian [or Farsi]
10. A constant named for Euler and Mascheroni is defined as the limit of the difference between the harmonic series and this function. Its Maclaurin series is not defined so its Taylor series is usually taken at x nought equals one. This function is commonly used as an example of integration by parts. Its integral is x times this function minus x, while the derivative of this function of x is (*) one over x. This function applied to a product can be written as the sum of this function applied to each term of the product. For 10 points, identify this function, the inverse of the exponential function.
ANSWER: natural logarithm [or ln; prompt on “logarithm”]
11. The first hosts of this network’s flagship program were Lee Leonard and George Grande. An analyst on this network was recently suspended for a tweet that compared Muslims to Nazis. One program on this network shows four journalists arguing in split-screen with host Tony Reali, who may award them points. This network aired a documentary about the 1994 murder of Colombian athlete Andres Escobar as part of its (*) “30 for 30” film series. Another show on this network is hosted by Michael Wilbon and Tony Kornheiser and is called Pardon the Interruption. For 10 points, name this cable television network that broadcasts SportsCenter.
12. An advisor to a king of this empire once saved his queen’s unborn child after she accidentally ate her husband’s poisoned food and authored a Machiavellian treatise on statecraft for that king, this empire’s founder. The ambassador Megasthenes wrote an account of this empire. This empire came to power by defeating the Nanda dynasty and was succeeded by the Sunga dynasty. A (*) pillar topped by four lion heads was created during this empire for a king who was inspired by his bloody conquest of Kalinga to issue many pacifistic “rock edicts.” This non-Gupta empire was founded by Chandragupta. For 10 points, name this ancient Indian empire ruled by Ashoka.
ANSWER: Maurya Empire [prompt on “Magadha Empire”]
13. In this novel, an old woman wins a prize for working on the same farm for 54 years at an agricultural show that climaxes with a bad fireworks display. A character in this novel falls ill after receiving a break-up letter in a basket of apricots, but later meets another love interest at the opera. The leg of a groom in this novel is (*) amputated after a botched operation on his clubfoot. The title character of this novel falls in love with Rodolphe and Leon. In this novel, the wife of the doctor Charles swallows arsenic after being unable to repay her debts to Lheureux. For 10 points, name this novel about the affairs of Emma, the title character, by Gustave Flaubert.
ANSWER: Madame Bovary
14. According to this religion’s tenet of “exteriorization,” individuals’ spiritual beings can live apart from their bodies. In this religion’s cosmology, matter, energy, space, and time, or MEST, were created by the interactions of those spiritual beings, which became trapped in MEST. A goal in this religion is eliminating one’s mental aberrations, or engrams, a requirement for becoming an operating (*) thetan or reaching the state of Clear. To do so, followers of this religion undergo “auditing,” a form of counseling involving the measurement of their electrical currents with an E-meter. For 10 points, name this religion based on Dianetics by L. Ron Hubbard.
ANSWER: Church of Scientology [or Scientologists; prompt on “Gnostic” or “Gnosticism”]
15. “Hunger circuses” were built in this country’s capital during the “Systemization” of its urban planning. In this country, the Mineriad and Golaniad riots occurred after the overthrow of a ruler who outlawed abortion and contraceptives to encourage “heroine mothers.” Protests in this country began when police attempted to evict László Tőkés from his flat in (*) Timișoara for criticizing the regime of the constructor of the Palace of the People. The Securitate were the secret police of a dictator from this country who was executed on live TV with his wife Elena in 1989. For 10 points, name this country once ruled by Nicolae Ceaușescu from Bucharest.
16. An enzyme performs a shortened version of this process while remaining stationary due to scrunching; that is the abortive type of this process. The rate of this process may be changed by histone methylation. In bacteria, sigma factors are needed for this process to begin, while in eukaryotes this process is initiated by the binding of TBP to the (*) TATA box. After the completion of this process, a bunch of adenine bases are added to the 3-prime end, while a cap is added to the 5-prime end. This process is initiated by a promoter. For 10 points, name this process, the synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template.
17. In a final showdown in a movie by this man, a nozzle malfunction caused a larger burst of blood than intended, but that take was used in the final version of the movie anyway. That movie by this man is a sequel to a film that was remade by Sergio Leone into A Fistful of Dollars. In another film by this director of (*) Yojimbo,the peasant Shino is beaten by her father after she begins a relationship with one of the title figures who came to protect her village from bandits. Stories from a ghost and a bandit are part of four testimonies on the murder of a samurai in a movie by this man that stars Toshirō Mifune. For 10 points, name this director of Seven Samurai and Rashōmon.
ANSWER: Akira Kurosawa
18. In a novel by this author, Chicken Little dies by accidentally being thrown into a river by the title character; that novel follows Nel Wright and other residents of the Bottom. In a novel by this author, First Corinthians and Magdalene are sisters of a boy who receives his nickname because he continued to be breastfed at a late age. Pecola (*) Breedlove wishes to have the title facial feature of one of this author’s novels. In one of her novels, a spirit haunts 124 Bluestone Road years after Sethe escapes from Sweet Home plantation and kills her infant daughter. For 10 points, name this author of The Bluest Eye and Beloved.
ANSWER: Toni Morrison [or Chloe Ardelia Wofford]
19. This artist showed a horse nearly avoiding stepping on St. Paul in one of his two depictions of Paul’s conversion. This artist created a painting an angel swooping towards the title figure in orange robes, as well as different painting showing that same figure being killed with a sword in Ethiopia, in two parts of a series for the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi. In the third part of that series, a (*) single window provides the lighting for the scene, in which a man gestures to himself, indicating that he is the figure towards whom Jesus is stretching his hand. For 10 points, name this chiaroscuro-using artist of The Calling of St. Matthew.
ANSWER: Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio [do not accept “Michelangelo”]
20. Some fermions have different eigenstates for this force than for mass, causing their oscillations. This force may be mediated by charge-current and neutral-current interactions. This interaction may change the flavor of quarks in a process described by a 3-by-3 matrix named for Kobayashi and Maskawa. An experiment by Chien-Shiung Wu showed that this interaction violates parity symmetry. This force was (*) unified with the electromagnetic force by Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam and it is carried by W and Z bosons. For 10 points, name this force, which is stronger than gravity but less powerful than the strong force.
ANSWER: weak force
1. This property was first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli, and unlike a related quantity, can have half integer values. For 10 points each:
 Name this quantum mechanical property. Fermions have half-integer values of this property, while bosons have integer values. Elementary particles can have a magnetic dipole moment based on this property.
 Spin is one type of this quantity, and is contrasted with the orbital type of this quantity. In classical physics, this quantity, symbolized L, is given by the cross product of the position and linear momentum operators.
ANSWER: angular momentum
 Spin was discovered in this experiment, in which silver atoms were passed through a magnetic field onto a screen. The atoms were deflected by a specific amount, and hit the screen only at the top and bottom, not in the middle as was expected.
ANSWER: Stern–Gerlach experiment
2. Although he lived for part of his life in South America and his birthplace of Nice is today part of France, this man always considered himself Italian. For 10 points each:
 Name this Italian patriot who contributed to the process of Italian unification by leading the Expedition of the Thousand to conquer the Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
ANSWER: Giuseppe Garibaldi
 Italian unification was accomplished when the Italian peninsula was conquered by this kingdom, which was ruled by the House of Savoy.
ANSWER: Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia [accept either part]
 One of the leading strategists of Italian unification was this statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia before becoming the first Prime Minister of Italy.
ANSWER: Camillo di Cavour [or Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour]
3. This man’s mother promised God that if she were delivered a son, his hair would never be cut. For 10 points each:
 Name this prophet who anoints Saul as the first King of Israel in a book of the Bible that is named after him.
 Samuel secretly anointed this shepherd as successor to Saul. He came to prominence after he killed the Philistine warrior Goliath.
 After Samuel’s death, Saul consulted this woman with supernatural powers in an attempt to conjure Samuel’s spirit. Samuel’s spirit was annoyed when this woman successfully raised him from the dead.
ANSWER: Witch of Endor [or Medium of Endor]
4. The first image on which this software was ever applied is titled “Jennifer in Paradise.” For 10 points each:
 Name this picture editing software that, despite its professional intentions, is often used for comedic image editing.
ANSWER: Photoshop [prompt on “Ps”]
 Photoshop is part of this company’s Creative Suite, which includes Dreamweaver, Fireworks, and Illustrator.
ANSWER: Adobe Systems Inc.
 In July 2015, the developers of this web browser, second only to Chrome, automatically disabled Adobe Flash on all webpages, citing security concerns. Some ardent users call its address bar the “Awesome Bar.”
ANSWER: Mozilla Firefox [do not accept “Mozilla”]
5. The protagonist of this work smokes and drinks coffee in front of his mother’s coffin. For 10 points each:
 Name this novel in which the indifferent Meursault is sentenced to death after senselessly killing an Arab man.
ANSWER: The Stranger [or L’Étranger]
 This existential French author wrote The Stranger as well as The Plague and The Fall.
ANSWER: Albert Camus
 Camus also wrote this philosophical essay that opposes suicide despite the search for meaning in the world being futile.
ANSWER: The Myth of Sisyphus [or Le Mythe de Sisyphe]
6. This element exists as a pale yellow diatomic gas at standard temperature and pressure. For 10 points each:
 Name this lightest halogen. The addition of this element to public water supplies has been shown to decrease the incidence of tooth decay.
 Fluorine has the highest value for this property on the Pauling scale, while neon has the highest value for it on the Allen scale.
 Compounds of fluorine and these two other elements were once commonly used in refrigerators, but are being phased out since they cause ozone depletion. DuPont uses these two elements in the manufacture of Freon.
ANSWER: carbon and chlorine
7. The first film starring this character was Dr. No, and in later films he faked his death many times and visited outer space. For 10 points each:
 Name this British spy who has been played by six different actors and is currently played by Daniel Craig.
ANSWER: James Bond
 The character of James Bond was rebooted in this 2006 film, the first starring Daniel Craig. In this film, Bond plays a high-stakes game of poker at the title location.
ANSWER: Casino Royale
 Unlike most movies in the series, Casino Royale did not feature this character, who is responsible for giving Bond his gadgets. His name is one letter long.
8. In his most noteworthy office, this man replaced non-president James R. Garfield. For 10 points each:
 Name this Secretary of the Interior who was accused by the US Forest Service Chief of collusion with private trusts regarding infrastructure developments in the Northwest in a 1910 political scandal.
ANSWER: Richard Achilles Ballinger
 The Ballinger–Pinchot affair was the first nail in the executive coffin of this President, although he continued his political career as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1921 to 1930.
ANSWER: William Howard Taft [prompt on “Taft”]
 Taft tried running for re-election, but the concurrent run of Theodore Roosevelt under this personal party named for an animal allowed Woodrow Wilson to come out on top.
ANSWER: Progressive Party [or Bull Moose Party]
9. This artist created a series of paintings of autumn haystacks. For 10 points each:
 Name this French artist, whose painting Impression, Sunrise gave an art movement its name.
ANSWER: Claude Monet
 Claude Monet made numerous depictions of the lilies found in his home in this French commune.
 Claude Monet’s home also contained a bridge inspired by the architecture of this country which he painted many pictures of. Woodblock prints from this country caused a craze in turn-of-the-century France.
10. This woman enchants Merlin and raises Lancelot after the death of his father. For 10 points each:
 Name this Queen of Avalon who gives a notable sword to a legendary British king.
ANSWER: Lady of the Lake [accept Viviane, Nimue, or Elaine]
 That British king is this convener of the Knights of the Round Table and wielder of Excalibur.
ANSWER: King ArthurPendragon [accept either underlined name]
 In some accounts, Merlin fell in love with the Lady of the Lake due to the enchantment of this Roman goddess of chastity. She is often depicted wearing a crescent-moon-shaped diadem.
ANSWER: Diana [do not accept “Artemis”]
11. Members of this phylum are divided into the Cestoda, Trematoda, and Monogenea classes. For 10 points each:
 Name this phylum of acoelomate, mostly parasitic organisms. It includes flukes and planarians, and one member of this phylum can cause schistosomiasis.
ANSWER: Platyhelminthes [accept flatworms]
 You are perhaps more familiar with this member of the Platyhelminthes, which can infest the digestive tract after consuming undercooked meat or fish. Occasionally, they can migrate to the brain, causing seizures.
 Flatworms are among the many classes of animals that possess this property, along with crustaceans and many insects. Echinoderms notably possess this property only in the larval stage.
ANSWER: bilateral symmetry [prompt on “symmetry”; do not accept “radial symmetry”]
12. This work is written in haibun. For 10 points each:
 Name this work whose opening line is “The months and days are the travelers of eternity.” It is a diary of the author’s travels from Edo to Oku.
ANSWER: The Narrow Road to the Deep North [or Oku no Hosomichi; accept The Narrow Road to the Interior]
 Matsuo Bashō used a combination of prose and this poetic form that consists of three phrases of 5–7–5 syllables in order to write The Narrow Road to the Deep North.
 One haiku by Bashō is about the effect of one of these creatures jumping into an old, silent pond.
13. While serving as a senior officer in the Russian army, this man lost his right arm during the Battle of Dresden. For 10 points each:
 Name this man, one of the leaders of the Filiki Eteria, who supported a revolt against the Ottoman Empire in Wallachia.
ANSWER: Alexander Ypsilantis [or Alexander Ypsilanti; or Alexandros Ypsilantos]
 Ypsilantis was considered a hero during this Balkan country’s revolution against Ottoman rule. Ioannis Kapodistrias became its first leader during that war of independence, which included the battle of Navarino.
 Ypsilantis sought refuge in Austria, but was captured until his release on command of this Russian emperor who led the Russian empire during its physical apex and the Crimean War.
ANSWER: Nicholas I Pavlovich Romanov [or Nikolai I; prompt on “Nicholas” or “Nikolai”]
14. The Encke Gap divides this planet’s rings. For 10 points each:
 Name this gas giant, the second most massive planet in the Solar System after Jupiter.
 This sixth largest moon of Saturn is covered in ice, and it may have liquid water below its surface. That ice gives this moon a very high albedo, making it the most reflective body in the Solar System.
 This spacecraft, launched in 1997, was the first to orbit Saturn and collect data on Enceladus. One part of this spacecraft landed on Titan in 2005.
15. It is said that the title character of a play by this author “always styles her hair the same way.” For 10 points each:
 Name this author of a play in which the Smiths and the Martins speak in non-sequiturs after a visit from the Fire Chief. This author of The Bald Soprano also used the recurring character Berenger.
ANSWER: Eugène Ionesco
 Ionesco’s The Bald Soprano is an example of this style of theater exemplified by the work of Vaclav Havel and Samuel Beckett. It usually features bizarre nonsense and emphasizes the meaningless of the universe.
ANSWER: absurdism [accept Theater of the Absurd]
 This other absurdist playwright wrote about Irma running a brothel during a revolution in his play The Balcony.
ANSWER: Jean Genet
16. This concept is illustrated with the example of a woman on a date who refuses to recognize the subtext of the phrase “You are so attractive.” For 10 points each:
 Give this concept also exemplified by a waiter who is acting too “waiter-esque,” a phenomenon in which people deny their freedom by acting inauthentically.
ANSWER: bad faith [or mauvaise foi; or self-deception because Walter Kaufmann translates it that way]
 Bad faith is a concept discussed in this philosopher’s treatise Being and Nothingness.
ANSWER: Jean-Paul Sartre
 The Second Sex, a book by Sartre’s lover Simone de Beauvoir, influenced the “second-wave” of this movement. Another text from this movement is Betty Friedan’s work titled for a certain type of “mystique.”
ANSWER: feminism [or word forms]
17. Andrei Zhdanov commissioned this composer’s Suite on Finnish Themes to be played for the Red Army as it marched through Helsinki, an event that never actually happened. For 10 points each:
 Name this prominent Soviet composer who created his fifth symphony to rehabilitate his reputation after the failure of his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District. He subtitled his Thirteenth Symphony “Babi Yar.”
ANSWER: Dmitry Shostakovich
 Shostakovich created this symphony in commemoration of a World War II siege. It contains a repetitive outtake from the opera The Merry Widow called the “invasion theme.”
ANSWER: Symphony No. 7 in C major, “Leningrad” [accept either underlined part]
 This popular symphony by Shostakovich, composed later in his life, commemorates Bloody Sunday and the Russian Revolution, and is subtitled for the year of that event. It’s sometimes called “a film score without a film.”
ANSWER: Symphony No. 11 in G minor, “The Year 1905” [accept either underlined part]
18. This royal refused to shave his beard to escape execution because he felt it would damage his dignity. For 10 points each:
 Name this Austrian royal appointed by Napoleon III as the Emperor of a certain Latin American nation. Despite his bravery during the attack on Querétaro, he was executed by popular demand in 1867.
ANSWER: Maximilian I [accept, but do not reveal, Maximilian I of Mexico]
 Maximilian I shortly ruled over this nation where the War of the French Intervention was fought and the modernization period known as La Reforma was carried out.
 After the abolition of Mexico’s monarchy, rebels led by this man and Porfirio Díaz regained power. He hailed from Oaxaca and was of Zapotec origin, which motivated him to fight for indigenous peoples’ rights.
ANSWER: Benito Juárez
19. This man was placed in leg irons after he was allegedly taken for a “rough ride” in handcuffs and without a seatbelt. For 10 points each:
 Name this African-American man allegedly beaten to near-death by six police officers after he was arrested for the possession of an illegal switchblade. He later died after slipping into a coma.
ANSWER: Freddie Carlos Gray, Jr. [prompt on “Freddie”]
 The police officers involved in Gray’s death came from this Maryland city, where Governor Lawrence Hogan declared a state of emergency after heavy protests.
 The Baltimore protests saw the reemergence of this campaign that began during the Trayvon Martin case. Its name is often used as a Twitter hashtag, and its founder interrupted Bernie Sanders during a speech in July 2015.
ANSWER: Black Lives Matter
20. The protagonist of this work gets in trouble after proclaiming loyalty to King George III. For 10 points each:
 Name this story about the title character spending more time than he expected in the Catskill Mountains with the ghosts of Henry Hudson’s crew.
ANSWER: Rip Van Winkle
 This author wrote the short stories Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.
ANSWER: Washington Irving
 Irving wrote this collection of stories and essays after visiting Spain in 1828. They are named for the palace in Granada where he stayed during his trip.