Manifest Destiny America Expands Westward In your own words, what is “destiny?”



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Manifest Destiny

In your own words, what is “destiny?”

  • In your own words, what is “destiny?”
  • The definition of “manifest” is:
    • Clear or apparent
  • In the mid-1800s, Americans believed they had a clear destiny to expand across the continent, from sea to shining sea
  • “Eastward I go only by force, but westward I go free.”- Henry David Thoreau

Write this on a piece of paper that will become your “Manifest Destiny DBQ”!

  • Write this on a piece of paper that will become your “Manifest Destiny DBQ”!
  • Other Reasons for Westward Expansion:
  • Escape religious persecution
  • Find new markets for trade
  • Claim land for farming, ranching, and mining
  • Locate Pacific harbors
  • Spread democracy!

Writing a DBQ

  • A DBQ is a Document-Based Question
  • You must read and analyze primary/secondary source documents to help answer a historical question
  • After reading the documents, you develop an argument (thesis) to answer the question
  • The point is to show that you can read and analyze documents and DEFEND YOUR ARGUMENT!
  • These are designed to be about 5 paragraphs…. We will start with just planning, then 3, then 5!

Manifest Destiny DBQ Planning

  • The Question
  • The Thesis
    • A thesis is the main ARGUMENT of the paper
    • How can you make a historical argument?
  • Introduction
    • This includes background information about your topic
    • (In this case, you need to address how/why Manifest Destiny developed in America in the 1800s)
  • 3 Points
    • This essay lays them out for you
    • For each point, you need to include solid information FROM THE DOCUMENTS and from your PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE to support your argument
    • In your planning, write bullet points for now but include PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS (see the board)
  • The Conclusion (This will come later…)
  • How are these ideas of “Manifest Destiny” reflected in the following pieces of artwork?
  • “Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way” by Emanuel Leutze

Sectional Differences Emerge

  • Sectional Differences Emerge
  • Missouri Territory applies for statehood
  • Why is this a problem?
  • There are an equal number of slave/free states, Missouri would tip the balance
  • Henry Clay – Missouri
  • Compromise (1820)
  • Missouri = slave
  • Maine = free (split from Massachusetts)
  • 36-30 line: north= free, south = slave

Missouri Compromise

Texan Independence Primary Source Activity

  • For Documents A-D answer the following questions (COMPLETE SENTENCES!):
    • Who wrote it? (Name, Mexican or American, Date)
    • According to this document, why did Texans decide to declare independence in 1836?
    • Do you trust the perspective of this document? Why or why not?
  • Conclusion: Based on all 4 documents, do you think the Texans were justified in declaring independence?

Expansion, Conflict, & War in Texas

  • Sam Houston
  • “Remember the Alamo!”

1. Why did Mexico want Americans to settle in Texas?

  • 1. Why did Mexico want Americans to settle in Texas?
  • To help defend and develop the province economically
  • 2. Why did Americans want to settle in Texas?
  • Abundant, cheap, fertile land with a small population
  • Expansion & Conflict in Texas

3. What brought American settlers into conflict with the Mexican government?

  • 3. What brought American settlers into conflict with the Mexican government?
  • They did not convert to Roman Catholicism (remained Protestants) & they ignored Mexico’s ban on slavery
  • 4. What happened at the Alamo?
  • Texas rebelled against Mexican rule
  • Santa Anna attacks the Alamo to put down the rebellion
  • 12 days of fighting, Mexico wins, then kills every prisoner; “Remember the Alamo!” * Video

5. Why was the U.S. at first reluctant to annex Texas?

  • 5. Why was the U.S. at first reluctant to annex Texas?
  • Northern Democrats did not want to add another big, powerful slave state

6. What promises did Polk make to help him win the election (of 1844)?

  • 6. What promises did Polk make to help him win the election (of 1844)?
  • To make Northern Democrats happy, he promises to get all of Oregon from Great Britain or go to war; *“54-40 or Fight!”*
  • 54 Line
  • Why did Polk need to satisfy the interests of Northerners specifically?

7. What did Polk do that left many Northern Democrats feeling betrayed?

  • 7. What did Polk do that left many Northern Democrats feeling betrayed?
  • To avoid war with Great Britain, Polk compromised on Oregon in order to fight Mexico (British kept what became British Columbia)
  • The Mexican-American War 1846-1848

America Achieves Manifest Destiny

  • EQ: How did America achieve its “Manifest Destiny?”

What formally ended the Mexican-American War?

  • What formally ended the Mexican-American War?
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • (Mexican Cession)
  • US adds 1.2 million square miles
  • Mexico was humiliated by the treaty, bitter toward US for many years

US added more territory with the Gadsden Purchase (1853)

  • US added more territory with the Gadsden Purchase (1853)
  • Bought from Mexico, consisted of the southern parts of Arizona & New Mexico
  • Needed to run transcontinental RR
  • How is this further contributing to
  • Manifest Destiny?

What issue continued to divide the nation?

  • What issue continued to divide the nation?
    • SLAVERY, and its expansion
  • Whig Congressman David Wilmot proposes the Wilmot Proviso:
  • Proposed law would ban slavery in all lands won from Mexico
  • Law DID NOT pass
  • Lands won from Mexico increased North/South tensions
  • Proposed in Congress for 15 more years
  • Why do you think the Wilmot Proviso didn’t pass?

President James K. Polk = “Expansionist President”

  • President James K. Polk = “Expansionist President”
  • Polk SUPPORTS Manifest Destiny

The California Gold Rush

  • The California Gold Rush
  • What was it?
  • Mass migration to California after the discovery of gold in 1848
  • Who was involved?
  • “49ers” = Gold Rush miners
  • Where did they come from?
  • Across the US & other Pacific Rim nations (South America, China)

The California Gold Rush - Effects

  • The California Gold Rush - Effects
  • Conditions of the camps
  • Crowded, poor sanitation, violence
  • Population boom of…
  • San Francisco
  • Groups facing discrimination
  • Indians, Chinese, & Mexicans; taxed, terrorized

The California Gold Rush - Effects

  • The California Gold Rush - Effects
  • ____________ applies for statehood…
  • California
  • Increases the debate over…
  • Slavery
  • 15 free states, 15 slave
  • Would later lead to the…
  • Civil War


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