In the Time of the Butterflies Julia Alvarez



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In the Time of the Butterflies

Julia Alvarez was born in _______________. When she was three months old, her parents, both native Dominicans, decided to ___________________________________________________________________.
Her father got involved in the underground and soon her family was in deep trouble. They left hurriedly in 1960, three months before the _______________________________________________________________________________________.
After receiving both a high school and college education, of course, she had to earn a living. That's how she fell into ___________________________________________.
She began teaching at the ______________ level, moving on to __________ teaching, and finally, on the strength of some publications in small magazines and a couple of writing prizes, she landed a tenure-track job.
The Dominican Republic was part of the island explored and claimed by _______________ on his first voyage in 1492. It is the _____________ European settlement in the Western Hemisphere.
The island of Hispaniola became a springboard for Spanish conquest of the Caribbean and the American mainland. In 1697, Spain recognized French dominion over the western third of the island, which in 1804 became _______________.
The remainder of the island, by then known as Santo Domingo, sought to gain its own independence in 1821, but was conquered and ruled by the Haitians for 22 years; it finally attained independence as the Dominican Republic in 1844.
A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative rule followed, capped by the dictatorship of ___________________________ from 1930-61.
Since his rule the Dominican Republic has suffered from internal political strife, intervention from the ______________, and only brief periods of democratic rule.
The population of the island is approximately _____ million.
The primary religion of the country is ________________________________.
The capital is __________________________.
Although the country has long been viewed primarily as an exporter of __________, _________, and __________ in recent years the ___________ industry has experienced a large boom.
International disputes result as ______________migrants cross the porous border into the Dominican Republic to find work; illegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage each year to ________________ to find better work.
The Dominican Republic is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of ____________________________ and ________________; a large number of Dominican women are trafficked into ________________ and _______________ in Western Europe, Australia, Central and South America, and Caribbean destinations; a significant number of women, boys, and girls are trafficked within the country for sexual exploitation and domestic servitude.
The infamous “El Jefe” (http://countrystudies.us/dominican-republic/11.htm)
The ______________ administration shines in Dominican history like a star amid a gathering storm. After the country's eight years of subjugation, this leader took care to respect the political and civil rights of the population. There was an upswing in the economy and investment in public works. Santo Domingo expanded and modernized. This is likely the time that Alvarez refers to Enrique Mirabal having success with his farm and store.

Although a principled man by Dominican standards, Vásquez was also a product of long years of political infighting. In an effort to undercut his primary rival, and to preserve power for his own followers, the president agreed in 1927 to a prolongation of his term from four to six years. This decision effectively invalidated the ______________________ that Vásquez had previously sworn to uphold. Once the president had demonstrated his willingness to disregard constitutional procedures in the pursuit of power, some ambitious opponents decided that those procedures were no longer binding.

The man who would come to occupy the eye of this political cyclone was ______________.
The commander of the National Army, ______________ came from a humble background. He had enlisted in the National Police in 1918. He rose quickly in the officer corps, while at the same time he built a network of allies and supporters. Unlike the more idealistic North American sponsors of the constabulary, he saw the armed force not for what it should have been--an apolitical domestic security force--but for what it was: _____________________________________________________________________________________.

Having established his power base behind the scenes, __________ was ready by 1930 to assume control of the country. Although elections were scheduled for May, Vásquez's extension in office cast doubt on their potential fairness. This uncertainty prompted Rafael Estrella Ureña, a political leader from Santiago, to proclaim a __________ in February. Having already struck a deal with Trujillo, Estrella marched on the capital; army forces remained in their barracks as Trujillo declared his "neutrality" in the situation. The ailing Vásquez, a victim of betrayal, fled the capital. Estrella assumed the provisional presidency.

Part of the arrangement between __________ and __________ involved the army commander's candidacy for president in the May elections. It became clear that _________ would be the only candidate that the army would permit to participate; army personnel harassed and intimidated electoral officials and eliminated potential opponents. A dazed nation stood by as the new dictator announced his election with 95 percent of the vote.

The dictator ruled the country for ___________ years. He held the office of president from 1930 to 1938 and from 1942 to 1952. During the interim periods, he exercised absolute power, while leaving the ceremonial affairs of state to puppet presidents. He maintained a highly effective secret police force that monitored (and eliminated, in some instances) opponents both at home and abroad. He relied on the _________ as his primary support. The other leading beneficiaries of the dictatorship--aside from Trujillo himself and his family--were those who associated themselves with the regime both politically and economically. The establishment of state __________ over all major enterprises in the country brought riches to the Trujillos and their cronies through the manipulation of prices and inventories as well as the outright embezzlement of funds.

Generally speaking, the quality of life improved for the average Dominican under Trujillo. Poverty persisted, but the __________ expanded, the foreign debt __________, the currency remained stable, and the middle class expanded. Public works projects enhanced the road system and improved port facilities; airports and public buildings were constructed, the public education system grew, and illiteracy declined. These advances, to Dominicans who had no experience with a democratic government, were impressive under Trujillo. Although he never tested his personal popularity in a free election, some observers feel that Trujillo could have won a majority of the popular vote up until _______________ of his dictatorship.

Ideologically, Trujillo leaned toward _______________. The trappings of his personality cult (Santo Domingo was renamed Ciudad Trujillo under his rule), the size and architectural mediocrity of his building projects, and the level of repressive control exercised by the state all invited comparison with the style of his contemporaries, __________ in Germany and __________ in Italy. As always, self-interest and the need to maintain his personal power guided Trujillo's actions.

On May 30, 1961, Trujillo was ________________. According to Diederich, the United States Central Intelligence Agency supplied the __________ used by the assassins.

Mirabal Sisters (http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Mirabal-sisters)

The Mirabal sisters grew up in an _______________ environment. All became married, family women. The father of the Mirabal sisters was a successful ______________. When Trujillo came to power, their family lost almost all of their fortune. They believed that Trujillo would send their country into economic chaos.

Minerva became particularly passionate about ending the dictatorship of Trujillo after talking extensively with an __________. Minerva became more involved in the anti-Trujillo movement. She studied ________ and became a __________, but because she did not allow Trujillo romantic advancements he ordered that she was not to receive her title.

Her sisters followed suit, and they eventually formed a group of opponents to the Trujillo regime, known as the ______________________________________. Inside that group, they were known as "_____________." This was the underground name that Minerva was recognized as in the political dealings.

Two of the sisters were __________ and __________ on several occasions. Three of the sisters' husbands were incarcerated at La Victoria Penitentiary in Santo Domingo. Upper class refers to the group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ...

Despite these setbacks, they persisted fighting to try to end Trujillo's dictatorship. After the sisters' numerous imprisonments, Trujillo decided to get rid of the sisters. On __________________, he sent men to intercept the three women after the women visited their husbands in prison. The unarmed sisters were led into a sugarcane field, then _______________________________. Their car was later thrown off of a mountain known as La Cumbre.


Trujillo believed at the time that he had removed a significant problem. Having the three sisters killed backfired, however: the deaths of the Mirabal sisters caused a general public outrage in their native country. The resultant publicity of the deaths caused the Dominican public to become more interested in the Mirabal sisters and their cause. This public support and awareness contributed to Trujillo's _____________ six months later in _________. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...




The surviving sister, _________, lives today. One of her sons, Jaime David Fernandez Mirabal, served as the ______________ during Leonel Fernández's first term as president of the republic between the years of 1996and 2000. Minou Tavarez Mirabal, the eldest daughter of Minerva Mirabal has served as a ______________ since 1998 until 2006, and has recently been reelected for four additional years (until 2010).

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