PROPOSED AND TENTATIVE CURRICULUM & SYLLABUS, 2015
STATE COUNCIL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH & TRAINING
Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad.
Duration of the Programme
Entry Qualifications/ Eligibility
Some Important Highlights from D.El.Ed. Curriculum Framework
D.EL.ED Curriculum: Programme Structure
Paper-wise detailed Syllabus of the Courses.
Extracts from D.El.Ed. Curriculum Framework.
The teacher education programme leading to the Diploma in Elementary Education (D.El.Ed.) aims at preparing teachers for the elementary stage of education, that is, classes 1 to 8. This stage covers children of 6-14 years for whom education became a fundamental right as per the 86th amendment of Indian Constitution in 2002, which incorporated Article 21A in the constitution guaranteeing right of compulsory and free education to all children of 6-14 years. In order to implement the constitutional amendment, ‘Right of Children of 6-14 years to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE Act)’ was enacted as a Central Act in 2009. The Act highlights the need and importance of having well qualified and professionally trained teachers to facilitate realisation of the goals of RTE. The Diploma in Elementary Education (D.El.Ed.) programme, which is an initial teacher preparation programme for elementary education, has the potential to realise the RTE goals which includes providing education of comparable quality to every child.
The elementary teacher is called upon to engage with children of 6-14 years in a variety of socio-cultural contexts. The purpose of engagement is to facilitate children’s holistic learning and development, for which the teacher must have thorough understanding of the child and his/her socio cultural contexts. In addition the teacher must have the competence in different areas of school curriculum and to use appropriate pedagogies. For instance, the utility of ICT, Arts and Crafts, including folk arts and Community resources as pedagogical tools is well established for different areas of school curriculum. This implies that the inclusion of all these pedagogical tools in the curriculum of a teacher education programme will enhance the effectiveness and quality of teacher preparation.
The goal of a teacher education programme is to prepare reflective practitioners, who are capable of reflecting on the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the educational policies, programmes and practices. A reflective teacher mustbe able to question some of the current premises on schooling and education, develop the ability to evolve his/her own robust vision of a school and take justifiable curricular and pedagogic decisions. However to develop such abilities among prospective teacher, the teacher education institutions shall have to make planned efforts through appropriate curricular interventions.
The present curriculum of Elementary Teacher Education Programme makes an attempt to address the above mentioned concerns and imperatives through courses organised under four broad areas, namely, (i) Child Studies (ii) Educational and Contemporary Studies, (iii) Curriculum and Pedagogic Studies(including Teaching Practice and school Internship) and (iv) Additional Value Added Courses for Holistic Development. The course included in the category of ‘Child Studies’ aim at developing understanding about the child, childhood and processes of development and learning. The study of courses included in the category of Educational and Contemporary studies shall equip the prospective teachers to understand the contemporary Indian Society and the type of education needed to meet the emerging needs and aspirations of the society. To forge linkages between Early Childhood Education and Primary Education, and taking cognisance of the imperative of early literacy and numaracy, a course on Early Childhood care and Education has been included in the curriculum. A course such as ‘Understanding Self’ shall equip the prospective teachers to understand themselves as individuals and professionals. The increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has brought about a sea change in the generation and transmission of knowledge. The programme envisages the use of ICT as a pedagogical tool for all areas of school curriculum at the elementary stage. Art, music, dance, theatre, stories and crafts have immense potential for being used as a medium for the teaching of school curriculum. The Contemporary Indian Society is a multi-lingual Society. It is imperative that the future teacher understand the importance of language and education. The official policy regarding teaching languages in schools envisages the study of three languages by every child in the school. Every teacher is required to teach two or three languages, therefore, courses in the pedagogy of English and Regional language have been assigned an important place in the curriculum of the Elementary Teacher Education Programme. Two add-on courses, Proficiency in English and Yoga Education are also included in both years.
The school-based activities are designed to enable the student-teachers to connect theory to practice and to help them acquire a perspective regarding the aims of education within which their previously acquired knowledge and practices can be systematized and structured to enable them to teach effectively. During the school-internship the student-teacher is expected to observe classroom teaching of mentors/ peers, to get insights into student behaviour, instructional practices, student learning, learning environments and classroom management. The student-teacher is expected to critically reflect and discuss these practices and engage in activities like maintenance of records and registers, preparation of lesson and unit plans using different artifacts and technology, classroom management, activities related to school- community- parent interface, and reflections on self development and professionalization of teaching practice.
The other component of school-based activities to be carried out during internship is delivering the lessons/units of pedagogic courses in the first and second year as specified. The activities undertaken during the internship period will be presented in Portfolios and Reflective Journals. The student-teachers are expected to record their experiences, observations and conclusions regarding all the activities undertaken. The entries of Reflective Journals will be analytical answering ‘what’ is new and different from their previous understandings, ‘why’ certain observations made by them with regard to instruction, classroom management, PTAs, etc., are different / same and ‘how’ these observations might lead to a criticism and change in their practice. The students will be assessed on the basis of entries made in Portfolios and Reflective Journals.
The National Curriculum Framework for teacher Education (NCTE, 2009)emphasizes that we need teachers who:
Care for children and love to be with them, understand children within social, cultural and political contexts, develop sensitivity to their needs and problems, and treat all children equally.
Perceive children not as passive receivers of knowledge, augment their natural propensity to construct meaning, discourage rote learning, make learning a joyful, participatory and meaningful activity.
Critically examine curriculum and textbooks, contextualize curriculum to suit local needs.
Do not treat knowledge as a ‘given’, embedded in the curriculum and accepted without question.
Organize learner-centered, activity-based, participatory learning experiences – play, projects, discussion, dialogue, observation, visits and learn to reflect on their own practice.
Integrate academic learning with social and personal realities of learners, responding to diversities in the classroom.
Promote values of peace, democratic way of life, equality, justice, liberty, fraternity, secularism and zeal for social reconstruction.
The D.El.Ed., Programme aims to prepare teachers who are able to continuously assess and improve their professional practice as teachers by critically reflecting on it, who can understand that teaching is embedded in the social context of the learners and who can engage with context and subject matter that they will be teaching. The student teachers will also be acquainted with the modes of inquiry and epistemological frameworks of their subjects, familiarized with how children learn so that they can develop and use teaching strategies that are responsive to the learning needs of all their learners in diverse and plural settings of elementary classrooms.
Programme Objectives: Provide an understanding of the elementary school and elementary school child;
Examine the issues in elementary education in the context of the socio-economic realities of the contemporary Indian Society;
Provide an opportunity for student teachers how to integrate content, processes and context of learning and organize curricular experiences;
Enable student teachers to construe education of elementary school children in continuum and establish organic linkages with the early childhood teacher education and secondary teacher education programmes;
Enable student teachers to understand the importance of conceptual blending of theoretical understanding available in several cognate disciplines and to appreciate the gestalt! emerging from the conceptual blending!
Empower student teachers in how to integrate the emerging gender, disability, environment perspectives in teaching and learning.
Provide an understanding of various perspectives of learning and of how knowledge is constructed by an elementary school child;
Develop an understanding of the various child friendly and child –sensitive approaches and strategies of transacting learning experiences in different curricular and co-curricular areas at the elementary level;
Develop skills and competencies of organizing learning experiences;
Foster the integrated and holistic development of student teachers through life enrichment and development od self;
Acquaint the student teachers with the structure and dynamics of school organization and its interaction with the community;
Develop an appreciation of the role of the teacher in the prevailing socio-cultural and political system in general and the educational system in particular;
Empower student teachers in how to integrate the emerging ICT perspectives in teaching and learning;
Provides experiences to student teachers to internalize civic, democratic and constitutional values and make them able to participate in day-to-day life with civic responsibilities and humanistic values.
Duration of the Programme
The D.El.Ed. programme shall be of a duration of two academic years. However, the students shall be permitted to complete the programme within a maximum period of three years from the date of admission to the programme.
There shall be at least two hundred working days each year exclusive of the period of examination and admission (Total 220 working days)
The institution shall work for a minimum of thirty six (36) hours in a week (five or six days), during which physical presence in the institution of all the teachers and student teachers is necessary to ensure their availability for advice, guidance, dialogue and consultation as and when needed.
The minimum attendance of student-teachers shall be 80% for all course work including practicum, and 90% for school internship.
Entry Qualifications/ Eligibility
Candidates with at least 50% of marks in the Inter/ Higher Secondary (+2) or its
equivalent examination are eligible for admission.
shall be as per the rules of the Central Government/State Government, whichever is applicable.
Credit System The delivery of D.El.Ed. programme is construed in terms of Credits . The course weightage is expressed in terms of credits.
“Credit” (C) is the weightage assigned to a course in terms of Contact hours.
A credit system is a systematic way of describing an educational programme by attaching credits to its components. The definition of credits in higher education systems may be based on different parameters, such as student workload, learning outcomes and contact hours.
In this programme 16 Hours of classroom instruction is considered as one credit for theory courses and 32 Hours of practicum is considered as one credit for practicum courses. The entire Diploma in Elementary Education programme shall be delivered in the form of CREDITS.
This helps the learner to understand the academic effort he/she has to put in, in order to successfully complete a course. Completion of D.El.Ed. programme requires successful clearing of assignments, school internship, practicum , critical reflections on development of self , term-end examinations of each course in a programme and practical components.
Programme Implementation The institution shall meet the following specific demands of a professional programme of study:
Prepare a calendar for all activities, including school internship. The school internship and other school contact programmes shall be synchronized with the academic calendar of the school.
Make an arrangement with at least ten schools indicating their willingness to allow the Internship as well as other school based activities of the programme. These schools shall form basic contact point for all practicum activities and related work during the course of the programme. The District/Block office of the State Education Department may allot schools to different TEIs.
Initiate discourse on education by periodically organizing seminars, debates, lectures, and discussion groups for students and faculty.
Organize academic enrichment programmes including interactions with faculty from parent disciplines; encourage faculty members to participate in academic pursuits and pursue research especially in elementary schools. Provisions of leave shall be made for faculty to undertake research/ teaching in Universities and schools.
Adopt participatory teaching approach in the classroom to help students develop reflective thinking and critical questioning skills. Students shall maintain continuing and comprehensive evaluation reports observation records and reflective journals, which provide opportunities for reflective thinking.
The students shall select the optional pedagogy course for Upper primary school teaching.
The development of resources for the schools must be emphasized and a partnership between the Teacher Education institution and the school must be fostered through both the curriculum and the running of the Teacher Education Institution.
There shall be mechanisms and provisions in the Institution for addressing complaints of students and faculty, and for grievance redressal.
For school internship, the TEIs and the participating schools shall set up a mutually agreed mechanism for mentoring, supervising, tracking and assessing the student teachers.
Some Important Highlights from
The D.El.Ed. Curriculum Framework:
This curriculum represents an effort to strengthen quality in elementary teacher education while building on the good practices contained in previous frameworks.
This curriculum includes the following three components:
Content:Comprises the subject matter of the curriculum, the goals and objectives for children’s learning.
Processes: This component is the pedagogy of learning, how teachers teach, and the ways in which children achieve the goals and objectives of the curriculum.
Context: Includes the setting, the environment in which learning takes place.
Teacher education institutes must provide an opportunity for student teachers to integrate and implement these three components in classroom settings. Spaces must also be created for the perspective building of student teachers.
The curriculum visualizes the education of elementary school children in a continuum and attempts to establish organic linkages with the early childhood teacher education and secondary teacher education programmes. However, the D.El.Ed unlike other teacher education programmes is exceptional in that it has to cater to the early primary (classes 1 &2), the middle primary (classes 3 to 5)and the upper primary (classes 6 to 8). Although these are along a developmental continuum, the needs of children tend to vary in terms of what they can learn, how they learn, and what interests them. It is important therefore for an elementary teacher to be sensitized to these variations and specific implications for designing curriculum and classroom practice in a more contextualized manner.
This curriculum advocates conceptual blending of theoretical understanding available in several cognate disciplines. However the knowledge base in teacher education does not comprise only an admixture of concepts and principles from other disciplines, but a distinct ‘gestalt’ emerging from the conceptual blending. It further emphasizes the importance of an integrated and correlated approach to the teaching of concepts in teacher education(NCF-2005&NCFTE-2009).
The curriculum calls for a variety of pedagogies to engage student teachers actively in the learning process. Some of them include writing projects, debates, simulations, role playing, dramatizations, and cooperative learning are encouraged, as is the use of technology to supplement reading and classroom activities and to enrich the teaching and learning of school subjects. Audio video resources, OERs and newly emerging forms of educational technology like podcasts can provide invaluable resources for a teacher education institution.
This curriculum seeks to promote civic and democratic values as an integral element of good citizenship. Space must be created for student teachers to learn the kind of behaviour that is necessary for the functioning of a democratic society. Whenever possible, opportunities would be available for participation and for reflection on the responsibilities of citizens in a free, liberal and inclusive society. Continuous and sustained engagement with student teachers and systematic organization of curricular processes and activities is imperative.
This curriculum incorporates a multicultural and multilingual perspective across the courses of the curriculum. It enables teachers to recognize that the history of community, state, region, nation, and world must reflect the experiences of men and women and of different racial, religious, caste and ethnic groups. India has always been a nation of many different cultural groups. The experiences of all these groups are to be integrated at every grade level in the curriculum. The framework embodies the understanding that the national identity, the national heritage, and the national creed are pluralistic and that our national history is the complex story of many peoples and one nation, and of a still unfinished struggle to realize the ideals of the Indian Constitution.(NCF-2005)
This curriculum calls for student teachers to learn how to design inclusive, child friendly learning environment by involving parents, community and civil society organizations. Such an environment is interactive, stimulating, secure, and caters to the diverse identities and needs of children, including those with special needs. It is flexible and ensures holistic development and meaningful learning of every child.
This curriculum proposes that critical thinking skills be integrated and critical pedagogical practices be included in all the curricular transaction processes of the elementary teacher education
programme. Opportunities must be created for student teachers to learn to detect any kind of bias in print and visual media; recognise illogical thinking; guard against ideological propaganda; avoid stereotyping of group members. Student teachers must be encouraged to reach conclusions based on solid evidence; and to think critically, creatively, and rationally.
This curriculum emphasizes the importance of continuous and comprehensive assessment and evaluation. It is essential that all those involved in elementary education have a robust knowledge of a variety of tools, techniques and strategies to assess the development of diverse competences and attitudes. Meaningful analyses of the data obtained through multiple means of assessments will help strengthen children’s learning and provide relevant feedback to all stakeholders.
This curriculum emphasizes the importance of sensitising student teachers in understanding diversity, differential classroom spaces and gender. Respecting the diversity of children and promoting gender equality are key elements of the Elementary Education Curriculum. This means special support for children whose development, growth and learning have been affected by illness, disability, reduced functional ability, psychological problems or exceptional talent. In early education the school has a crucial role in timely recognition of learning difficulties. In this context it is important to work closely with the parents to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the child, to plan measures and actions needed to be taken. Teacher education institutions must support student teachers in organising differentiated teaching and learning within the class; teaching and learning in small groups/pairs/individually both within and out of the class.
This curriculum seeks to address the complex relationship that exists between diversity, inequity, and education. It aims to sensitise students to the diversity of life experiences and learning needs of different kinds of children. Children with special needs, those from marginalized communities as well as girls have been traditionally excluded from education. Inclusive education, as understood today, must ensure all children get education of comparable quality, while specifically addressing the above. This becomes even more significant in the light of the Right to Education Act 2009. While critically looking at our education through this lens, this course also tries to explore certain possibilities by addressing the nature of inclusive education as well as the sensibilities and skills
that it demands from the teacher. Children with disabilities must be included at all levels of education as equal partners, to enable them to face life with courage and confidence. Student teachers must have opportunities to address their own biases and to develop professional capacities to address needs of diverse groups of children, including the traditionally marginalised and those with special needs.
This framework strongly believes that development of positive gender perspective is important to address widespread discrimination and injustice at all levels in society. It requires not only a pedagogic approach but also promote respect for women. Another major concern is an increasing violence and polarization, both within children and between them, being caused primarily by increasing stress in society. The classroom teaching can play a crucial role by constructing and endorsing values and life skills in students to prepare them for meeting the demands and challenges of everyday living and by promoting values of peace based on equal respect of self and others. Similarly, to meet the ecological crisis, promoted by extremely commercialized and competitive lifestyles, teachers and children need to be educated to change their consumption patterns and the way they look at natural resources.