Essay: Continuity & Change over Time (Part B/#2) The Big Picture



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How to Write a CCOT Essay: Continuity & Change over Time (Part B/#2)


  1. The Big Picture: Basically, a continuity and change over time essay is a comparison essay where time periods are compared. Knowing the basic time periods from each unit will help. (ex: 1750 - 1900)

  2. While the change-over-time essay may be a little less daunting than the DBQ, you run the risk of encountering a topic with which you are not that familiar. Luckily, most change-over time questions give you choices, such as “Select two countries and discuss…” The issues on the change-over-time essay tend to be global ones such as technology, trade, demographic change, or culture, so make sure you are ready to discuss these topics.

  3. Read the prompt carefully and determine the AP theme (such as technology, trade, demographic changes, and culture), geographic areas, and time period to be compared.

  4. To plan for your essay, set up a timeline with the first date from the prompt on one side and the end date on the other side. In the middle, you will list changes and continuities. We’ll do an example together.

  5. Evidence pretty much works the same as the other essays. 6 pieces of accurate evidence will earn you 2 points; 3 pieces of accurate evidence will earn you 1 point; less than 3 pieces will be no points. Are you backing up what you said in the thesis statement?


Format of the CCOT Essay:

Thesis

Body (changes)

Body (continuities)

Conclusion
CCOT Essay Formula: You MUST follow the essay formula.
Thesis:
During the time period between (x) and (y) in (geographic location(s)) (continuity), (continuity), (continuity) remained constant in (AP Theme/topic), while there were significant changes in (AP Theme/topic) such as (change), (change), and (change).


  • You must include ALL important words from the prompt, the AP THEME/topic, and the time period.

  • You need at least TWO continuities and at least TWO changes, but should have additional changes and continuities when possible.

Prompt: Analyze continuities and changes in global interactions from 1450-1700.

Example: During the time period between 1450 and 1700, in the Americas, Afro-Eurasia, and Oceania, trade and technology remained constant in interactions, while there were significant changes in interactions with social structures, exploration, and global dominance.

Body Paragraph: Continuities (or you can do the changes paragraph first if you want)
Topic Sentence/Sentence #1: During the time period (date) to (date), (world context: what event was occurring) causing many things to stay constant in (AP Theme/topic) because (why did this event allow continuities? Connect it to the AP Theme/topic).


  • Think about the big picture events that are going during this time period.

  • You must explain what is going on in the world that caused the continuity. Cover the historical development of an event (what caused it and what it led to).

  • The world context must be relevant to the topic.

Example: During the time period 1450-1700, the maritime trade caused many things to stay constant in interactions because of the continuing need for trade and goods to sustain a global economy.
Continuity with Analysis/Sentence #2 & #3: Should be repeated at least 1X, more than likely 2X.

One continuity between (dates) that occurred in (AP Theme/topic) was (first category). The reason for this continuity is because (analysis). An example of this would be (evidence needs to be specific to the AP Theme/topic). Repeat at least once more – two would be best.




  • You must address the continuities (things that remained the same) during the time periods.

  • Each continuity must connect to the AP theme/topic in the prompt.


Example: One continuity between 1450-1700 that occurred in interactions was technology. The reason for this continuity is because as empires continued to trade technologies would be exchanged and improved upon. As example of this would be advanced shipping technology which spread to Europe from China allowing Europeans to dominate maritime trade in the Atlantic world.
Body Paragraph: Changes (or you can do the continuities paragraph second if you want)
Topic Sentence/Sentence #1: During the time period (date) to (date), (world context: what event was occurring; can be the same or another event that occurred during the time period) causing many things to change in (AP Theme/topic) because (why did this event cause changes? Connect to AP Theme/topic).


  • Think about the big picture events that are going during this time period.

  • You must explain what is going on in the world that caused the continuity. Cover the historical development of an event (what caused it and what it led to).

  • The world context must be relevant to the topic.


Example: During the time period 1450-1700, the Age of Exploration caused many things to change because of increasing interactions and trade between land-based empires and maritime empires.
Change with Analysis/Sentence #2 & #3: Should be repeated at least 1X, more than likely 2X.

One change between (dates) that occurred in (AP Theme) was (first category). The reason for this change is because (analysis). An example of this would be (evidence needs to be specific of the AP Theme). Repeat at least once more – two would be best.




  • You must address the changes (things that changed) during the time periods.

  • Each change must connect to the AP theme/topic in the prompt.

  • Sometimes, the prompt won’t specifically say to “analyze the changes and continuities…”. Even if it doesn’t say these specific words, you must still address both continuities and changes!


Example: One change that occurred in interactions was social structures of the Americas. The reason for this change was because as Europeans settled in the Americas new classes emerged as a result of interactions between Europeans, Africans, and Amerindians. An example of this was the creation of the casta system due to miscegenation.
Conclusion:

In your conclusion, try to make additional global connection by bringing the theme forward to “today” either by explaining how the theme would undergo further changes as we see it move forward in history, or how it would stay the same. This shows impact or explains “why do we care?”


Follow the structure! This is what will earn points on the AP exams, not what you have learned in other classes!

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