Computer Science 306 Final Review

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Computer Science 306

Final Review
The Final will be divided into two kinds of questions: Multiple Choice and Essay. I know most students do not like essay questions but ironically they tend to do better on essay questions than any other. Remember to be passionate about your answers and tell me what you think.
Chapter Outline
This review outline grew out of the many requests I received from students looking for help in preparing for the Mid-Term. I know how frustrating it can be especially in a class like this where there is so much information to be covered. I wrote this outline review by looking at each chapter and pulling out the most important information. Please remember that like “Cliff’s Notes”, this is not a replacement for your notes or the text books.
In teaching classes, I would like to share some honest-first-hand observations with you:
1. Never change your answer. Without a doubt you’ll change a right answer to a wrong one. I’ve seen it so many times that I decided to put it in my review notes. I can’t give you a concrete number but I would estimate that 80 percent of the time the change costs the student the question.
2. Make sure you’ve answered all the questions. I see it almost as much as I see students changing their answers. You get a good pace going, come upon a question you’re not sure about, decide to come back to it, you reach the end of the exam, forget about the unanswered question and it costs you the question. Please do a quick scan to make sure you answered all the questions.
3. Make sure you’ve answered the entire essay. I also see this happen a great deal, so much so that I have rewritten my essay questions so that each part of the essay is clearly listed separately. Please make sure you have answered all the parts of an essay question.
Essay Help
Not sure how to write an essay? What do I mean by essay? How would you approach an essay question? I get this question a great deal and have added it to my review notes.

An essay question is just like a regular question except that it requires you to give a more detailed answer than simple True or False or Multiple Choice Question. While it may seem more ‘evil’ it’s really a better type of question to ask as it is usually a broader type question rather than “I either know the answer or I don’t”. Students always do better on essay questions than other types of questions even though they seem to dislike them.

Here is an example question:
Regular Broadcast Television and Cable Television are both popular mediums in our society and play in providing us with entertainment and information our lives. However, they take different approaches to providing you with that content. Please answer the following questions in your essay:
-What is Regular Broadcast Television and Cable Television?

-Give me an example of each.

-What are two arguments that surround Regular Broadcast Television and Cable Television?

-Give me an example of each argument.

-Which one would Ted Turner favor?
Example Answer:
Regular Television has been with us the longest and is broadcast over the air. Anybody with a basic television and an antenna can receive its signals for free. While the content is free you are mostly limited to the amount of channels offered with Regular Broadcast Television.
Cable Television has been with us a much shorter time and delivers its content to your home via a coaxial cable. You also pay a monthly fee for its content but usually have a plethora of content to choose from with Cable Television.
Any of the local channels like WISE TV 33, WANE TV 15, or WFFT TV 55 would be an example of Regular Broadcast Television.
There is really only one Cable Television provider in Fort Wayne and that would be Comcast.
Many people would argue that the content that Cable Television carries is really made up of mostly reruns and poor quality shows that would not make it on the more democratic based Broadcast Television. In many cases Cable Television receives the throwaway shows that the main networks did not choose to show during the television season.
Competition would be another argument over these two mediums as most cities sign a contract with one cable provider to supply cable television to its residents. Since the city has a contract with one Cable Television provider, that company can raise rates and choose which content to carry on their medium with little regard for what the consumers want as there is no competition to keep prices fair and content diverse.
Ted Turner would favor Cable Television as he built his vast empire by creating content channels on Cable Television.

Chapter 6

Intellectual Property
What was this chapter about?

What is Intellectual Property?

How does Intellectual Property differ from Property?

When you purchase a one of these what are you buying?

IP is divided into two categories: Copyright and Patents

What is a Copyright?

How long is it good for?

Grants the right to:
Make copies of the work
Produce derivatives of the works (language translation, movies from books etc)
Distribute copies
Perform the work in public (music, plays, etc)
Display the work in public (artwork, movies, and computer games)
Facts, Ideas, Concepts, processes and methods of operation can be what?
Can you sell or transfer a copyright?
Can I copyright the title to a movie, book, game, or soda?
Are you allowed to make a backup copy of a copyrighted work?
For anything copyrighted?
How do you get a copyright?
Patent – another way to define IP
What is a Patent?
How long is it good for?
What is its purpose?


Does it seem to work based on its purpose?

Out of the two IPs which makes more money for the IP holder?

How New Technologies affect these laws:
We read before that the Gov always perceives new tech as a threat and I think for copyright folks they view new technology the same way.
What new technology brings to the table both for us and the copyright folks?
All info can be stored in a standard format (text, movies, graphics, music) CDs and DVDs

High-volume cheap media (CDs, DVDs, memory cards, and hard drives) Wal-mart

Scanners that can take analog format and convert it to digital format

Compression of the material (music, photo, movie) to aid in copying, storing, and sharing,

A digital copy is a perfect copy as opposed to analog to analog…VCR to VCR would degrade the quality

Ease of distributing copy over computer networks

WWW to find material

P2P to share material

Cheap cost to buy
Copyright Law
First copyright law passed in 1790
Copyright was based on being able to see and read the material in question
For a long period copyright was sorely behind the times and did little to help people
1909 Copyright was based on being and to see and read the material
60s Finally recognized databases

70s – A computer game company lost its case against a company stealing its ROM since you could not ‘see and read’ the material

80s – The decade for music as stricter laws were imposed

90s – The decade for software as stricter laws were imposed

2ks- Very strict law’s
Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998
What is it?
Why is it important?
How does it interfere with Intellectual Property Rights?

What is fairuse?

Give me some examples of fairuse?
Reviews, teaching material, criticism, news reporting etc..”
Four factors to consider fairuse
1. Nature and use of the material in terms of commercial or non-profit use
2. The nature of the copyrighted work. (Creative work has more protection than a factual based work).
3. Amount and significance of the work
4. The effect of the use on the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Of these factors which is weighted more?

Sony Betamax Tape Case
What was this about?

+Software Piracy

What are we talking about here? What is “Software Piracy
Digital Rights Management
Collection of technologies and techniques using encryption that allows prevention of copying or viewing without appropriate authorization. It also allows the author/producer to specify what may be done with the material protected by DRM.
“Compliance through force”
How does it work?
DRM will be broken into two parts:
The Players:

The next generation of devices will have DRM built into them. Your HDTV, your VCR or DVD recorder, your computer, your car stereo, your portable music player, etc…

The Media:

Music, Movies, Software, e-books, and Console games, etc…

The media will be encoded with which devices it can be played on. Example: U2’s next album can be played on Car Stereos and Home Stereos but not computers or copied to portable music devices (Ipods). The Super Bowl can be watched on your HDTV but not recorded on your new DVD Recorder. The devices and the media will talk to each other and know what can or can’t be done without your input.

Free speech issues

When DVD’s were introduced the movie industry was very excited because not only did they offer better picture quality than VHS, it would force people to buy their favorite movies again, but the biggest reason was the built in copy protection on the DVDs.
They created CSS which stands for?
Between the DMCA and the copy protection the future seemed incredibly bright for them.
Then in September of 1999 a 15 year old programmer from Norway named Jon Johansen or DVDJon as he is called on the Internet shattered the dreams of the movie industry by writing a program that was called ???? and did what????
Many US web sites and forums were talking about the DeCSS program, the source code, and how the encryption worked. A few of these sites also hosted the program so you could download it and try it out.
How did the court rule on the following:
Hosting the program/source code
Talking about the program
Talking about CSS encryption
What about talking about encryption in general or other DRM examples?

Free Software

What is it?
Does Free Software mean Free as in air?

What is Open Source?


What is copyleft?

How does it differ from copyright?

What is Proprietary Software (Closed Source)?


Who is Richard Stallman?

Open Source VS Closed Source (Proprietary Software)

The Future of Copyrights

Attorney Lance Rose’s view

Editor Esther Dyson’s view

How will IP holders make money?

Chapter 7

Computer Crime

What was this chapter about?

Review Kevin Mitnick in “Computers in Society”




Identiy Theft



The list goes on…

What is phreasking?
What is phishing?

What is a hacker?

Has it always meant this?
Kevin Mitnick was who?
What did he do differently?
Which part of a business is the weak link?
Computer Network

The employees

Location of the Computers

Security Guards in the building

What is Social Engineering?
How does it work?

What is a Denial of Service Attack?

What is a Distributed Denial of Service Attack?
What is a honey pot?
What would you use one?
Protesting in the future:
What is it?
What are the issues here?
Digital CSI:
What is Digital Forensics?
Why is it important?
Help Wanted: Hackers. Good Salary, 401k benefits, and paid holidays. Apply within.
Issues surrounding hiring teenage hackers?
Does the Government hire hackers?

Digital Forgery – When’s a picture not worth a million words?

What is the issue here?

Biometrics – Trading my Driver’s License for DNA

What is it and what will it do for me?

Chapter 8

Computers and Work
Review Employee Monitoring and Teleworking in “Computers in Society”
What is this chapter about?
How has technology changed ‘work’?

Losing my JOB to a box named IBM

How has technology affected jobs like bank tellers and phone operators?

Teleworking - My job moved in with us

What is teleworking?


How do cities feel about it?
How does the Gov feel about it?



Small B’s?

Which gender works more from home?
Employee Monitoring - Big brother sees and hears all
What is the main issue here?
What are the reasons corporations give for monitoring employees?
What are the most popular items checked?
What is the number one reasons retail stores give for monitoring employees?
What does the book say about creating policies for monitoring?
How do the courts feel about employee monitoring?
What kind of privacy should an employee expect at work?
What can you do to companies that promise not to monitor employees but do anyway?

Chapter 9

Broader Issues
What is this chapter about?
Social Issues:
Computers: Bringer together of people or divider



Personal Health

Digital Divide
What is it?
Who is involved?
How do they propose to solve it?
What are the arguments for?
What are the arguments against?
Loss of Skills
What is the main issue here?


Who are these people?
Who is Kirkpatrick Sale?
What are their arguments?
Computers cause massive unemployment and deskilling of jobs

Computers “manufacture needs”, we use them just because they are there not because they satisfy real need

Cause social inequality

Computers cause social disintegration; they are dehumanizing. They weaken communities and isolate people.

Computers separate humans from nature and destroy environments

Computer benefit big business and big government most

Use of Computers in schools thwarts development of social skills, human values, and intellectual skills in children. They promote corporate values.

Computers do little or nothing to solve real human problems.

Give examples of each?
Is there such a thing called “Bad Technology”?

Chapter 10

Professional Ethics
What is this chapter about?
Ethics in Technology
What is it?

Why is it important?

Ethical Views from the book
Emphasize duty and absolute rule regardless of consequences.
Three Main Points
1. We should follow rules of behavior that we can universally apply to everyone.
Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
2. Logic and Reason determines rules: that actions are intrinsically good because the follow from logic.
Using reason and facts over emotion will always lead to better judgment
3. Never treat people as merely means to ends but rather as ends in themselves.
A murder asks you where their victim is

You can’t lie even to protect the victim


Utility or happiness satisfies a person’s needs and values.

The consequences of your actions will give or takeaway your utility or happiness.
Each person has different actions that might make them happy.
Volunteering at a retirement home might make John happy
Walking for cancer might make Bob happy
Socialist theory---distributing personal possessions would make lots of people happy instead of just one.
Limited personal freedom or respect

+Natural Rights

Respect personal freedoms and rights like FOS, FO property, liberty

Ethical Actions of the Process the exchange between parties

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