Claim/Data/W



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Claim/Data/Warrant Paragraph
The CDW paragraph is a way of writing analytical paragraphs in which the writer’s opinion is supported by textual evidence and a detailed analysis of the textual evidence. The purpose of the CDW form is to assure that the central statement of a paragraph (the CLAIM) is always strongly supported (by DATA and its WARRANT). Most if not all CDW paragraphs have 2 data and a warrant that accompanies each one.


  • CLAIM: This is a statement of your topic (what your paragraph is about) AND your specific opinion or observation about it. It is one sentence (usually) and includes the author and title of the literary work you intend to cite in your DATA (punctuated correctly). It is as detailed and specific as you can make it! Example:

The use of irony in Roger Waters’ “Another Brick in the Wall Part 3” demonstrates that the lyrics are not specifically targeted at teachers, schools, or the adult world in general.


  • DATA: This is a quote, statistic, or other evidence taken from a source that supports your CLAIM. It is introduced by a sentence or partial sentence that indicates how it may relate to your claim or earlier statements. This introduction is called a transition statement. It will end in a comma if it contains a reporting verb (he says, she says, the author writes, Romeo whines, etc.) or a semi-colon if the quote introduction is a complete idea (that is to say, if you feel like using a period, but the sentence really does set up a quote, you probably want to use a ‘:’). Your DATA is cited using parenthetical referencing, which is a form of MLA documentation.

Example 1:



The use of the double negative in the line “we don’t need no education” suggest that Waters’ intentions were somewhat ironic in meaning.

Example 2:



Waters is also employing irony by using “we” rather than “I’ throughout the son- while also moving from a single voice to many.

Note that in the example, I mention the name of the author. If you don’t mention the author’s name in the sentence itself, you have to put it in parenthesis at the end, like this: The song clearly states that “we don’t need no education” (Waters).




  • WARRANT: A warrant is the analysis of the textual evidence used to support your claim. It includes a statement of what the quote says if necessary AND what it means (this latter part can never be skipped or assumed!). Moreover, you MUST indicate how this meaning supports, that is to say proves the claim. You cannot merely state ‘this quote shows that ____ is ____.’ You must, rather, suggest that the passage illustrates your point for some reason that YOU supply. The use of a ‘because’ or similar analytical word will force you not to skip this step. A warrant is the real analysis of an analytical paragraph, therefore it should be 2-3 sentences (AT THE LEAST) and should leave the reader sure of the writer’s point. Note the extensive ANALYSIS of the previous quote in the following example.

Example:



By purposely making the speakers sound uneducated, the text clearly reveals the writer’s view that education is a necessary evil. Without it, clear expression of one’s own feelings are impossible. And without clear expression, there is no credibility. The education is needed; the trick is to survive one’s education long enough to be able to hold onto individual thoughts.
Example 2:

While the song has been long held up as a cry for individuality, this word choice and the shift from one to many voices focuses attention on the impossibility of ever acting alone. Presumably, the character in the movie begins to think for himself—but as soon as he shows his feelings, others join in. This shows the dilemma of the independent thinker: as soon as he has a good idea, others wish to join him. Chaos then ensues, and the “I” becomes “we.”



  • Conclusions: In your concluding sentence, you will want to sum up the content of your two warrants, knitting your whole point together once more.

Example:

Taken together, these two examples of irony in “Another Brick in the Wall” demonstrate the futility of trying to be completely unique or to escape the need for education. As painful as it can be, the society we live in demands a certain level of knowledge in order to be heard. Furthermore, when we are heard, the options go from bad to worse. We can be mocked, or we can be joined by the unthinking masses. Rather than being an attack on schools in particular, this song is clearly an expression of how futile our attempts at individualism are.
Topic sentence (or CLAIM)

Data (EXAMPLE FROM TEXT)

Warrant (explanation of data, how it relates to the topic sentence and supports your point) CONCLUSION (wrap-up of what you have just said)
The use of irony in Roger Waters’ “Another Brick in the Wall Part 3” demonstrates that the lyrics are not specifically targeted at teachers or schools, but rather the adult world in general. The use of the double negative in the line “we don’t need no education” hints at an underlying meaning to the song. By purposely making the speakers sound uneducated, the text clearly reveals the writer’s view that education is a necessary evil. Without it, clear expression of one’s own feelings is impossible. And without clear expression, there is no credibility. The education is needed; the trick is to survive one’s education long enough to be able to hold onto individual thoughts. Waters is also employing irony by using “we” rather than “I’ throughout the son- while also moving from a single voice to many. While the song has been long held up as a cry for individuality, this word choice and the shift from one to many voices focuses attention on the impossibility of ever acting alone. Presumably, the character in the movie begins to think for himself—but as soon as he shows his feelings, others join in. This shows the dilemma of the independent thinker: as soon as he has a good idea, others wish to join him. Chaos then ensues, and the “I” becomes “we.” Taken together, these two examples of irony in “Another Brick in the Wall” demonstrate the futility of trying to be completely unique or to escape the need for education. Rather than being an attack on schools in particular, this song is clearly an expression of how futile our attempts at individualism are.

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