By Dr. Teresita G. Inciong



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A paper presented at the 11th Governing Board Meeting of SEAMEO RETRAC

at the Institut Aminuddin Baki (IAB), Genting Highlands, Malaysia



27 -31 August 2008

by Dr. Teresita G. Inciong

Assistant Secretary for Programs and Projects

Department of Education, Philippines
Basic Education Curriculum Revisited:

A Look at the Current Content and Reform

I. Introduction and Historical Background
The public school system, complemented by the private school system, has presently reached the farthest barrio or sitio of the country. There is no known barrio or barangay, without at least a one-teacher school offering either part of or a whole primary, intermediate, or multigrade program to the children in the place. This is a clear indication that at least elementary education is now accessible to all children, including the unreached indigenous and unknown groups, who are slowly being discovered and provided with schools.
Historically, in 1935 the provisions for education were stated in a Constitution promulgated and adopted by Filipinos in preparation for the granting of independence by the United States Section 5 of Article XIV of the said constitution states:
The Government shall establish and maintain a complete and adequate system of public education, and shall provide at least free public primary (four years) instruction and citizenship training to adult citizens. All schools shall aim to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience, and vocational efficiency and to teach the duties of citizenship.
In 1948, the Board of Consultants of the Joint Congressional Committee in Education formulated the objectives of Philippine Education, However, in 1957, the Board of National Education, later called National Board of Education, issued a Revised Educational Program based on Republic Act No. 1124, which elucidating on the purposes of the first two levels of education to wit:
The elementary school should offer adequate education for all children to prepare them for democratic citizenship. It should give instruction in basic knowledge, develop basic skills and attitudes, and inculcate ideals necessary for the promotion of national solidarity and for the development of an enlightened, patriotic, useful, and upright citizenry in a democracy. Giving emphasis to the culture, desirable traditions, and virtues of our people, it should prepare the child for effective participation in his community and for a better understanding of an expanding society. It shall aim to emphasize greater opportunities for the cultivation of unspecialized skills and of proper attitudes toward work through the training of children of suitable age in practical and useful occupations.
The secondary school shall continue the unifying functions of elementary education by providing general education and shall seek to discover the varying abilities, interests, and aptitudes of the youth, and offer courses in the different fields of productive endeavor according to the talents of the youths and in the light of community needs. It shall also initiate a program designed to develop community leadership.
Taking into consideration the economic needs of the country, the school must cultivate vocational efficiency which will help the students become effective members of the family and the community. For those who will continue in colleges and universities, the secondary school must offer courses to prepare the students for effective study in the institutions of higher learning.
The curriculum revisions that accompanied the abovementioned formulations and statements of educational objectives were said to have developed from one stage to another in response to the changing needs of the country, to discoveries of knowledge new in content and methodology, to new insights in how children learn and to new knowledge of the nature of the learning process itself. Further, curriculum revisions were undertaken as brought about by changes in educational thinking in terms of its shifts of attention which were made the basis of the school curriculum: from the accumulation of facts and information to real life problems to the needs and resources of the community. Thus, the Philippine curriculum has evolved and grown out of these different stages.
However, it was felt that “the hidden curriculum has greater impact on the life of the learner than the expressed one.”
Educating the Filipinos for what?” This was the critical question posed in line with the scrutiny being done to Philippine Education.
Based on the recommendations of the Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education in 1971 and endorsed by the National Board of Education, maximum contribution of the educational system to the attainment of the formulated national development goals then was stated as a government policy in the “Educational Development Act of 1972, otherwise known as Presidential Decree No. 6-A, issued on September 29, 1972, a week after the proclamation of Martial Law.
Hence, re provisions that are only relevant to basic education, the aims of the educational system then are hereby enumerated as:
1. Provide for a broad general education that will assist each individual in the peculiar ecology of his own society to:

1.1 attain his potential as a human being;

1.2 enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society; and

1.3 acquire the essential educational foundation for his development into a productive and versatile citizen.



2. Train the nation’s manpower in the middle level skills required for national development.
In 1972, the era of New Society under Martial Law was the period of national development, social reconstruction and restructuring of values. It was then that the goal of Basic Education was conceptualized when educational indicators were considered educational benchmarks: the drop out rate, participation rate, repetition rate, etc. In the process of introducing reforms in Philippine education, the conceptualization of the components and of the minimum level of basic education that all Filipinos must acquire in order to live fully as individual human beings and as members of a domestic society was the pressing need.
Rather than interpret educational goals in terms of listing of subjects for the schools to teach under definite time allotments, there was a need to translate these educational objectives into a minimum body of knowledge, skills, and attitude that are clearly defined, directed at behavior changes, performance-oriented, possible of achievement, and easily measured.
Philip H. Coombs, suggested in a study of the learning needs of children and youth in developing countries undertaken for UNICEF, six interdependent elements of a basic education program which are believed to be true to all societies that educators in charge of reappraising and introducing reforms into their system would find agreement on them. These elements are (a) positive attitudes, (b) functional literacy and numeracy, (c) scientific outlook and an elementary understanding of the processes of nature, (d) functional knowledge and skills for raising family and operating a household (e) functional knowledge and skills for earning a living, and (f) functional knowledge and skills for civic participation.
Truly these elements were adopted, modified and supplemented to suit Philippine conditions in the conceptualization of Basic Education for Filipinos. Basic education was concisely and meaningfully described by Faure et al., in Learning To Be as:
“While dispensing fundamental knowledge, such education aims at learning how to perceive and comprehend the world. It must instill, especially in children, a taste for self-learning that will last a lifetime; to arouse their desire to know, to ask questions, and to question themselves while developing the faculties of observation and judgment and the critical spirit. Finally, it should try to awaken the feeling in an individual that he belongs to a community and that each person has a creative responsibility toward himself and others.”
It was noted that the scope of the principal elements of basic education correspond logically and psychologically to the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor needs and interests of the children and youth in the elementary and secondary cycles of schooling. However, a sequence that will fit the maturity levels of the children in the system will be considered in translating them into subjects and experiences for the curriculum.
Basic Education, being many-sided and multi-based can only be effectively delivered through multiple avenues. Basic education must be designed not only for the children in-school but also for the out-of-school youth and adults. The venue of basic education, therefore, will be the whole community.
Realizing the need for a curriculum that would be responsive and viable in the present era, the Department of Education, then called Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports launched the Experimental Elementary Education Program (EEEP). This experimental program ran for two (2) years with decongested curriculum. It offered fewer subjects merging some subjects and new relevant ones were introduced such as the integration of Language and Reading into Communication Arts. Work Education was introduced as a subject as early as in Grade 1 considering the rising importance of community resources in making education relevant and effective. Thus non-formal education assumes a major importance with other agencies offering non-formal education, such as the National Manpower and Youth Council which played an important role in attaining educational roles.
In 1982, financed by the World Bank, a 10-year Program for Decentralized Education Development known as PRODED was launched under the umbrella of the Program for Comprehensive Elementary Education (PROCEED). It was geared towards the improvement of elementary education with focus on upgrading the quality of education and increasing pupil participation and survival rates. Moreover, the program also attempted to address disparities between and within regions in the delivery of services and allocation of resources according to the degree of educational deprivation of each region.
The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) is the core of PRODED. A subcomponent of this curriculum development project was entitled The Preparation of Elementary Education Measures also known as PREEM.
The New Elementary School Curriculum has the following features:


  1. It covers fewer learning areas putting greater emphasis on intellectual skills and basic knowledge, especially reading, writing and mathematics as well as attitude formation among pupils.

  2. Its content focuses on the development of a shared values and belief system which fosters humanism and sense of nationhood among children.

  3. It aims at mastery learning among the pupils.

  4. It also emphasizes the development of work skills which are as important as intellectual skills.

  5. It develops health values in the whole curriculum, not only in the period for character building activities and science and health.

  6. It develops competencies and values for social living reflected in the new dimension in Civics and Culture expanded to include History, Geography and Work Ethic for Grade III and in-depth learning of Geography, History and Civics in Grades IV-VI.

It is a fact that this New Elementary School Curriculum of 1982 has to two (2) vital orientations: 1) intellectual quality of Filipino society into the next century and 2) development of humanism and sense of nationhood. Thus, the term Filipinism was coined to embody these orientations.


“Whereas, in the early 1990’s the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) submitted its findings to the Philippine Congress on the education system and made several policy recommendations. Most of those policy recommendations have been translated into educational laws but other important recommendations remain to be acted upon.” (Executive Order No. 46)
In December 1998 by virtue of the cited Executive Order No. 46, the Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER) was established and given one year to define a comprehensive and a budget feasible program of reform in areas such as among others, curricula, teaching methods, instructional media, educational technologies, textbooks, language policy and school calendar in use at the elementary and secondary levels, using international benchmarks.
The Committee on Information Technology, Science, Mathematics Education and Other Technologies (ITSMEOT) cited in PCER Report:
The elementary curriculum in the Philippines is overcrowded, Grades 1-3 in particular…Having too many subjects limits the extent to which teachers and students can focus on those basic skills critically important for good performance and success in the later grade levels…Research on student learning suggests that greater emphasis should be given to reading and communication skills and to understanding basic mathematical and scientific concepts.
As regards Secondary Education, ITSMEOT in the same report states:
The New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) deserves a second look. It must be vis-à-vis the NSAT (National Secondary Achievement Test) results of the last four years where the students achieved mean percentage scores of only about 50%. The lowest scores were recorded in science and mathematics indicating that these are the most difficult subjects for the students, and for which additional contact time may be needed and innovative teaching techniques should be devised to make them interesting and less daunting to students…The basic education curriculum should be streamlined such that it will provide for greater concept understanding, mastery of skills (e.g. critical thinking and other scientific skills) and appreciation of science and technology as applied to daily life. (PCER, 111)
To help raise the achievement level of students, a redefined curriculum in which components have been reclustered into (a) fewer learning areas with (b) better integration of better competencies and topics within and across these learning areas and with (c) more time not for additional subject matter that will overload learners but for the mastery of essential competencies and for personal analysis and reflection on the major concepts. The outcome will be a restructured, upgraded and more integrated curriculum where every learning competency is useful and none is superfluous. Further, there is a need to distinguish the various committees to which curriculum and language are being addressed, for example, traditional oral communities, traditional subsistence communities, Muslim Filipinos, and lowland Christians, rural and urban unlike the one-size-fits-all approach that makes formal education less relevant.
II. The Basic Education Curriculum and Legal Bases
The Education Act of 1982 or Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 provides the general objectives of elementary, secondary and nonformal education.
The objectives of elementary education are as follows:


  1. Provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes and values essential for personal development, a productive life, and constructive engagement with a changing social milieu;

  2. Provide learning experiences that increase the child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the just demands of society;

  3. Promote and intensify awareness of, identification with, and love for our nation and the community to which the learner belongs;

  4. Promote experiences that develop the learner’s orientation to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work.

The objectives of secondary education are threefold:

  1. Continue the general education started in elementary;

  2. Prepare the learners for college, and

  3. Prepare the learners for the world of work.

The 1987 Constitution provides the basic state policies on education, both formal and nonformal.


Article XIV, Section 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
Article XIV, Section 2 (1). The State shall establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society.
Article XIV, Section 2 (4). The State shall encourage nonformal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning, independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs.
Article XIV, Section 3 (2) states that the school
shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency.
The focus of DECS mandate to basic education then was to cover elementary, secondary and non-formal education including culture and sports. In August 2001, Governance of Basic Education Act (Republic Act 9155) was passed transforming the name of DECS to DepED and redefining the role of field offices namely, regional, division, district and schools. The same Act provides the over-all framework to strengthen leadership roles of school heads vis-à-vis school-based management within the context of transparency and accountability. Through this, the goal of basic education which is, to provide the school age population and young adults with skills and knowledge and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens, will hopefully be attained.
The Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001 provides the general goal of basic education: to develop the Filipino learners by providing them basic competencies in literacy and numeracy, critical thinking and learning skills, socially aware, patriotic, and responsible citizens.
The Governance of Basic Education Act envisions a curriculum that shall promote the holistic growth of the Filipino learners and enable them to acquire the core competencies and develop the proper values. This curriculum shall be flexible to meet the learning needs of a diverse studentry, and is relevant to their immediate environment and social and cultural realities.

Thus, in line with the vision of the Philippine Basic Education, the Department issued DepED Order No. 43, s. 2002 known as “The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum”.


The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum is a restructuring and not a sweeping change of the elementary and secondary curricula (New Elementary School Curriculum and New Secondary Education Curriculum). The goals, objectives structure and content of the 2002 Curriculum are in compliance with the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, the 2001 Governance of Basic Education Act, and the 1982 Education Act.
III. Current: The Restructured Curriculum for Formal Basic Education
The 2002 Curriculum for formal basic education aims at raising the quality of the Filipino learners and graduates and empowering them for lifelong learning, which requires the attainment of functional literacy. The restructured curriculum makes use of innovative, interdisciplinary and integrative modes of instructional delivery whenever these modes are possible and appropriate.


Figure 1. Conceptual Framework of Basic Education Curriculum




Since integration works best when teachers of different disciplines plan and teach together thus collaborative teaching is strongly encouraged in this 2002 curriculum. The ideal teaching-learning process is interactive, and thus the curriculum has been restructured to promote more reciprocal interaction between students and teachers, between themselves (collaborative learning), between students and instructional materials, between students and multi-media sources, and between teachers of different disciplines. Using the restructured curriculum, schools are allowed to design and contextualize the implementation of Makabayan while information communication technology shall be used in every learning area, whenever hardware and software are available. No teacher will be made redundant and none will be underloaded or overloaded in the implementation of this curriculum. Likewise, every teacher is a values educator, identifying and contextualizing the values inherent in her or his discipline and serves as a role model of the learners.


Even with the integration of values and lifeskills in Filipino, English, Science and Mathematics, these learning areas will inevitably accentuate the development of linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences. Therefore there is a need for one learning area to provide more opportunities for the learner to pursue other meaningful interests and to develop the interpersonal, spatial, musical and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences.
The design of the curriculum is based on the principle that there are two (2) main sources of reliable and meaningful knowledge for contemporary basic education: expert systems of knowledge and the learner’s experience in his or her context. The curriculum has been restructured so that these two main sources will interact with one another reciprocally thereby an interactive one.


Figure 2. Curriculum Parameters




Studies indicate that an overcrowded curriculum and its insufficient relevance to the diverse context of our learners hinder or delay the development of lifelong learning skills hence to decongest the curriculum and make it easier for teachers and learners to contextualize it, the curriculum has been restructured into five (5) learning areas namely Filipino, English, Science, Mathematics, and Makabayan with a stronger integration of competencies within and across these learning areas. Each of these five learning areas addresses both the individual and social needs of learners. However Makabayan will be the learning area that stresses most on the development of social awareness and empathy and a firm commitment to the common good.




Figure 3. Restructured Curriculum for Formal Basic Education



Table 1. Learning Areas for Basic Education


Grade/Year Level

Learning Area 1

Learning Area 2

Learning Area 2

Learning Area 4

Learning Area 5

1

Filipino

English (with Science)

_

Mathematics

Makabayan (with Science)

2

Filipino

English (with Science)

_

Mathematics

Makabayan (with Science)

3

Filipino

English

Science and Health

Mathematics

Makabayan

4

Filipino

English

Science and Health

Mathematics

Makabayan

5

Filipino

English

Science and Health

Mathematics

Makabayan

6

Filipino

English

Science and Health

Mathematics

Makabayan

First Year

Filipino

English

Integrated Science

Elementary Algebra

Makabayan

Second Year

Filipino

English

Biology

Intermediate Algebra

Makabayan

Third Year

Filipino

English

Chemistry

Geometry

Makabayan

Fourth Year

Filipino

English

Advanced Chemistry (Track A)

Physics (Track B)

Business Mathematics & Statistics (Track A)

Trigonometry & Advanced Algebra (Track B)

Makabayan



Table 2. Basic Education Curriculum Weekly Time Allotment


Grade/Year Level

Filipino

English

Science

Mathematics

Makabayan

Total Minutes/ Week

1

400

500

Integrated in English & Makabayan

400

300

1600

2

400

500

Integrated in English & Makabayan

400

300

1600

3

400

500

200

400

300

1800

4

300

400

300

300

500

1800

5

300

400

300

300

600

1900

6

300

400

300

300

600

1900

First Year

300

300

300

300

780

1980

Second Year

300

300

300

300

780

1980

Third Year

300

300

300

300

780

1980

Fourth Year

300

300

300

300

780

1980

Comparatively, these are the features that make the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum different from the previous NESC and NSEC:


a) restructuring of the learning areas to five (Filipino, English, Science, Mathematics, and Makabayan,

b) stronger integration of competencies and values within and across the learning areas,

c) greater emphasis on the learning process and integrative modes of teaching, and

d) increased time for tasks to gain mastery of competencies of the basic tool subjects.


The NFE curriculum is not a replica of the formal curriculum, and does not have the grade levels of formal education, although the learning outcomes of the nonformal curriculum and the restructured formal curriculum are practically equivalent. The Non-Formal Education (NFE) curriculum has been designed to be more responsive to the needs of out-of-school youth and adult learners, who will be empowered to function effectively as family and community members, workers, entrepreneurs, and Filipino citizens.
Curriculum development is a dynamic process and thus this restructured curriculum will continue to develop year after year.


IV. CHALLENGES
Revisiting the basic education curriculum is looking back the pilot years, the lessons learned, insights gained and moving forward for further improvement. It poses challenges therefore in terms of continuous consultation among stakeholders and realizing that the legitimacy of the curriculum does not depend on legislation or executive fiat but on a common ownership the stakeholders have of the curriculum.
1. Continuous capacity building
Change can indeed be threatening. It is because of this that capacity building must become an ongoing process. Everyone must be open to policy changes such as on the following recommendations:


      • Emphasis on English as the language of instruction (5 out of 8 subjects shall be taught in English)

      • Restoration of the unit credits in the secondary level

      • Change in the time allotment for Science from 400 minutes to 360 minutes per week and for Social Studies from 200 minutes to 240 minutes per week

      • Individual rating instead of averaging for the components of Makabayan

      • Adoption of a performance-based grading system




        1. No transmutation of grades

        2. Use of non-traditional assessment to complement the usual teacher-made tests

        3. Adoption of a common test design: 60-30-10 Lowering of the failing grade that can appear in the report card from 70 to 65% and setting the lowest passing at 75%

      • Customization of summer classes to learning needs

      • Simplified selection of honor students

      • Greater application of ICT in the curriculum: moving from learning about the technology to using the technology as a tool for teaching and learning




    1. Quality of textbooks and of instruction




      • Better quality books for the cheapest prices in addition to the revision of textbooks to respond and include current technology such as ICT




    1. Road Map to Education

DepED is currently pursuing a package of policy reforms called Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) to build upon the effects of the Schools First Initiative (SFI) and to create a basic education sector that is capable of achieving the Education for All (EFA) objectives by 2015. Its centerpiece is School-Based Management (SBM) which intends to enable and empower school stakeholders to manage their own affairs for improved delivery of educational services through continuous improvement of school management. It covers six (6) dimensions: (1) School Leadership (2) Internal Stakeholder Participation (3) Extent Stakeholder Participation (4) SIP Process (5) School-Based Resources (6) School Performance Accountability.


The following critical interventions are being scaled up to improve the way both and public and private schools perform:


        1. School-Based Management Grants to support establishment of SBM structures and implementation, monitoring and reporting of school improvement plans

        2. Training of teachers, school heads and education managers to improve quality in basic education

        3. Establishing Competency-Based Teachers Standards

        4. Putting up of Speech Laboratories for Oral Language Proficiency

        5. Implementing Programs for Excellence (Arts, Sports, Special Education, TECH-VOC Education) to promote holistic development of children via co-curricular activities and special curricular offerings. DepED is currently working on the provision of supplemental school budgets to support the expenditures entailed by this unique program offering

        6. Aligning National Examinations to the Requirements of the Quality Assurance and Accountability Framework as Measures of Student Outcome

        7. Providing Alternative Delivery Modes of Learning to address the basic education needs of learners in unique or difficult situations who encounter problems attending the formal school system. Examples are Distance Education for public elementary schools, open high school and Project Ease (Easy and Affordable Secondary Education)

        8. Expanding Early Childhood/Preschool Education to provide quality early childhood education for all 5-year olds since early childhood education is a critical phase in a child’s development

        9. Providing ICT in Basic Education to gain access to quality educational materials while upgrading the capabilities of teachers and school administrators by providing computers, softwares, coursewares and other paraphernalia laying the foundation for a large scale technology-based intervention through Open and Distant Learning

        10. Investing on Science and Math equipment and constructing Tech-Voc workshops to help students apply the scientific concepts, tinker with some equipment for experimentation and learning retention while Tech-Voc workshops is aimed to upgrade the quality of co-curricular programs




    1. DepED Thrusts and Programs

      • Continuing curricular innovations

        1. Refinement of English, Science and Math

        2. Special Science Elementary/Secondary Schools

        3. Alternative Learning System

        4. Bridging learning gaps through the use of mother tongue

      • Strengthening Preschool Education

        1. Human Resource Development

        2. Systematizing Service Contracting

        3. Linkages with Stakeholders

      • ICT Integration in Teaching/Learning Processes

        1. Pupil Development

        2. Human Resource Development

        3. Governance

      • Provision of Appropriate Educational Delivery System to Children at Risk

        1. Children with special needs

        2. Indigenous Peoples, Muslims

        3. Child laborers, abused and street children

        4. Others

      • Managing Schools and Teachers for Better Learning Outcomes

        1. Appraisal of Performance of Public Elementary Schools (APPES)

        2. Every Child A Reader Program (ECARP)

        3. National Achievement Test (NAT) - Elementary and Secondary

        4. National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE)

      • Strengthening Tech-Voc Education

This program is in response to the concerns on drop-outs on secondary education, job-skills mismatch, higher learning and career preparation. Tech-Voc high schools provide students with appropriate skills, an avenue to earn extra income while in school and provide them with more options either to pursue higher learning or enter into the world of work or entrepreneurship. Thus, Tech-Voc trainings are meant to equip secondary school students with employable skills. This program gives priority to 261 Tech-Voc high schools by putting them in a unique place in a public secondary system categorized as, (1) arts and trades schools (2) agriculture schools (3) fishery schools.
At present, of the 261 tech-voc high schools, there are 139 or 53.26% arts and trade schools, 78 or 29.89% agriculture schools and 44 or 16.86% fishery schools.
Tech-Voc high schools curricular offerings are ladderized and competency-based, having been aligned with the training regulations of Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in order to produce students with the right skills matched with the requirements and standards of the local and international labor industries.


    1. Policy Directions




    1. School-Based Management

    • Greater authority for principals to manage own affairs based on DepED standards for improved SBM practice

    • Drilling down school budget to promote continuous school improvement

    • Provision of more principal items to schools for greater accountability over results

    • Provision of augmentation funds to schools with special programs in ESM, tech-voc, culture, arts, sports and SPED




    1. Expansion of the DepED Preschool Program

    • DepED to expand coverage of 5-year olds

    • Training on standard curriculum and its related instructional materials will be extended to Day Care Center (DCC) workers handling preschool classes

    • Private and NGO schools to be encouraged to adopt the Grade 1 Readiness Assessment Tool

    • Regulatory functions of DepED over private preschools are undergoing review




    1. Scaling up proven educational technologies in providing alternative delivery modes and alternative learning system services

    • MISOSA (Modified in-school, off-school approach)

    • Balik Paaralan para sa mga OSY/OSA

    • Open Learning (e.g. Project EASE (Easy and Affordable Secondary Education), IMPACT (Instructions Managed by Parents, Community and Teachers), Night High School)




    1. Accelerating Integration of ICT in Basic Education

    • Technology-based education, including open and distant learning

    • Massive training of teachers, administrators, supervisors, education managers

    • Tighten system of governance

    • Management information systems

A review of the DepED expenditures last 2007 reveals the government’s prioritizing basic education in its development agenda. Likewise, the active participation of the local governments, private sector, non-government organizations and civil societies, including multilateral and bilateral organizations in helping improve the quality of basic education in the country will eventually lead to improving the life of every Filipino.




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