Women's Trade Union League and Its Leaders Author Index



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Women's Trade Union League and Its Leaders

Author Index


Anderson, Mary.

Correspondence and Papers on Special Topics; Biographical and Personal Material.



Collection III: Mary Anderson Papers; This final reel of the Anderson Papers consists of two segments. The first, Correspondence and Papers on Special Topics, is divided into six sections, as follows:1. International Federation of Working Women (frames 1-187). Apart from two earlier items, the material concerns the Federation's congress of 1923, to which Anderson was a delegate, and the IFWW's merger in 1925 into the International Federation of Trade Unions. Included are copies of official correspondence of the secretariat, 1923-25, a few printed leaflets and reports, and a typed report of the 1923 congress by Ethel M. Smith of the WTUL.2. Accusations of Radicalism (frames 188-395). This section consists of correspondence, plus some clippings and pamphlets, relating mainly to two episodes: the publication of a pair of articles in Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent in March 1924 alleging vast radical influence upon American women's organizations and including the statement that Anderson had had the federal government print a "program of Women's and Children's Work" that was "identical with" one proposed by "the director of welfare in Soviet Russia"; and the circulation within the Daughters of the American Revolution of a "blacklist" of alleged radicals in which Anderson was listed as a "socialist." (See Reel 1 for a related episode in 1927.)3. Travel Authorizations, World War II (frames 396-437). These official forms provide a log of Anderson's wartime trips and their purposes.4. Wartime Correspondence with a Relative, Kenneth Kittelson (frames 438-479). Contains both sides of Anderson's correspondence with a young serviceman, 1942-43.5. Christening of the S.S. Anna Howard Shaw (frames 480-620). The extensive correspondence here reflects the interest Anderson took in this event of 1943. It was she who suggested the naming of a Liberty Ship after the noted suffragist, who had headed the Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense in World War I, and she who performed the christening. Among the correspondents in this section are Lucy E. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Maud Wood Park.6. Hannah Harrison School of Industrial Arts (frames 621-663). Minutes and reports of the planning committee, of which Anderson was an active member, for a vocational school for women. The school, organized under the auspices of the Washington, D.C., YWCA, opened in 1950.The second segment, Biographical and Personal Material, has the following subdivisions:1. Articles about Mary Anderson (frames 664-721). Mostly clippings and publicity releases, these range from a biographical article in the Ladies Home Journal of August 1920 through a typed account by a Women's Bureau staff member, Mary V. Robinson, written originally for the Railway Conductor of Jan. 11, 1940, and revised in June 1944. The section includes a long list of persons recommending Anderson for the Pictorial Review's annual award of 1930, with excerpts from their letters of support.2. Articles and Addresses by Mary Anderson (frames 722-818). These are mostly published items, including several contributed to the American Federationist, organ of the AF of L. Her defense of labor laws for women (1927) was published by Good Housekeeping along with an opposing article by Rheta Childe Dorr. A 20-page typescript marked "War History" seems to be a partial transcript of dictated recollections by Anderson of the Bureau's work in World War II. It includes frank comments about her conflicts with Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins and with Clara M. Beyer of the Labor Department's Division of Labor Standards. The typescript bears signs of extensive penciled changes, subsequently erased.3. Autobiography (frames 819-839B). This small section contains several letters about Anderson's autobiography, including two long, enthusiastic, and reminiscent ones from the journalist Anne Hard, and clippings of reviews. More material about the autobiography can be found in the papers of Anderson's collaborator, Mary Winslow, in the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe College.4. Material on Friends of Mary Anderson (frames 840-871). Miscellaneous clippings and memoirs, including several items about Mary Winslow and a printed report of the Chicago WTUL's memorial services for Margaret Dreier Robins.5. Miscellaneous Memorabilia (frames 872-913). Includes a World War I identification badge, a police identity book for a sojourn in England in 1919, and a passport of 1923.

Reel: 4
Anderson, Mary.

General Correspondence and Papers.



1918-1939

Collection III: Mary Anderson Papers; The reel begins with a few scattered items dating from 1918 to 1921. Among these are Anderson's letters of appointment to her wartime posts in the Army Ordnance Department and in the Labor Department's Women in Industry Service and her letter of credentials as a representative of the National Women's Trade Union League to the Paris Peace Conference. (There is no documentation here of her appointment in 1920 as head of the peacetime Women's Bureau.) In a letter of February 1922 to John M. Glenn, Anderson describes the wartime work of Mary Van Kleeck in the Ordnance Department and in the Department of Labor and her role as Van Kleeck's assistant.The main body of correspondence begins with 1922, during the Harding administration, and continues through most of the New Deal. Letters of 1922-24 between Anderson and Harriet Taylor Upton, an influential Ohio Republican, illustrate political cooperation for women's goals, with Upton securing an increased appropriation for the Women's Bureau and Anderson aiding Upton's bid for a seat in Congress. Several items in 1924 help document the negotiations between the American Federation of Labor and the National Women's Trade Union League over the Federation's proposed women's department. There is also discussion in 1924 of a new president for the NWTUL, in letters of Mary Van Kleeck, Elisabeth Christman, and others.The most persistent theme of this reel -- the defense of protective legislation for women against the aggressive campaign of the Woman's Party for an Equal Rights Amendment -- begins in 1923. Anderson discusses the topic at some length in correspondence with President M. Carey Thomas of Bryn Mawr (1924-25) and, more briefly, with Lady Astor of England (1925) and Lena Madesin Phillips of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs (1937-38). There are references also to the Industrial Conference called by the Women's Bureau in 1926 and to the Bureau's subsequent investigation, directed by Mary Winslow, into the effect of labor legislation on employment opportunities for women, an investigation undertaken as a result of pressure from the Woman's Party. A lesser but recurrent theme is Anderson's various contacts with the International Labor Organization, culminating in her appointment as chairman of the U.S. delegation to its conference in 1933.Other topics on the reel include the occasional cooperation of the National Consumers' League with the Women's Bureau in support of protective legislation for women (see letters of Florence Kelley in 1925 and Mary Dewson in 1933); Josephine Roche of Colorado and her union coal mine (1929, 1930, 1933); brief references to the work of Katherine Philips Edson (1922, 1933) and Judge Florence E. Allen (1934, 1939); Anderson's relations during the New Deal years with Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins and with Eleanor Roosevelt; a conference of women's organizations, called by the NWTUL, to protest wage differentials between women and men in NRA codes (Anderson to Mrs. Roosevelt, February 1934); and Anderson's participation in Washington's pioneering Group Health Association (1938-39).There is considerable correspondence throughout the reel with Mary Van Kleeck. Other correspondents not already mentioned include John B. Andrews, the English labor leader Margaret Bondfield, Mabeth Hurd Paige of the Minnesota legislature, Cornelia Bryce Pinchot, Gifford Pinchot, Mary Winslow, and, in one or two letters each, Grace Abbott, Jane Addams, Fannia M. Cohn, Mary E. Dreier, Felix Frankfurter, Alice Henry, Kate Manicom of England, Kate F. O'Connor, Raymond Robins, and Ida M. Tarbell. A letter from Victor A. Olander in 1938 discusses the activities of Communists in labor unions.

Reel: 1
Anderson, Mary.

General Correspondence and Papers.



1940-1944

Collection III: Mary Anderson Papers; The volume of correspondence increases markedly on this reel, which covers the final five years of Anderson's tenure as director of the Women's Bureau. The letters for these years include a fair amount of information about Bureau activities, now largely directed to protecting the interests of working women in wartime. For American industry, the war period began in 1940, when Hitler's advances in Europe provoked a large expansion of military production, both to strengthen America's defense and to aid the beleaguered Allies. Various letters touch upon the Bureau's efforts to formulate and maintain standards for the employment of women in defense industries, to ward off attempts to relax protective legislation, to ensure access of women to new jobs and training programs, and to attain wage scales equal to those of men. There are references to the loan to the Bureau of Elisabeth Christman, national secretary of the WTUL, in 1942 and to her field work as trouble-shooter in employment controversies; her decision a year later to return to the League was a disappointment to Anderson. There is material also on Anderson's uncertain relationship with Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins; see particularly the controversy in November 1943 over Perkins' supposed reluctance to support an increased appropriation for the Bureau, and the strong protest registered by leaders of the WTUL. Other references to the League are meager, although there are a dozen letters from Mary Dreier, seven from Rose Schneiderman, three from Agnes Nestor, and one from Mollie Dowd.On other topics, several letters deal with postwar planning within the government; one (by Anderson, Jan. 27, 1944) suggests a coolness on the part of Frances Perkins toward women's issues. An Anderson letter of November 1942 about pressure upon her to appoint a black professional to her staff reflects current racial attitudes. Eleanor Roosevelt in February 1944 urges the Labor Department to make a new effort to fight the proposed Equal Rights Amendment. Other letters deal with the declining health of Margaret Dreier Robins and the final years and death of Alice Henry. The reel also touches on several personal events in Mary Anderson's life: her receipt of an honorary degree from Smith College in 1941, an FBI check of her alleged Communist-front membership (1942), her retirement in June 1944, and plans for the writing of her autobiography.In frequent correspondence during the reel, Anderson and Agnes Johnson O'Connor, an old Chicago friend and fellow shoe worker, exchange news and comments about current political and labor events. Other correspondents include Stella Franklin, Alice Henry, Catharine Waugh McCulloch, Kate F. O'Connor, Mabeth Hurd Paige, and, more briefly, Florence E. Allen, Margaret Bondfield, Carrie Chapman Catt, Dorothy Kenyon, the Norwegian labor leader Betzy Kjelsberg, Alice Thacher Post, Raymond Robins, Harriet Taylor Upton, Mary Van Kleeck, and Mary Winslow.

Reel: 2
Anderson, Mary.

General Correspondence and Papers, 1945-1953; Correspondence with Margaret Dreier Robins, 1922-1943.



1945-1953; 1922-1943

Collection III: Mary Anderson Papers; The reel begins with the final portion of Anderson's General Correspondence and Papers. Most of the items date from 1945, the first year of her retirement, and pertain to two activities of that year: the drive for a federal equal pay law for women, which was introduced in both the House and Senate, and an organized effort to forestall approval of the Equal Rights Amendment, which came before the Senate Judiciary Committee in September. Anderson headed the committee (an offshoot of the Women's Joint Congressional Committee) working for the equal pay bill and was treasurer of the National Committee to Defeat the Un-Equal Rights Amendment. Scattered items for later years indicate that she continued to pursue both matters through 1950. Several letters of 1951-53 concern the donation of her papers to the Schlesinger Library. Correspondents on this segment of the reel include Elizabeth S. Magee, general secretary of the National Consumers' League, Margaret A. Hickey, president of the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Anna Lord Strauss, president of the League of Women Voters, President William Green of the AF of L, Rose Schneiderman, and Maud Wood Park; and there are single letters from Carrie Chapman Catt, Frieda S. Miller, and Congresswoman Margaret Chase Smith. One of Park's letters (1949) affirms that she and Alice Stone Blackwell are still opposed to the Equal Rights Amendment.The next segment of the Anderson Papers, her correspondence with Margaret Dreier Robins, begins at frame 455. Apart from a few scattered items of 1922 and 1923, the correspondence starts in 1924, two years after Robins' retirement as president of the National Women's Trade Union League, and continues through 1943, or shortly before Anderson's retirement as head of the Women's Bureau. Coverage of the 1920's is uneven, but there is good material on several topics: the AF of L's proposed women's department to take over the work of the NWTUL (1924); friction between the two top NWTUL officers, Maud Swartz and Elisabeth Christman (1924-25); and conflict between the Women's Bureau and the National Woman's Party over the proposed Equal Rights Amendment, particularly in connection with the Bureau's Industrial Conference of 1926. There are brief references to the International Federation of Working Women and to the 1925 Conference on the Cause and Cure of War. Letters from Robins in 1929 describe the consultations she and her husband had with President-elect Hoover early in the year and her later successful appeal to Hoover for an increased appropriation for the Women's Bureau. Anderson in 1930 reports current agitation for the appointment of Grace Abbott as Secretary of Labor.The correspondence of 1931-33 includes considerable discussion of the depression: the increasingly severe unemployment, the growing sense that change is needed but uncertainty about what sort of change. There are references to the impact of the depression on working standards for women and on the finances of the NWTUL; Robins reports with distress in 1932 that for the first time in twenty-eight years she cannot make a contribution. Later letters touch upon other WTUL matters: renewed friction between Swartz and Christman (1933); the possibility of replacing Rose Schneiderman by Mary Winslow as national president (1936); persistent arrears in the per capita tax from local leagues; and the League's national convention of 1936. Various Anderson letters deal with activities of the Women's Bureau: the effort to eliminate differential wage scales for women in NRA codes; conferences on working standards and protective legislation -- particularly minimum wage laws for women, which the Supreme Court first declared unconstitutional in 1936 and then upheld in 1937. The Bureau's defense of protective legislation against the opposition tactics of the Woman's Party moves in this period to the international arena, at meetings of the International Labor Organization (1931) and the Pan American Union (1939). The correspondence of the 1930's includes discussion of current political and labor events, including the conflict within the AF of L over industrial unionism.Anderson's letters to Robins in 1940-43 usefully supplement the material in her general correspondence about the wartime role of the Women's Bureau. They suggest her firm and effective handling of relationships with defense industries, the War Department, and other government agencies, but a growing discouragement over failure to obtain an increase in her budget. There are a few references to the WTUL in connection with the loan of Elisabeth Christman to the Bureau.

Reel: 3
National Women's Trade Union League Papers (Schlesinger Library).

Historical Files.



Collection II: National Women's Trade Union League Papers, Schlesinger Library; The Historical Files, filmed on Reel 1, begin with a section of general material (frames 2-99). These are miscellaneous items, mostly in printed form. Many are newspaper or magazine reports of League activities; they thus reflect the extent to which the League gained public attention. The earliest items are: a clipping from a New York newspaper of 1905 (misdated as 1904); an Official Report for 1905-06, compiled by Gertrude Barnum in her capacity as national organizer and corresponding secretary; and two of Barnum's columns on working girls for the New York World. Others include a printed report of the New York sessions of the League's Interstate Conference of September 1908; an article from Charities and the Commons on the Boston and other sessions of the Conference; and a report of the League's first national convention, in 1909, written by Mary McDowell for the Survey. Later items include a leaflet of appreciation of Margaret Dreier Robins, printed at the time of her retirement from the national presidency in 1922, and a typed account by Mary Anderson, "My Mission to Paris in 1919" (5 pages, 1929). The section ends with a New York Times report of the National WTUL's decision in 1950 to disband, and Elisabeth Christman's correspondence with the Schlesinger Library (then the Women's Archives) about the disposition of its files.A group of three printed constitutions of the League (frames 100-123) is followed by a long section on the League's educational program (frames 124-417). Although a few other activities are mentioned, most of the material pertains to the League's training school for trade-union women, conducted in Chicago from 1914 to 1926 under the direction first of Emma Steghagen and then of Alice Henry. The section is divided into two parts: one of general material, such as announcements, forms, and descriptive matter, mostly undated; the other of more specific dated items. The latter include typed reports of the school, some with detailed supporting documents (1917, 1920, 1922, 1925, 1926); copies of lengthy reports by Margaret Dreier Robins to two of the school's benefactors, Mrs. Willard Straight (1916, 1918) and Florence Simms of the YWCA War Work Council (1920); announcements of other educational ventures, including a one-week course held at Brookwood Labor Institute in conjunction with the WTUL convention of 1924; and newspaper clippings.The next section, Anti-Red Attacks on the League and Other Women's Organizations, 1925-27 (frames 418-462), contains a news release by Ethel M. Smith for the WTUL and a lengthy memorial from the Woman Patriot Publishing Company, as printed in the Congressional Record (July 1926), opposing extension of the Sheppard-Towner Act for infancy and maternity care as part of a plot by "certain women's organizations" -- the WTUL and Mrs. Robins specifically included -- to introduce "straight imported communism" in bills "masked as 'welfare' and 'women's' measures." Clippings of countering articles by Carrie Chapman Catt and the Woman Citizen and a second attack by the Woman Patriot follow, as does a series of articles on the same theme from the Chicago Tribune. (For related episodes see the Mary Anderson Papers elsewhere in this microfilm edition, Reel 4, frames 188-395.)A section on the League's Southern campaign of 1927-32 (frames 463-589) contains somewhat miscellaneous documents on the planning and conduct of this attempt to publicize and mitigate the conditions of working women in Southern factories. Included are suggestions for the campaign by Mary Anderson, Mary N. Winslow, and Alice Henry; excerpts from minutes of the national executive board; statistics, bibliographies, and other reference material; a program of the League's Southern Industrial Conference, held at Greensboro, N.C., in March 1931; and the text of a speech given there by Mary Anderson. For material on another aspect of the campaign, the League's support of striking textile workers in Tennessee and Virginia, see Reel 4.A group of general League publications follows (frames 590-659), spanning the years 1909-44. The majority are informational brochures soliciting membership. Included are several editions of Margaret Dreier Robins' pamphlet Self-Government in the Workshop. Other League leaflets and pamphlets on particular topics may be found within the subject files on Reels 2-4.The final section of the reel (frames 666-736) is made up of miscellaneous printed and other items, mostly issued by the League. These include a tribute to Life and Labor by Louis D. Brandeis; programs of several League benefits; The Voice of Labor (1919), a booklet of verse by League members and others (including Leonora O'Reilly and Pauline Newman); and a leaflet on the outlawry of war.

Reel: 1
National Women's Trade Union League Papers (Schlesinger Library).

Subject Files -- American Federation of Labor through Industries.

Collection II: National Women's Trade Union League Papers, Schlesinger Library; This reel, the first of three devoted to the League's subject files, begins with a small group of items pertaining to the American Federation of Labor: a letter from Gertrude Barnum to Samuel Gompers, Feb. 9, 1905, and three clippings about the Federation's plans in 1924 for organizing women. Brief groups on home work and industrial unionism follow.The balance of the reel is made up of files on particular industries which employed women. For some industries the material is minor or miscellaneous. Other folders touch upon WTUL organizing efforts, as in the new beauty parlor trade (1927) or among hotel chambermaids (1927-29), or upon attempts to publicize and secure government action on behalf of hotel and restaurant employees, textile workers, laundry workers, and domestics. The material on the telephone and telegraph industries includes clippings of articles by Julia O'Connor (Parker), among them three installments of her "History of the Organized Telephone Operators' Movement" (1922). Some folders contain typed reports of investigations into working conditions in a particular factory or region.The items sometimes reflect the work of the League's local branches (as in a 73-page report by the New York WTUL, "Conditions of Women Workers in the Hotel and Restaurant Industry," 1935) or of outside organizations, such as a black Joint Committee on National Recovery (1933) and the National Council on Household Employment (1940). They also record at least one grass-roots attempt to organize domestic workers. There is evidence also of League interaction with the federal Women's Bureau and with the Consumers' League and the YWCA.The correspondence scattered through this reel is mostly that of Elisabeth Christman. It includes three letters by Mary Anderson, two by Rose Schneiderman, and one each by Lucy Randolph Mason of the National Consumers' League, Frieda S. Miller, Pauline Newman, and Sadie Reisch, organizer for the New York WTUL.

Reel: 2
National Women's Trade Union League Papers (Schlesinger Library).

Subject Files -- Injunctions through Part-time Employment.



Collection II: National Women's Trade Union League Papers, Schlesinger Library; The first file on this reel, Injunctions, contains miscellaneous items on the use of court injunctions in labor disputes. Included are pamphlets issued by the Chicago and National Leagues and two letters voicing the views of the veteran labor leader Andrew Furuseth, one by Furuseth himself, the other by Alice Henry.Several files follow under the general heading of Insurance. These include an undated leaflet in support of a state health insurance bill in New York, issued by the Women's Joint Legislative Conference, of which the New York WTUL was a member; and correspondence between Elisabeth Christman and Justice Louis D. Brandeis of the U.S. Supreme Court about savings bank life insurance. A small folder on the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union includes a letter from Fannia M. Cohn (1939) describing the work of the union's Educational Department, which she headed. A folder on the Labor Party contains data on recent labor-related third-party activity, prepared for Maud Swartz to use at the 1923 congress of the International Federation of Working Women.Most of the remainder of the reel is taken up with the topic of legislation. A general file at the beginning includes several pamphlets issued by the NWTUL. One is Samuel Gompers, The Significance of the Labor Sections of the Clayton Act (1915), published to soothe the AF of L leader, whose feelings had been ruffled by public criticism of the act by a League member.A large file on the Equal Rights Amendment contains material on the League's long campaign against the amendment as a threat to protective legislation for women workers. As documented here, the campaign begins in 1922, soon after the amendment was first proposed by the National Woman's Party, and continues through 1947. Included are statements by Maud Swartz, Rose Schneiderman, Elisabeth Christman, Agnes Nestor, Ethel M. Smith, and others setting forth the League's case against the amendment; indications of support for the League's position from other women's organizations; and items pertaining to particular phases of the campaign. Among these are the Women's Bureau's investigation into the effects of protective legislation on women's work (1926-29; see also the Mary Anderson Papers); an endorsement of protective legislation secured by the League from Herbert Hoover during the 1928 presidential campaign; and, outside the United States, efforts to ward off a resolution against protective legislation at the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (1926) and to forestall possible endorsement of an Equal Rights Treaty by the International Labor Organization, the League of Nations, and the Pan American Union (1931-39).Other legislative files are on hours of labor, minimum wage, and social security laws. The first is divided into two groups, one on the general case for a shorter working day and the other on particular campaigns, especially in Illinois. Included are leaflets issued by the Chicago and Illinois Leagues and by the Chicago Federation of Labor (1909-25) and correspondence of Agnes Nestor.Of the remaining files on the reel, the one on NRA codes consists mostly of material compiled by the Women's Bureau but includes a few instances of WTUL action. The files on older workers and part-time employment are minor.Correspondents on the reel not already mentioned include Clara M. Beyer, Mary Dreier, and Edwin E. Witte.


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