Vocab Quiz Answers

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Vocab Quiz Answers

  • 1. C
  • 2. E
  • 3. B
  • 4. D
  • 5. A
  • 6. C
  • 7. D
  • 8. A
  • 9. C
  • 10. E
  • 11. B
  • 12. B
  • 13. E
  • 14. D
  • 15. E
  • 16. B
  • 17. A
  • 18. D
  • 19. B
  • 20. A
  • 21. C
  • 22. B

Potential Essay 1

  • Evaluate the extent to which Christopher Columbus’s arrival in 1492 marked a turning point in Native American history, analyzing what changed and what stayed the same from the period before the event to the period following the event.

Who were the first Americans?

  • P-2

North America and the Caribbean on the Eve of European “Invasion”

      • 4.5 million people in North America
      • 350 different societies: agricultural, nomadic…
      • Importance of maize (corn)
      • Aztecs “unsurpassed in power and wealth”
  • P-7
  • “tremendous cultural diversity”:
  • Great Plains-nomadic
  • Northeast, Atlantic Seaboard- mixed agriculture and hunter-gatherer
    • Iroquois, Algonquian
  • Northwest- fishing villages, Chinook
  • Trade networks
    • Cahokia (Modern day St. Louis)
      • Largest and most influential urban settlement in the American Indian culture
      • Began more than 500 years before European contact, in major decline by the time of contact.
      • Population at its peak in the 1200s would not be surpassed by any city in the United States until the late 18th century.

What motivated Columbus to explore?

  • #1, find a quicker trade route to East Asia
  • Marco Polo’s tales of riches in China
  • Portuguese, under Prince Henry the Navigator, sailed around the tip of Africa
  • 1453, Turks conquer Constantinople, cutting of trade routes to Asia
  • 1492, Spanish expel the Moors to finish the Reconquesta
  • Spread Christianity
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gi0Rt0slfy4&safe=active

Read Pages 3-8

  • Monday, October 12: Columbus Day 2015
  • How should we commemorate this day?


  • Traditional- Columbus is a hero
  • Revisionist- Columbus was an evil invader (Howard Zinn)
  • Post-Revisionist- Columbus was a man of his times that was an impressive navigator that brought interaction of two separate worlds, which had many positive and negative consequences
  • Imagine you are in charge of writing a history book for 3rd graders to read. What are you going to write about Columbus? What do you think is important for these children to know about Columbus?
  • 1-3

Why are Indians called Indians if they are not from India?

-Columbus thought he had landed off the coast of India -Amerigo Vespucci first to realize that it was a “New World

If Columbus was not the first, then why is he important?

Potential Essay 1

  • Evaluate the extent to which Christopher Columbus’s arrival in 1492 marked a turning point in Native American history, analyzing what changed and what stayed the same from the period before the event to the period following the event.

Contact: 1492-1607

  • Columbus’s landing (1492) to Jamestown (1607)
  • Spanish conquest of North and South America, Aztecs, Incas
  • Small Pox epidemic
  • Growth of slavery

Columbian Exchange

  • The biological exchange of plants and animals between the New and Old Worlds
  • Americas to Europe: Potato, llama, tomato, tobacco, turkeys, corn, vanilla…
  • Europe to Americas: horse, cows, pigs, coffee, sugar, rice, wheat, DISEASE: Small Pox

Spain’s Empire in the New World- 1521: Cortés conquered the Aztecs

  • 1-6
  • Emperor Montezuma
  • Quetzalcoatl-

Role of the Conquistadors

  • Role of the Conquistadors
    • Minor nobles, landless gentlemen, and professional soldiers seek “God, Gold, and Glory”
    • Win because of “Guns, Germs, and Steel”
    • Disease, small pox, by far the # 1 killer

Spanish Colonization

    • Royal control replaced the conquistadors
    •  Gov: Two central divisions: New Spain & Peru each ruled by a viceroy who were advised by councils called audiencias

Spanish Caste System

  • Creole
  • Mestizos & Mulattos
  • Peninsulars
    • Very Hierarchical system, based on race, pure breed Spaniards at the top
    • 1520, Africans imported to sugar plantations (Haciendas) in the Spanish West Indies
    • Strongly Catholic, Mission system

The Reformation in Europe

  • The Teachings of Martin Luther
    • Priest who challenged the Church by nailing 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Church in 1517
    • Justification by faith alone
    • Dethroned the power of the Catholic Church

John Calvin

  • John Calvin
    • Emphasis on “the elect” and predestination versus good works
    • Strong in Switzerland & France
  • The English Reformation
    • 1534: Henry VIII breaks with the Church
    • Reign of Elizabeth I: moderate Protestantism
    • Rise of the Puritans: Calvinist radicals
  • 1 Catherine of Aragon.
  • 2 Anne Boleyn.
  • 3 Jane Seymour.
  • 4 Anne of Cleves.
  • 5 Catherine Howard.
  • 6 Catherine Parr.
  • Divorced, beheaded, died; 
  • Divorced, beheaded, survived....

England’s Entry into America

  • The English Colonization of Catholic Ireland, 1565
  • Sir Walter Raleigh’s Roanoke, N.C. Venture, 1585, “The Lost Colony”
  • 1-12
  • 1-13

Discussion Prompt

  • “Christopher Columbus brought civilization to the ‘New World’”
    • Accept, reject, or modify statement
    • Write your introductory paragraph to this prompt with your thesis statement underlined.
    • Thesis statement: Position + categories

HW Due tomorrow, Wednesday 10 points

  • 1. Summarize each document with 5 bullet points
  • 2. Comment on each of the following for both documents
    • Intended audience
    • Purpose
    • Historical context (most important, Era, events, cause and effect)
    • Authors point of view

The End

Jamestown, 1607

  • Goal of the colony was to make money for the London Joint-Stock Company
  • Ill-prepared, too many gentlemen
  • John Smith became the leader (non-gentleman), started a work for food program
  • Smith was captured by the Indians
  • Pocahontas threw herself on Smith to prevent his beheading
  • John Rolfe made the colony profitable with tobacco & latter married Pocahontas
  • Where self-government & slavery began in America
  • Significance, 1st permanent English settlement in the new world

Everyday Life in Early America

  • Review and consider:
  • Difference between the North, South, and middle colonies
  • How did geography affect development?
  • What were the biggest events of the era?
  • How important was religion?
  • Was this a new “breed of man,” or was this “new England?”
  • Did aristocracy come to America?

The eight bad omens or wonders

  • A column of fire that appeared from midnight until dawn, and seemed to rain fire in the year 1517 (12-House).
  • Fire consuming the temple of Huitzilopochtli.
  • A lightning bolt destroying the straw temple of Xiuhtecuhtli.
  • The appearance of fire, or comets, streaming across the sky in threes during the day.
  • The “boiling deep ,” and water flooding, of a lake nearby Tenochtitlan.
  • A woman, Cihuatcoatl, weeping in the middle of the night for them (the Aztecs) to "flee far away from this city".
  • A two headed man, tlacantzolli, running through the streets.
  • Montezuma saw the stars of mamalhuatztli, and images of fighting men riding "on the backs of animals resembling deer", in a mirror on the crown of a bird caught by fishermen.
  • Additionally, the Tlaxcala saw a "radiance that shone in the east every morning three hours before sunrise", and a "whirlwind of dust" from 
  •  According to Diaz, "These Caciques also told us of a tradition they had heard from their ancestors, that one of the idols which they particularly worshipped had prophesied the coming of men from distant lands in the direction of the sunrise, who would conquer them and rule them."[
  • Omens were extremely important to the Aztecs, who believed that history repeated itself. Emperor Montezuma was trained as a high priest,

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