Virtual Reality



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Virtual Reality

  • CS60-520 Presentation 
  • Instructor: Dr. Aggarwal
  • Student: Yang Gao
  • Semester: Winter 2004

Outline

  • Introduction
  • The history of VR
  • Types of VR
  • Technologies of VR
  • Architecture of VR system
  • Applications of VR
  • Current problems & Future work
  • Summary
  • Reference

Introduction

  • What is Virtual Reality(VR)?
  • Virtual Reality refers to a high-end user interface that involves real-time simulation and interactions through multiple sensorial channels.
  • .

Introduction (Cont’d)

  • Why VR?
  • VR is able to immerse you in a computer-generated world of your own making: a room, a city, the interior of human body. With VR, you can explore any uncharted territory of the human imagination.

Brief History

  • In 1950s, flight simulators were built by US Air Force to train student pilots.
  • In 1965, a research program for computer graphics called “The Ultimate Display” was laid out.
  • In 1988, commercial development of VR began.
  • In 1991, first commercial entertainment VR system "Virtuality" was released.

Types of VR System

  • Windows on World(WoW)
    • Also called Desktop VR.
    • Using a conventional computer monitor to display the 3D virtual world.
  • Immersive VR
    • Completely immerse the user's personal viewpoint inside the virtual 3D world.
    • The user has no visual contact with the physical word.
    • Often equipped with a Head Mounted Display (HMD).

Types of VR System(Cont’d)

  • Telepresence
    • A variation of visualizing complete computer generated worlds.
    • Links remote sensors in the real world with the senses of a human operator. The remote sensors might be located on a robot. Useful for performing operations in dangerous environments.

Types of VR System(Cont’d)

  • Mixed Reality(Augmented Reality)
    • The seamless merging of real space and virtual space.
    • Integrate the computer-generated virtual objects into the physical world which become in a sense an equal part of our natural environment.
  • Distributed VR
    • A simulated world runs on several computers which are connected over network and the people are able to interact in real time, sharing the same virtual world.

VR Examples (Cont’d)

  • Telepresence VR

VR Examples (Cont’d)

  • Augmented VR

VR Examples (Cont’d)

  • Distributed VR

Technologies of VR--Hardware

  • Head-Mounted Display (HMD)
    • A Helmet or a face mask providing the visual and auditory displays.
    • Use LCD or CRT to display stereo images.
    • May include built-in head-tracker and stereo headphones

Technologies of VR--Hardware

  • Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM)
    • Head-coupled stereoscopic display device.
    • Uses CRT to provide high-resolution display.
    • Convenient to use.
    • Fast and accurate built-in tracking.

Technologies of VR--Hardware

  • Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE)
    • Provides the illusion of immersion by projecting stereo images on the walls and floor of a room-sized cube.
    • A head tracking system continuously adjust the stereo projection to the current position of the leading viewer.

Technologies of VR--Hardware

  • Data Glove
    • Outfitted with sensors on the fingers as well as an overall position/orientation tracking equipment.
    • Enables natural interaction with virtual objects by hand gesture recognition.

Technologies of VR--Hardware

  • Control Devices
    • Control virtual objects in 3 dimensions.

Technologies of VR--Software

  • Toolkits
    • Programming libraries.
    • Provide function libraries (C & C++).
  • Authoring systems
    • Complete programs with graphical interfaces for creating worlds without resorting to detailed programming.

Technologies of VR--Software

  • Software packages available in market
    • Multiverse (Freeware)
    • Virtual Reality Studio ($100)
    • Sense8 World Tool Kit (WTK) (over $1000)
    • Autodesk Cyberspace Development kit (over $1000)

Technologies of VR--Software

  • VRML(Virtual Reality Modeling Language)
    • Standard language for interactive simulation within the World Wide Web.
    • Allows to create "virtual worlds" networked via the Internet and hyperlinked with the World Wide Web.
    • Aspects of virtual world display, interaction and internetworking can be specified using VRML without being dependent on special gear like HMD.
    • VR models can be viewed by Netscape or IE with a browser plug-in.

Architecture of VR System

  • Input Processor, Simulation Processor, Rendering Processor and World Database.
  • Rendering Processor
  • World Database
  • Simulation Processor
  • visual, auditory, haptic, touch…
  • Position & Orientation

Components of VR System (Cont’d)

  • Input Processor
    • Control the devices used to input information to the computer. The object is to get the coordinate data to the rest of the system with minimal lag time.
    • Keyboard, mouse, 3D position trackers, a voice recognition system, etc.
  • Components of VR System (Cont’d)
  • Simulation Processor
    • Core of a VR system.
    • Takes the user inputs along with any tasks programmed into the world and determine the actions that will take place in the virtual world.
  • Components of VR System (Cont’d)
  • Rendering Processor
    • Create the sensations that are output to the user.
    • Separate rendering processes are used for visual, auditory, haptic and other sensory systems. Each renderer take a description of the world stat from the simulation process or derive it directly from the World Database for each time step.
  • Components of VR System (Cont’d)

Applications

  • Entertainment
    • More vivid
    • Move exciting
    • More attractive

Applications (Cont’d)

  • Medicine
    • Practice performing surgery.
    • Perform surgery on a remote patient.
    • Teach new skills in a safe, controlled environment.

Applications (Cont’d)

  • Manufacturing
    • Easy to modify
    • Low cost
    • High efficient

Applications (Cont’d)

  • Education & Training
    • Driving simulators.
    • Flight simulators.
    • Ship simulators.
    • Tank simulators.
  • Current problems & Future work
  • Cybersickness / simulator sickness
  • Low-fidelity
  • Expensive
  • Lack of integration between application packages
  • High-fidelity system
  • Cost-saving
  • Collaborative
  • High-level contact between participants in distributed VR

Summary

  • Visualization of complicated, large data is helpful for understanding and analysis.
  • VR offers us a new way to interact with computer.
  • VR enables us to experience the virtual world that is impossible in real world.
  • VR is changing our life, eventually VR will increasingly become a part of our life.
  • Reference
  • [1] What is Virtual Reality?, http://vr.isdale.com/WhatIsVR/frames/WhatIsVR4.1.html.
  • [2] Augumented and Mixed Reality, http://www.mic.atr.co.jp/~poup/research/ar/.
  • [3] Virtual Reality Applications, http://vresources.jump-gate.com/applications/applications.shtml.
  • [4] K.-P. Beier. Virtual Reality: A short Introduction. http://www-vrl.umich.edu/intro/
  • [5] Franchi,J. Vertual Reality: An Overview. ERIC Digest, June 1995

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