Unit 6 1865-1914 Pre midterm: 16-19



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Unit 6 1865-1914

Pre midterm: 16-19 (1854-1917): W expansion, industrialization w/o unions, urbanization w/o progressives & gilded age)

Post Midterm: 17, 19, 21-22 (1854-1917): (responses to industrialization: Unions, Populists, Progressives)

The transformation of the United States from an agricultural to an increasingly industrialized and urbanized society brought about significant economic, political, diplomatic, social, environmental, and cultural changes.
Key Concept 6.1: The rise of big business in the United States encouraged massive migrations and urbanization, sparked government and popular efforts to reshape the U.S. economy and environment, and renewed debates over U.S. national identity.

  1. Large-scale production — accompanied by massive technological change, expanding international communication networks, and pro-growth government policies — fueled the development of a “Gilded Age” marked by an emphasis on consumption, marketing, and business consolidation.

  2. As leaders of big business and their allies in government aimed to create a unified industrialized nation, they were challenged in different ways by demographic issues, regional differences, and labor movements.

  3. Westward migration, new systems of farming and transportation, and economic instability led to political and popular conflicts.

Key Concept 6.2: The emergence of an industrial culture in the United States led to both greater opportunities for, and restrictions on, immigrants, minorities, and women.

  1. International and internal migrations increased both urban and rural populations, but gender, racial, ethnic, religious, and socioeconomic inequalities abounded, inspiring some reformers to attempt to address these inequities.

  2. As transcontinental railroads were completed, bringing more settlers west, U.S. military actions, the destruction of the buffalo, the confinement of American Indians to reservations, and assimilationist policies reduced the number of American Indians and threatened native culture and identity.

Key Concept 6.3: The “Gilded Age” witnessed new cultural and intellectual movements in tandem with political debates over economic and social policies.

  1. Gilded Age politics were intimately tied to big business and focused nationally on economic issues — tariffs, currency, corporate expansion, and laissez-faire economic policy — that engendered numerous calls for reform.

  2. New cultural and intellectual movements both buttressed and challenged the social order of the Gilded Age.


Key Concept 7.1: Governmental, political, and social organizations struggled to address the effects of large-scale industrialization, economic uncertainty, and related social changes such as urbanization and mass migration.

  1. The continued growth and consolidation of large corporations transformed American society and the nation’s economy, promoting urbanization and economic growth, even as business cycle fluctuations became increasingly severe.

  2. Progressive reformers responded to economic instability, social inequality, and political corruption by calling for government intervention in the economy, expanded democracy, greater social justice, and conservation of natural resources

  3. National, state, and local reformers responded to economic upheavals, laissez-faire capitalism, and the Great Depression by transforming the United States into a limited welfare state.


Essay Prompts
Chapter 16

Explain the extent to which the lives of the American Indians were impacted by western settlement from 1865 to 1898. (causation)


Chapter17 (until “Industrial workers in the New Economy” p. 477)

Explain the major political and economic causes and consequences for the growth of big business in American society from 1870 to 1900. (causation)


Chapter 18

Explain how industrialization and migration triggered a major change in American cities in the second half of the 19th century. (continuity and change over time)



Pre midterm Essay

Evaluate the extent to which the ratification of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution marked a turning point in the history of United States politics and society. (periodization)


Essay Prompts
Chapter 17 & 19

Evaluate the ways farmers and industrial workers responded to industrialization in the Gilded Age (1865 to 1900). (causation)


Chapter 21-22

Evaluate the extent to which the Progressive reformers and the federal government maintained continuity as well as fostered change during the period 1900 to 1920. (continuity and change over time)


Post Midterm Essay

Evaluate the effectiveness of Progressive Era reformers in bringing about reform at the national level in the period 1900-1920. (causation)

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