Unit 10 Test Essay



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Unit 10 Test
Essay
1. You are talking quietly with some friends at a restaurant when all of a sudden a new student at your school, Dave, sits down at your table. Dave immediately starts to tell a loud, funny story to everyone at the table while he gobbles French fries from your plate. Use the following theories to explain or describe aspects of Dave's behavior:

• Reaction formation

• Trait theory

• Maslow's hierarchy of needs

• Reciprocal determinism

• Operant conditioning

• Drive-reduction theory

• Incentive theory


Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cellphone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive

a.

fixation.

b.

personality.

c.

attributional style.

d.

collective unconscious.

e.

reaction formation.

____ 2. Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.



a.

responsibility; freedom

b.

industrialization; democracy

c.

empathy; self-serving bias

d.

self-flattery; personal modesty

e.

pleasure principle; reality principle

____ 3. Free association is central to the process of



a.

factor analysis.

b.

self-serving bias.

c.

psychoanalysis.

d.

reciprocal determinism.

e.

unconditional positive regard.

____ 4. Celine recently had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient but unfamiliar religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to



a.

Alfred Adler.

b.

Carl Rogers.

c.

Gordon Allport.

d.

Carl Jung.

e.

Karen Horney.

____ 5. Freud emphasized that effective treatment of psychological disorders involves the



a.

fixation of repressed sexual desires.

b.

projection of repressed fears.

c.

exploration of repressed memories.

d.

displacement of repressed hostilities.

e.

rationalization of repressed sublimations.

____ 6. Contemporary psychologists are LEAST likely to agree with Freud's belief that



a.

conscience and gender identity form during the process of resolving the Oedipus complex.

b.

conscious awareness of our own mental processes is very limited.

c.

memories are often distorted and incomplete.

d.

defense mechanisms help protect individuals from anxiety.

e.

sexual experiences and thoughts influence development.

____ 7. When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defense mechanism of



a.

repression.

b.

reaction formation.

c.

rationalization.

d.

regression.

e.

displacement.

____ 8. Analena's refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequence of her superior dietary self-control. This best illustrates the importance of



a.

the spotlight effect.

b.

reciprocal determinism.

c.

an external locus of control.

d.

the self-reference phenomenon.

e.

an optimistic personality.

____ 9. Four-year-old John is very competitive with his father in trying to gain more attention from his mother. Freud would have suggested that John is going through the ________ stage of development.



a.

phallic

b.

latency

c.

anal

d.

oral

e.

displacement

____ 10. By professional training, Sigmund Freud was a



a.

philosopher.

b.

sociologist.

c.

physician.

d.

literary scholar.

e.

counselor.

____ 11. Lamont has frequently been rebellious, inconsiderate, and self-centered, yet the pastor of his local church has always accepted and respected him. The pastor's attitude toward Lamont is most explicitly recommended by



a.

Sigmund Freud.

b.

Abraham Maslow.

c.

Carl Rogers.

d.

Albert Bandura.

e.

Alfred Adler.

____ 12. Implicit learning and implicit memories best illustrate the importance of



a.

defense mechanisms.

b.

reciprocal determinism.

c.

the Barnum effect.

d.

unconscious thought.

e.

internal locus of control.

____ 13. Pessimists are more likely than optimists to experience



a.

dampened immune system functioning.

b.

the false consensus effect.

c.

unconditional positive regard.

d.

self-serving bias.

e.

repression.

____ 14. Freud believed that stories of childhood sexual abuse told by his adult female patients originated from his patients' own



a.

learned helplessness.

b.

inferiority complexes.

c.

childhood sexual wishes.

d.

defense mechanisms.

e.

internal locus of control.

____ 15. People who describe themselves as outgoing may also say they like excitement and practical jokes. This cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together reflects a basic



a.

factor.

b.

complex.

c.

hierarchy of needs.

d.

reciprocal determinism.

e.

psychosexual stage.

____ 16. Melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a better cook than she. Recently, she refused his offer to prepare dinner because, said she, “You could better spend the time playing with the kids.” Melissa's comment best illustrates



a.

regression.

b.

projection.

c.

rationalization.

d.

displacement.

e.

reaction formation.

____ 17. Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for



a.

reciprocal determinism.

b.

an external locus of control.

c.

self-actualization.

d.

unconditional positive regard.

e.

an internal locus of control.

____ 18. According to the social-cognitive perspective, one of the best ways to predict a person's future behavior is to



a.

identify that person's most central traits by having him or her take a personality inventory.

b.

observe that person's behavior in various relevant situations.

c.

assess that person's general level of self-esteem.

d.

uncover that person's hidden motives, as revealed by projective tests.

e.

measure that person's unconscious conflicts and use of defense mechanisms.

____ 19. Which of the following would most likely be said by a critic of humanistic psychology?



a.

“Humanism only provides after-the-fact explanations of any personality characteristic.”

b.

“Personality traits are not as enduring as humanists suggest.”

c.

“Human behavior is not as predictable across different situations as humanists contend.”

d.

“Humanists focus too much on the situation and not enough on internal factors in explaining behavior.”

e.

“Humanistic concepts are too vague and subjective, making them difficult to measure objectively.”

____ 20. According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among



a.

mind, body, and behavior.

b.

thoughts, emotions, and actions.

c.

behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.

d.

id, ego, and superego.

e.

learned helplessness, locus of control, and optimism.

____ 21. While Mr. Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view Mr. Gomez's treatment of students as an example of



a.

reaction formation.

b.

rationalization.

c.

displacement.

d.

projection.

e.

regression.

____ 22. The stability of personality traits is best illustrated by the consistency of



a.

the false consensus effect.

b.

reciprocal determinism.

c.

expressive styles.

d.

unconditional positive regard.

e.

self-concepts.

____ 23. The body's disease-fighting immune system is most likely to be dampened by



a.

an internal locus of control.

b.

the false consensus effect.

c.

self-serving bias.

d.

a pessimistic attributional style.

e.

an optimistic attributional style.

____ 24. Which perspective on personality emphasizes the importance of our capacity for healthy growth and self-realization?



a.

psychoanalytic

b.

social-cognitive

c.

humanistic

d.

trait

e.

terror-management

____ 25. Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to be highly



a.

compassionate.

b.

religious.

c.

conforming.

d.

self-accepting.

e.

satisfied.

____ 26. Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as



a.

the spotlight effect.

b.

unconditional positive regard.

c.

self-actualization.

d.

free association.

e.

self-esteem needs.

____ 27. The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as



a.

the halo effect.

b.

the Barnum effect.

c.

projection.

d.

the self-reference phenomenon.

e.

unconditional positive regard.

____ 28. Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic



a.

self-serving biases.

b.

defense mechanisms.

c.

personality traits.

d.

psychosexual stages.

e.

self-concepts.

____ 29. Freud would have suggested that an excessive fixation is most likely to contribute to



a.

reaction formation.

b.

regression.

c.

learned helplessness.

d.

an Electra complex.

e.

self-serving bias.

____ 30. Which of the following is true of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?



a.

It is an empirically derived test.

b.

It can be administered and scored only by a trained psychologist.

c.

It is the most widely used projective test.

d.

It was designed to assess the personality traits of normal, psychologically healthy individuals.

e.

It measures progress on the hierarchy of needs.

____ 31. An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her



a.

self-esteem.

b.

personality.

c.

reality principle.

d.

hierarchy of needs.

e.

ego

____ 32. Some psychoanalysts in Freud's era believed that girls experienced unconscious sexual desires for their father during the phallic stage. These feelings, they thought, reflected



a.

self-actualization.

b.

an Electra complex.

c.

the spotlight effect.

d.

unconditional positive regard.

e.

latent content.

____ 33. Which of the following Freudian ideas is most consistent with contemporary psychological research findings?



a.

The conscience is largely formed in the process of resolving the Oedipus complex.

b.

People generally protect themselves by projecting their own undesirable traits onto others.

c.

Most memory loss results from unconsciously motivated repression.

d.

Conscious awareness of what goes on in our own minds is very limited.

e.

Children mature through distinct psychosexual stages.

____ 34. Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are especially likely to



a.

demonstrate the spotlight effect.

b.

be open and spontaneous.

c.

avoid political disagreements.

d.

enjoy many unusually close friendships.

e.

be wealthier than average.

____ 35. Reaction formation refers to the process by which people



a.

disguise unacceptable unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.

b.

consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.

c.

retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development.

d.

offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious reasons for action.

e.

banish anxiety-producing wishes from our conscious mind.

____ 36. Carl Rogers suggested that when the ideal and real self are nearly alike, then



a.

unconscious feelings of inferiority diminish.

b.

the use of defense mechanisms is unnecessary.

c.

the self-concept is positive.

d.

the individual perceives an internal locus of control.

e.

the person has high emotional stability.

____ 37. Prior to his use of free association, Freud had encouraged patients to retrieve their forgotten memories by means of



a.

hypnosis.

b.

projective tests.

c.

psychoactive drugs.

d.

fixation.

e.

personality inventories.

____ 38. The Oedipus complex is the term used by Freud to describe



a.

the erogenous zones that are the focus of the latency stage.

b.

the passive dependence of someone who is orally fixated.

c.

children's efforts to overcome feelings of inferiority.

d.

boys' feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother.

e.

girls' feelings of jealously and superiority caused by their close relationships with their father.

____ 39. Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of



a.

free association.

b.

self-actualization.

c.

unconditional positive regard.

d.

defense mechanisms.

e.

learned helplessness.

____ 40. Although Garth wants to interact sexually with his girlfriend, he also wants to avoid premarital sex. Freud would have suggested that both desires might be partially satisfied by Garth's



a.

ego.

b.

projections.

c.

id.

d.

superego.

e.

Oedipus complex.

____ 41. Rachel is driven to attain her personal goal of being the top student in her AP psychology class. Rachel was most likely brought up in a ___________ culture.



a.

collectivist

b.

empathic

c.

individualistic

d.

diverse

e.

positive

____ 42. Twelve-year-old Cawley demonstrates a strongly masculine sense of self-identity even though he was raised without a father or father substitute. This fact represents the most serious threat to ________ theory of personality.



a.

Abraham Maslow's

b.

Sigmund Freud's

c.

Albert Bandura's

d.

Carl Rogers'

e.

Gordon Allport's

____ 43. Because she is often rejected by her parents, Sally mistrusts other people and treats them with hostility, which leads to their rejection of her. This cycle of rejection, mistrust, hostility, and further rejection illustrates what is meant by



a.

an external locus of control.

b.

the spotlight effect.

c.

the self-serving phenomenon.

d.

reaction formation.

e.

reciprocal determinism.

____ 44. Which of the following statements would most likely appear on a lie scale?



a.

“I am usually fairly happy.”

b.

“I constantly worry about my health.”

c.

“Most people are willing to lie in order to get ahead.”

d.

“I have never disliked anyone.”

e.

“Most people are concerned with romantic relationships.”

____ 45. Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology, which focuses on topics such as



a.

positive emotions, positive character traits, and enabling institutions.

b.

optimism, projection, and fixation.

c.

the Barnum effect, the pessimism effect, and the collective unconscious.

d.

external locus of control, internal locus of control, and self-transcendence.

e.

free association, psychoanalysis, and the unconscious.

____ 46. Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused to send his son money to buy the books he needs for his college courses. In defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that “parental financial aid prevents teenagers from developing into mature, independent adults.” Mr. Rioja's explanation is an example of



a.

fixation.

b.

rationalization.

c.

projection.

d.

displacement.

e.

reaction formation.

____ 47. Which theorists have been criticized for underestimating the human predisposition to engage in destructive and evil behaviors?



a.

trait theorists

b.

humanistic theorists

c.

psychoanalytic theorists

d.

social-cognitive theorists

e.

terror-management theorists

____ 48. When Taylor began tenth grade, all of his friends started “sagging,” wearing their pants below the waist. Whether Taylor conforms and begins dressing like his friends may best be predicted by



a.

the strength of his ego.

b.

his strivings for superiority.

c.

his level of self-esteem.

d.

his degree of conscientiousness.

e.

his explanatory style.

____ 49. Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as



a.

reaction formation.

b.

projection.

c.

fixation.

d.

displacement.

e.

repression.

____ 50. Henry Murray found that children's perceptions of photographs were biased by their previous participation in a frightening game. Their perceptual reactions most clearly highlighted the potential value of



a.

projective tests.

b.

free association.

c.

unconditional positive regard.

d.

reciprocal determinism.

e.

an internal locus of control.

Unit 10 Test

Answer Section
ESSAY
1. ANS:

Point 1: Reaction formation: Students should explain that Dave's outgoing behavior may be caused by the defense mechanism reaction formation. If Dave has unconscious feelings and anxieties about being inadequate, not entertaining or not liked, his ego may try to reduce these unconscious negative anxieties by causing him to react in the opposite way, like telling the loud story at the table (reaction formation). Dave exhibits these extremely outgoing behaviors because unconsciously he is anxious about being liked and fitting in.

Point 2: Trait theory: Students should explain that trait theorists would describe Dave's behavior by identifying specific personality traits (categories of behavior or disposition) that describe the behavior. Specifically, students should identify the trait of extraversion (outgoing, social behaviors) as describing Dave's behavior well.

Point 3: Maslow's Hierarchy of needs: Students should explain that applying Maslow's hierarchy of needs could help explain Dave's behavior. The hierarchy of needs predicts that people will act to satisfy the next level of needs. Dave's safety and physiological needs may be satisfied, so his outgoing behaviors may be explained by his desire to satisfy the next level of needs on the hierarchy: belongingness and love needs. Dave may be telling funny stories to make sure he is included and accepted by the social group. Alternatively, students could use the hierarchy of needs to explain Dave's eating behavior: Dave was trying to satisfy his physiological need of hunger by stealing the fries.

Point 4: Reciprocal determinism: Students should explain that Dave's behavior could be explained through reciprocal determinism: this behavior may result from the interaction of three factors—the behavior itself, internal cognitive factors, and environmental factors. Students need to point out that these factors all affect one another. For example, Dave's storytelling behavior at the table (behavior) could cause some people to laugh (environmental factor), and Dave might interpret this laughter as positive and accepting (internal cognitive factor), which in turn encourages Dave to continue with the story. Alternatively, students could use reciprocal determinism to explain Dave's behavior of stealing French fries. The French fries look appetizing (environmental factors) and Dave doesn't think you will mind if he steals some (internal cognitive factor) and this encourages him to steal the fries (behavior). Your reaction (environmental factor) may influence whether he continues to steal the fries.

Point 5: Operant conditioning: Students should explain that operant conditioning could explain Dave's storytelling behavior through positive reinforcement. If the people at the table laugh at Dave's joke, he may continue or repeat the story-telling behavior because it was rewarded with laughter. Alternatively, students could explain Dave's fry-stealing behavior through positive reinforcement: Dave steals a fry, is rewarded by the taste of the fry, and is likely to steal another fry because of the positive reinforcement.

Point 6: Drive-reduction theory: Students should explain that drive-reduction theory predicts that people's behavior is aimed at reducing physiological needs (drives). It is likely that Dave was hungry (physiological need); he stole French fries because this physiological hunger need created an aroused state, and Dave was motivated to steal the fries in order to reduce this drive.

Point 7: Incentive theory: Students should explain that incentive theory could explain Dave's fry-eating behavior. Incentive theory explains that we are not only motivated by drives (see drive-reduction theory), we are also motivated by incentives, which are positive or negative stimuli that attract us or cause us to avoid an action. The French fries may have looked and smelled delicious and encouraged Dave to steal the fries through this incentive.

PTS: 1 OBJ: Unit X
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 55-1

TOP: Personality SKL: Conceptual


2. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 59-5

TOP: Culture and the self SKL: Conceptual


3. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 55-1

TOP: Psychoanalytic theory’s core ideas SKL: Factual/Definitional


4. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 56-1

TOP: The neo-Freudian and psychodynamic theorists SKL: Conceptual/Application


5. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 55-1

TOP: Psychoanalytic theory’s core ideas SKL: Factual/Definitional


6. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 56-3

TOP: The modern unconscious mind SKL: Factual/Definitional


7. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 55-4

TOP: Defense mechanisms SKL: Conceptual/Application


8. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 59-1

TOP: Reciprocal influences SKL: Conceptual/Application


9. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 55-3

TOP: Personality development SKL: Conceptual/Application


10. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 55-1

TOP: Psychoanalytic theory’s core ideas SKL: Factual/Definitional


11. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 57-1

TOP: Carl Rogers' person-centered perspective SKL: Conceptual/Application


12. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 56-3

TOP: The modern unconscious mind SKL: Factual/Definitional


13. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 59-1

TOP: Optimism versus pessimism SKL: Factual/Definitional


14. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 56-3

TOP: The modern unconscious mind SKL: Factual/Definitional


15. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 58-1

TOP: Exploring traits SKL: Factual/Definitional


16. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 55-4

TOP: Defense mechanisms SKL: Conceptual/Application


17. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 57-1

TOP: Abraham Maslow's self-actualizing person SKL: Factual/Definitional


18. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 59-2

TOP: Assessing behavior in situations SKL: Factual/Definitional


19. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 57-3

TOP: Evaluating the humanistic perspective SKL: Conceptual


20. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 59-1

TOP: Reciprocal influences SKL: Factual/Definitional


21. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 55-4

TOP: Defense mechanisms SKL: Conceptual/Application


22. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 58-4

TOP: Evaluating trait theories SKL: Factual/Definitional


23. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 59-1

TOP: Optimism versus pessimism SKL: Factual/Definitional


24. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 57-1

TOP: Humanistic theories SKL: Factual/Definitional


25. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 57-1

TOP: Abraham Maslow's self-actualizing person SKL: Conceptual


26. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 57-1

TOP: Carl Rogers' person-centered perspective SKL: Factual/Definitional


27. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 58-2

TOP: How to be a “successful” astrologer or palm reader SKL: Factual/Definitional


28. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 58-1

TOP: Exploring traits SKL: Factual/Definitional


29. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 55-4

TOP: Defense mechanisms SKL: Conceptual


30. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 58-2

TOP: Assessing traits SKL: Factual/Definitional


31. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 55-1

TOP: Personality SKL: Factual/Definitional


32. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 55-3

TOP: Personality development SKL: Factual/Definitional


33. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 56-3

TOP: The modern unconscious mind SKL: Factual/Definitional


34. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 57-1

TOP: Abraham Maslow's self-actualizing person SKL: Factual/Definitional


35. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 55-4

TOP: Defense mechanisms SKL: Factual/Definitional


36. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 57-1

TOP: Carl Rogers' person-centered perspective SKL: Factual/Definitional


37. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 55-1

TOP: Psychoanalytic theory’s core ideas SKL: Factual/Definitional


38. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 55-3

TOP: Personality development SKL: Factual/Definitional


39. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 55-4

TOP: Defense mechanisms SKL: Factual/Definitional


40. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 55-2

TOP: Personality structure SKL: Conceptual/Application


41. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 59-5

TOP: Culture and the self SKL: Conceptual/Application


42. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 56-3

TOP: The modern unconscious mind SKL: Conceptual


43. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 59-1

TOP: Reciprocal influences SKL: Conceptual/Application


44. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 58-2

TOP: Assessing traits SKL: Conceptual


45. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 59-1

TOP: Toward a more positive psychology SKL: Factual/Definitional


46. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Medium OBJ: Unit X | 55-4

TOP: Defense mechanisms SKL: Conceptual/Application


47. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 57-3

TOP: Evaluating the humanistic perspective SKL: Factual/Definitional


48. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Unit X | 59-3

TOP: The benefits of self-esteem SKL: Conceptual/Application


49. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 55-3

TOP: Personality development SKL: Factual/Definitional


50. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Unit X | 56-2

TOP: Assessing unconscious processes SKL: Factual/Definitional

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