Thesis submitted to sambalpur university

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REGISTRATION NO.: 131/2006/Lib. & Inf. Sc.






Prof. (Retd.) B. K. Choudhury

Department of Library & Information Science

Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar

Burla, ODISHA.

This is to certify that the thesis entitled DIGITIZATION OF LIBRARY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES AFFILIATED TO WEST BENGAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY: A STUDY” submitted by Shree Pramod Kumar Hota under my supervision and guidance for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Library and Information Science to the Sambapur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla. To the best of my knowledge and belief, this work is the original piece of research work carried out under my supervision and guidance.

I further certify that, no part of this thesis has been submitted for any of the degree, diploma of any university in India. I certify that by habit and character, Shree Pramod kumar Hota is a fit and proper person for the award of Ph. D. Degree in Library and Information Science from Sambalpur University.


Place: Dr. B. K. Choudhury

(Research Guide)

I am highly indebted and extremely grateful to my research guide Prof. B. K. Choudhury for his constant guidance and supervision at every level of my research work .I respectfully honour his scholarship and valuable suggestions. He has taken a lot of care and strain for successful completion of this work. Without his untiring efforts and keen observation, I am sure this work has not been completed.

I am highly thankful to my friend Dr. Bulu Maharana, Head Department of Library and Information Science, Sambalpur University and Dr. Om Prakash Dubey, Bengal College of Engineering & Technology, Durgapur for their total support, cooperation, valuable suggestions and advice to carryout my research work successfully.

My special thanks to all the Librarian of different Engineering Colleges of West Bengal University of Technology for their timely help and cooperation.

I am thankful to all my colleagues of the Central Library, Bengal College of Engineering and Technology, Durgapur, especially to Jishnu Mondal, Sanjay Singh, B. B. Jha, Umesh Singh, Rinku Pandey, Milon Choudhury, Baljit Singh, Sudhir Kumar, Biswajit Roy and others for their help and cooperation on various occasions.

I am highly grateful to my elder brother Dr. Arun Hota, Professsor of Hindi, West Bengal State University and father-in-law Shree Harihara Padhi who have always inspired and encouraged me to complete this work successfully. My special thanks to my wife Jagyaseni and daughter Prajnashree who have extended their total assistance, cooperation and support for my research work.

I would also like to express my heartfelt thanks and gratitude to one and all who have associated with me directly and indirectly for the completion of my research work.

I remain grateful and extend heartfelt thanks to one and all that have associated with me directly and indirectly for the completion of my research work.

(Pramod Kumar Hota)

Information Technology has transformed the whole world into a “Global Village”. With the advent of internet, digitization and the ability to access library and research materials from remote location to created dramatic changes by the end of the twentieth century. There are significant and fast changes occurring in the present librarianship. The digital and electronics libraries are being established and completely replace the traditional library. Libraries are now taking the advantage of digital technology available at the cheaper rate and every library and information professional taking about digitization and digital library.

The growth of digital technology has revolutionized the methods of information processing, storage and retrieval and also several aspects of higher education system. On account of financial crunch many academic libraries have not been able to procure journals and reports which are essential for the on going academic and research programs. The individual institution/libraries are unable to acquire each and every relevant information sources to meet the needs of and requirements

Librarians are today face the increasing demands for services and stable or declining levels of fiscal and human resources .To survive the library should have digital resources can be used for efficient retrieval and meeting information needs. This is very important for technical libraries since most of them call for more and more research work.

Digitization has become a necessity and reality with technology interventions to provide improved access to information resources, preservation and dissemination as required, at any time; anywhere any place as it were.

Thus realizing the need of digital library of engineering college libraries the topic “Digitization of Library of Engineering Colleges Affiliated to West Bengal University of Technology: A Study” has been undertaken by the investigator. The present study has been divided into five chapters as follows:

Chapter-1 Introduction.

Chapter-2 Growth and development of Digital Library.

Chapter-3 State of Digital Library Initiatives of India.

Chapter-4 Data Analysis and Interpretation.

Chapter-5 Findings, Suggestions, Hypotheses-Testing,

Further area of Research and Conclusion.

The Bibliography and appendix has been appended at the end.








1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Statement of the Problems and its Significance 4

1.3 Aims and Objectives 5

1.4 Scope and Limitation 6

1.5 Size of Sample 6

1.6 Methodology Adopted 7

1.7 Hypotheses Formulated 8

1.8 Literature Review 9

1.9 Scheme of Work 23

1.10 Conclusion 23


2.1 Introduction 31

2.2 Developing Digital Library 31

2.3 Digital Library: It’s Origin 33

2.4 Digital Library Research and Development Time Line 34

2.5 Digital Library Infrastructure and Architecture 35

2.6 Steps in the Creation of Digital Library 43

2.7 Life cycle of Digitization Project 44

2.8 Provision of LIS Services in DL 45

2.9 Future of Digital Library 45

2.10 Conclusion 47



3.1 Introduction 51

3.2 Digital Library of India Initiatives 51

3.3 Major Digitization Initiatives in India 52

3.31 National Science Library/ National Digital Library 52

3.32 Digital Library Initiatives at National Library of India, Kolkata 57

3.33 ETDS Initiatives in India- Electronics Theses and

Dissertation Projects of INFLIBNET Centre, Ahemedabad 58

3.34 Vidya Nidhi Projects 59

3.35 Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Science

and Technology (INDEST) Consortium 59

3.4 Conclusions 64

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Library Networks 70

4.3 State of Library Automation 71

4.4 Availability of Hardware 72

4.5 Software used in Digitization 74

4.6 Operating System Used 75

4.7 Transport Protocol Used 76

4.8 Services Delivered by Libraries 77

4.9 Digitized Documents 79

4.10 Budget for Digitization 81

4.11 Efficiency of Staffs 82

4.12 Available of IT Experts in Libraries 83

4.13 Digitization Process of Technical Problems 85

4.14 Users Satisfaction on Digital Library Services 86

4.15 Problems Preventing of Digitization Work 86

4.16 Sectional Unit Existing in the Libraries 88

4.17 Additional Facility Offered to the Users 90

4.18 Content Already Digitized 91

4.19 Management Function of the System 93

4.20 Subscriptions of e-resource 94

4.21 Resources in Institutional Repository 95

4.22 Digitized the Full Text for Local Content 97

4.23 Institutional or Regional Repository for Local Publication 98

4.24 Information provided by Metadata 99

4.25 Membership of INDEST/AICTE Consortium 101

4.26 Membership of National Digital Library of Theses

& Dissertations (NDLTA) 102

4.27 Membership of Collaborative Venture 103

4.28 Formats of Digitized Documents 104

4.29 Technical Manpower for Digitization 106

4.30 Satisfaction Level of Library Staff 107

4.31 Allocation of Budget for Digitization 109

4.32 Software to be Used for Digitization 110

4.33 Need of Technical Staff 111

4.34 Available Facilities for Digitization of Resources 112

4.35 Planning Digital Library of External or Internal Source 114

4.36 Draft Plan for Digitization 115

4.37 Facility of Digital Library 116

4.38 Reasons for Digitization 117

4.39 Level of Interest for Digital Library 119

4.40 Exposed to DL Concept and Techniques 120

4.41 Copy right of Digital Materials 121

4.42 Copyright Given to Users 122

4.43 Responsibility for Preservation of Digital Materials 123

4.44 Time Taken for Clearance of Digital Preservation 125
4.45 Selection of Materials for Preservation 126
4.46 Digital Preservation Policy for Future 127



5.1 Major Findings 131

5.2 Suggestions 139

5.3 Testing of Hypotheses 142

5.4 Further area of Research 147

5.5 Conclusion 148
Table No. Page No.

2.1 Digital Library Time-Line 34

2.2 Some key Indian Standards 40

2.3 Some key International Standards 41

3.1 Digital library of India and their status 53

3.2 Major Digital Library Initiatives and

Digitization Programmes in India 59

3.3 Major institutional repository in India 62

4.1 Library Networks 70

4.2 State of Library Automation 71

4.3 Availability of Hardware 72

4.4 Software used in Digitization 74

4.5 Operating System Used 75

4.6 Transport Protocol Used 76

4.7 Services Delivered by Libraries 78

4.8 Digitized Documents 80

4.9 Budget for Digitization 81

4.10 Efficiency of Staffs 83

4.11 Available of IT Experts in Libraries 84

4.12 Digitization Process of Technical Problems 85

4.13 Users Satisfaction on Digital Library Services 86

4.14 Problems Preventing of Digitization Work 87

4.15 Sectional Unit Existing in the Libraries 89

4.16 Additional Facility Offered to the Users 90

4.17 Content Already Digitized 92

4.18 Management Function of the System 93

4.19 Subscriptions of e-resource 94

4.20 Resources in Institutional Repository 96

4.21 Digitized the Full Text for Local Content 97

4.22 Institutional or Regional Repository for Local Publication 98

4.23 Information provided by Metadata 100

4.24 Membership of INDEST/AICTE Consortium 101

4.25 Membership of National Digital Library

of Theses & Dissertations (NDLTA) 102

4.26 Membership of Collaborative Venture 103

4.27 Formats of Digitized Documents 105

4.28 Technical Manpower for Digitization 106

4.29 Satisfaction Level of Library Staff 108

4.30 Allocation of Budget for Digitization 109

4.31 Software to be Used for Digitization 110

4.32 Need of Technical Staff 111

4.33 Available Facilities for Digitization of Resources 113

4.34 Planning Digital Library of External or Internal Source 114

4.35 Draft Plan for Digitization 115

4.36 Facility of Digital Library 116

4.37 Reasons for Digitization 117

4.38 Level of Interest for Digital Library 119

4.39 Exposed to DL Concept and Techniques 120

4.40 Copyright of Digital Materials 121

4.41 Copyright Given to Users 122

4.42 Responsibility for Preservation of Digital Materials 124

4.43 Time Taken for Clearance of Digital Preservation 125
4.44 Selection of Materials for Preservation 126
4.45 Digital Preservation Policy for Future 127

Figure No. Page No.

4.1 Library Networks 71

4.2 State of Library Automation 72

4.3 Availability of Hardware 73

4.4 Software used in Digitization 75

4.5 Operating System Used 76

4.6 Transport Protocol Used 77

4.7 Services Delivered by Libraries 79

4.8 Digitized Documents 81

4.9 Budget for Digitization 82

4.10 Efficiency of Staff 83

4.11 Availability of IT Experts in Libraries 84

4.12 Digitization Process of Technical Problems 85

4.13 Users Satisfaction on Digital Library Services 86

4.14 Problems Preventing of Digitization Work 88

4.15 Sectional Unit Existing in the Libraries 90

4.16 Additional Facility Offered to the Users 91

4.17 Content Already Digitized 92

4.18 Management Function of the System 94

4.19 Subscriptions of e-resource 95

4.20 Resources in Institutional Repository 97

4.21 Digitized the Full Text for Local Content 98

4.22 Institutional or Regional Repository for Local Publication 99

4.23 Information provided by Metadata 100

4.24 Membership of INDEST/AICTE Consortium 102

4.25 Membership of National Digital Library

of Theses & Dissertations (NDLTA) 103

4.26 Membership of Collaborative Venture 104

4.27 Formats of Digitized Documents 106

4.28 Technical Manpower for Digitization 107

4.29 Satisfaction Level of Library Staff 108

4.30 Allocation of Budget for Digitization 110

4.31 Software to be Used for Digitization 111

4.32 Need of Technical Staff 112

4.33 Available Facilities for Digitization of Resources 113

4.34 Planning Digital Library of External or Internal Source 115

4.35 Draft Plan for Digitization 116

4.36 Facility of Digital Library 117

4.37 Reasons for Digitization 118

4.38 Level of Interest for Digital Library 119

4.39 Exposed to DL Concept and Techniques 120

4.40 Copyright of Digital Materials 121

4.41 Copyright Given to Users 123

4.42 Responsibility for Preservation of Digital Materials 124

4.43 Time Taken for Clearance of Digital Preservation 126
4.44 Selection of Materials for Preservation 127
4.45 Digital Preservation Policy for Future 128


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Statement of the Problems and its Significance

1.3 Aims and Objectives

1.4 Scope and Limitation

1.5 Size of Sample

1.6 Methodology Adopted

1.7 Hypotheses Formulated

1.8 Literature Review

1.9 Scheme of Work

1.10 Conclusion

  1. Introduction

Change is the law of nature. In the present time, the emergence of information and telecommunication technology has resulted drastic change in the way the library perform their functions. Since traditional reading materials such as books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts etc are perishable; there is danger of losing them permanently for future generations. Keeping in view the technological advancement and availability of required hardware and software, it is justified to move digital library for enhancement of overall effectiveness of library and information centre. The information revolution not only supplies technology horsepower that drives digital libraries but fuels on unprecedented demands for storing, organizing and accessing information in the currency of the knowledge economy, digital libraries will be the banks where it is invested creation of digital resources with the establishment of digital libraries is the need of the day.

The growth of digital technology has revolutionized the methods of information processing, storage and retrieval and also several aspects of higher education system. On account of financial crunch many academic libraries have not been able to procure journals and reports which are essential for the on going academic and research programs .The individual institution/libraries are unable to acquire each and every relevant information sources to meet the needs of and requirements. Therefore, the institution/libraries have started relaying on digital media in order to supplement the conventional library materials. In the light of the above trends and development, it has been found that there is a need for a detailed study and also to analyze the essential of the needs and impact of digitization on the information on users.

1.2 Statement of the problem and its significance

Statement is the key sentence of the research problems on the basis of which investigation is carried out and supportive arguments are developed. The statement of the problem describe the background of the study, its theoretical basis and underlying assumptions and the problems in concrete, specific and workable questions. The LIS researcher and library practitioners are conformed to questions like:

  • Are the library professional interested to take steps in initiative of digital library?

  • What the reasons are behind not interested to take initiatives for proper and timely digitization of their libraries?

  • Are the users really interested to get data as fast as possible and up to date their knowledge?

The answer to the above stated questions can not be uniform and as such are varied and highly complete. The arguments to these questions, in all probability will depend upon several situations which vary from library to library.

In the current globalize scenario, no system is perpetual, hence every thing is going to be changed. If any organization has to be exist effectively, it should be keep pace with time and should welcome changes .Library is a nonprofit organization facing lots of constraints like budgetary curtailments, declined customer base, shortage of trained manpower, inadequate space, lack of professional zeal and work culture etc. All these leads to efficient and effective use of manpower within librarian’s limitations, hence digital library initiatives would be the only viable solution to control the vast amount of bibliographic data emerged out of publication delay information explosion and information overflow. The present investigation therefore will be pragmatically significant for the following reasons.

  • It aims to investigate whether existing facility and resources available in the engineering college libraries can be considered for digitization.

  • Aim to develop a plan for digital library

The proposed outcome can be used by library planners, decision makers and administrators including Academic bodies and National Board of Accreditation (NBA) as a parameter for ranking and awarding rank and grant.

Hence, the value of the statement of the present investigation, “Digitization of libraries of Engineering Colleges affiliated to West Bengal University of Technology: A Study” can not be ignored.

1.3 Aims and Objectives

In every social research there must be specific aims and objectives for which the study is to be conducted. Without definite aims, research has no meaning. The primary objective of the present study is to make investigation into the present state of digital library in the Engineering Colleges of WBUT.

  • To make an assessment of the existing status of digital library facilities.

  • To motivate the library staff for digitization of their respective libraries.

  • To enlist the criteria for identifying the library materials for digitization.

  • To identify hardware, software, file format etc. requirements needed for digitization.

  • To assess the present state of technical manpower available in the engineering college libraries and capabilities to undertake digitization.

  • To identify the problems and constraints that prevent engineering college library from digitization of their respective collections.

  • To unfold the core class of documents and software that predominates in the digitization planning of their concerned libraries.

  • To unmark the extent to which the existing infrastructure and fiscal resources of engineering college library can make myth of digitization a reality.

1.4 Scope and Limitations of the Study:

Before making any progress in social research, it is highly essential to determine its scope and its limitations which will be helpful for timely completion of the investigation. If the boundary of research is not preordained, it becomes difficult on the part of the investigator to work in a scientific mind. The scope and limitations of the present study therefore has been restricted only to the study of the current status of digitization of library in the engineering colleges of WBUT. However the present study has kept the following limitations in its scope.

The present study includes the digitization of only those engineering colleges which are functioning under the jurisdiction of WBUT. This study tries to unfold the current state of digitization of engineering colleges only, but no other class of institutions or colleges.
1.5 Size of Sample:

Social research primarily based with the social phenomena. It studies the behavior of human being as a society and their response and attitude under different circumstances. The quality of any investigation and its timely completion primarily depends upon the size and quality of sample included in the study. Thus the role of sample in LIS research is quite significant.

The present study ‘Digitization of Libraries of Engineering Colleges Affiliated to WBUT: A Study. Fifty-five (55) leading engineering college libraries have been taken in its ambits (established upto2009).
1.6 Methodology Adopted:

Research methodology primarily denotes the path chosen for reaching the target on result, conclusion or generalization. It is a studious inquiry and examination or critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation having for its aim, the discovery and their correct interpretation. Methodology primarily encourages a continuous research for knowledge and understanding.

For the collection of data in social research, there are various techniques or methods are adopted. Generally, the questionnaire method, observation method, case study method, critical incident technique and Diffusion study technique etc are the few for obtaining information. For the present study, the following methodology and techniques are followed:

  • Questionnaire method for obtaining librarians opinions and for collection of relevant data and information.

  • A survey method is followed to study several ongoing projects and completed projects on selection basis both from India and abroad such as national Digital Library project, New Delhi, National Library Kolkata, Indian Institute of information Technology, Hyderabad etc.

The present investigation consists of 55 (Fifty-five) libraries of Engineering colleges operating under WBUT.

1.7 Hypotheses Formulated

A hypothesis is a tentative generalization, the validity of which has got to be tested. A hypothesis is in initial stage may be an imagined idea or mere guess and is based on accumulated previous knowledge. On the basis of hypothesis, facts are observed and collected. By verification the hypothesis is found to be true and a theory is developed. It shows the direction where to go, how to start and when to start.

A Hypothesis, therefore, can be put to test to determine its validity which may be proved correct or incorrect. For the purpose of the present study, the following hypothesis has been formulated:

  • H1: The digitization of libraries among the engineering colleges of WBUT is in a state of infancy.

  • H2: Most of the library professionals in engineering colleges of WBUT are not well exposed to digital library techniques.

  • H3: The main hindrance for effective initiatives for library digitization in engineering colleges is due to lack of interest, work culture, attitude as well as motivation among the human resources at work.

  • H4: Majority of the library professionals working in these engineering colleges are over burden with non professional and administrative works in the library.

  • H5: There is perhaps budgetary constrains for digitization of library documents in the engineering colleges.

  • H6: Copyright and licensing for digitization of journals article would be major hindrance to the process of digitization.

  • H7: Academic and research community of engineering college demand heavily for the digitization of library collection particularly old and rare books and back volume journal articles for wider access of information.

1.8 Literature Review

Review of related literature is highly essential for a researcher planning to carry out his/her research. The study of related literature primarily implies locating, reacting, and evaluating of reports and findings of the researchers who have carried out similar work earlier.

In any research study, the researcher must have an adequate knowledge with the works that has already been carried out in the area of his/her research. Review of such literature, therefore, provides an opportunity to the researcher to acquaint himself with the current knowledge in the field or area of his/her interest in which his/her own research.

Review of related literature in any social research fulfills following purposes:

  • It enables the researcher to get himself/herself acquainted with the research problems.

  • It provides a crystal picture about the quantum of work done on a given topic by the previous researchers and the extent to which such work has been carried out and the point from which he/she will have to carryout his/her research further.

  • It helps the investigator to avoid unintentional duplication of well established findings as well unfruitful problem area which might prove redundant later.

  • The review of literature also gives the researcher an effective understanding of the research methodology conducted as well as the well established principles of social research.

  • It enables the researcher to understand the actual constraints and problems encountered by the previous researchers while carrying out their research on the given field so that, the present investigator adopts necessary steps, strategies, techniques including changing his/ her path to ensure his research problem-free.

  • Such review also help the investigators to check their findings, inferences’, deductions and opinions with that of the findings of the previous researchers so that, authenticity and reliability of the result can be optimized.

In the present study, the investigator has consulted a variety of sources, both in print and electronic forms so as to find out the related literature on the subject. A good amount of literature were collected from a number of journals, conference proceedings, library websites, e-journals, webliographics, digital repositories, etc. and were then systematically reviewed. A few of the literature reviewed that deserve mention are as under:

  1. Chapman and Kenney (1996) in their paper “Digital Conversion of Research Library Materials: A Case for Full Information Capture” they advocate a strategy to select research materials based on their intellectual value and to define technical requirements for retrospective conversion to digital image form based on their informational content. In a rapidly changing world, the original document is the least changeable and building digital collection to be useful for the long term.

  2. Richvalsky and Watkins (1996) in their paper on “Design and Implementation of a Digital Library” define digital library and describe the design and implementation process which they have followed in their organization in creating digital library. They also prescribed some key design issue involved in creating a digital library such as hardware, software, database accessibility, search engine, languages etc. A number of issues that needed to be accounted for when creating a digital library and the most important issues are security and flexibility. If a site is not secure, important data can easily be lost or corrupted. Another important issue is maintaining the quality of the data in the digital library.

  3. Hasting and Tennant (1996) in their publication “How to Build Digital Libraries” point out that digital libraries require to select, acquire, organize make accessible and preserve digital collections. They emphasize digital services must be planned, implemented and training be imparted for the new tasks and responsibilities that digital libraries demand. On the basis of proposal submitted by University of California, Berkeley library institute of digital library development of education USA, the institute has trained library information scientist, museum and archive professionals in digital library issues and techniques.

  4. Satyanarayana and. Rath (1997) in the article entitled “Digital Libraries-their Perception and Use”, the authors discuss various aspects of digital libraries. They explained that a digital library is a library of digital documents artifacts and records. The assumptions underlying the design of digital libraries, their use in information access and the prominent role the digital libraries play in teaching and learning are also discussed by the authors. They have also pointed out that major issues like intellectual property, copyright and the access to electronic information.

  5. Hulser (1997) described in his paper, “Digital library: Content Preservation in a Digital World” that the information services trend and directions that expands on this point followed by a description of IBM digital library and its components that enable institutions to effectively address their digital content management issues. The study also includes the integrated functions or creating, capturing, searching and accessing, distributing, storing and managing as well as rights management.

  6. Cleveland (1998) in his study in “Digital Libraries Definition Issues and Challenges” stated that the evolution or digital libraries brought fourth the equivalent phrases of digital library like virtual library electronic library and library without walls. He also defined the concept or digital library and discussed the major issues and challenges in creating digital library.

  7. Smith (1999) in his article: “Why Digitize” he raises many questions. According to the author, digital documents will not and can not replace analog document. To convert everything in digital form would be wrong. He stated that to make analog materials more accessible not only the conversion but also through digital binding aids and linked database or search tools. Digital tiles can provide extra ordinary access to information. Digital technology can indeed prove to be a volume instrument to enhance learning and extend the research information resources to those who seek them. In conclusion, the author states that digital technology can be additional tool kit rather a replacement for the established analog media.

  8. Sangam and Leena. (2000) in their paper “Digital Library Services in Information Services in a Networked Environment in India” enumerates the meaning and definition of digital library and provides its objectives, characters and describes the different services provided by digital library. Further draw the attention of various barriers in the development of the digital library.

  9. Jeevan (2001) in his article, “Indian Library Need for Incremental Progress towards Digital Libraries” categorized Indian libraries into form generation as first second, third and fourth basing on IT infrastructure in libraries. In this research paper he discussed some vital projects and major hurdles, problems and prospects for implementation in the Indian context.

  10. Malwad (2001) in his thought provoking article, “digital libraries: present past and features” discussed definition and salient features of digital libraries. He also described digital library features by highlighting ongoing projects at IISC, Bangalore and IBM digital library.

  11. Parekh (2001) in her contribution to CALIBER 2001 conference “Digitization: an over View of Issues” begins her discussion with the concept and meaning of digitization and the processes involved in the digitization and focus on digitization of print materials rather than objects, sound film or video recordings .

  12. Arora (2001) in his study on “Building of Digital Libraries: An Overview” emphasizes digitization process of print materials. He explains building of digital collection and the infrastructure required to access them is a challenge that every library has to deal with. The article revels into technological evolution Cultural Revolution and contents enrichments that led to revolution in growth and development & digital libraries.

  13. Kiran and Babu (2001) in their paper “Digital Asset Preservation with Reference to Archival Materials” discussed digital preservation of archival materials is a crucial and complete process that affects its storage, maintenance and use. In order to preserve the socio-economic and cultural heritage for posterity, the archival materials are to be digitized for better information exploitation and sharing.

  14. Nithyanandam (2001) in his paper “Infrastructure for Digital Management A case Study for Pondicherry Engineering College” highlights the initiatives under taken at Pondicherry engineering College library with specific reference to the development of infrastructure for digital asset management.

  15. Narssimhan (2001) made a study on “Infrastructure for Digital Management Modern Impact of Electronic Media” discussed digital divide issues, document management systems, digital preservation and its requirements. The technological possibility for digital management has been explained in brief along with migration technique context migration and digital divide.

  16. Jayamani (2001) described the depth planning of digitization in the paper “A Model of Digital Library for the TN Dr. MGR Medical University”. It further discusses the utility of digital library various objectives different stages for implementation, technical issues and necessary infrastructure required .

  17. Lohia (2001) authored a paper entitled, “Need for Digital Libraries: And Emerging Reality” and discussed definition, concept importance need characteristics & functions of digital library and also few valuable suggestions are provided the benefit of digital library.

  18. Sharma, Singh and Ahmad (2001) in their paper “Digital Components in Digital Environments Highlighted in India”, the term digital library has been taken more of a buzzard than as a technology application as most of information professionals in India lack the proper knowledge regarding digital libraries. The article tends to explain the crypts and the digital components of the digital libraries and explain their working for searching the right information.

  19. Goswami and Ghosh (2002) undertook a study on “Digital Library Environment Indian Context” discussed the definition emergence of digital libraries and conversion of data to digital format. A brief review of some of the Indian libraries present role in digital environment and given. The paper further described the various digitization works in Indian environment and their present scenario & digital program is highlighted.

  20. Sahoo and Rao (2001) in an article on “Planning and Designing of a Digital Library” stressed the planning and designing of a digital library. It also discusses about setting or goods, manpower planning, resolving issues like IPR, the prerequisites for designing a digital library, process of digitization of print, audio and video information retrieval aspect developing of web interface and managing the ever growing electronic information resources.

  21. Ciriac, Deshmukh and Rajlakshmi (2002) conducted a survey on “Digitization of Libraries for Modern Era” explained the concept digital library’s. The authors emphasized that a good digital library must be properly equipped so as to disseminate the desired information and also to access it out of the digital storage media. The purpose of digitization is to collect, store, organize and disseminate information rapidly from one end to the other and vise-verse through the use of a computer. They argue that it is not the computer alone that makes the digital library possible, but digital networks like the internet which can reproduced and distributed texts around the globe almost instantly and at a nominal cost.

  22. Gupta (2002) in a study “Digitization Pros and Cons” highlighted the strength and weakness of digitization in an archival environment and explore the pros and cons of digital archival material on the world with web and also explores some of the many issues involved in selecting and developing a digital archival collection.

  23. Bhattacharyya (2002) enumerated “Digital Library : A New Trends in Information Management” deals with information procedures through discussion on various aspects of digital library including definition, needs and purpose, functions, networking principles and protocol, standers process of information retrieval through web technology application and preservation.

  24. Soergel (2002) carried out a study on “A Frame Work for Digital Library Research: Broadening the Vision” and states the DL research and development needs and framework that can be used as a perspective on existing research and practice and as a structured vision for development of new ideas. The framework offered here is based on a very broad view & digital libraries that take a full advantage and the possibilities offered by integration of computer and telecommunication technology. The author viewed that the digital libraries should support the new ways of intellectual work and offer nesting benefits to society just as in medicine, law business and government which are contributing some variable models.

  25. Suganthi, Kannan and. Surulinathi (2006) on “E Print Open Sources Software to Collection Building for Open Access in Indian Digital Environment”, explained that the e-print open archive software to collection building for open access to all. An institutional repository is the best way to provide open access to research output. In this article they focused on limited institution like IISC, IITK and NIC. They focused the various e-print software and year wise collection of e-print of IISC.

  26. Satpathy, Obaiah and Surulinathi (2006) conducted a survey “Global Electronics Theses and Dissertation in the Digital Environment” discussed ETD in general and Australian digital theses, Vidyanidhi in particular. In this paper Vidyanidhi enhances access to Indian theses and more then 85 institutions are participated and enlarge the reach and audience for Indian doctoral research works. The IISC has developed to capture dissemination and preserve research theses of IISC. It complements E-print @IISC, the research publication repository of IISC number of theses in etd@ IISC: 157. Electronic theses and dissertations are only one small part of the more to make information available through electronics means to the audience community as wide as possible and to allow scholars to continue to do what they have always done and participate in the creation of knowledge.

  27. Bathrinarayanan (2006) “Digital Libraries A Boon for Human Services” discusses the general background and digital library and open source software (OSS). The paper also pointed out the criteria can be adopted for digitization of documents. Software this paper highlights what is and OSS, its features software licensing advantages and advantages, features and functions and Greenstone.

  28. Jihai (2006) in his article “A Case Study on Digital Library Initiatives in Zhejiang University” out lines the progress in the digital library initiatives in Zhejiang University including the development of digital resources. The Million Book digital library project cooperators with institutes at home and abroad and digital services provided to the university community are focused at length. The study also discussed the key problems and prospects of the digital library initiatives from different angles.

  29. Semi and Riyahiniya (2006) in their study on “Awareness and User and Digital Resources in the Libraries of Isfahan University or Medical Science Iran” described the relationship between awareness and use of digital resources among students in contextual relation to Isfahen University of medical science. Results indicate that 70% students are aware and digital resources available in university database but 69% then do will in using resources. Similarly 62% are aware and offline database where as only about 19% used them through central library LAN Network. About 70% are aware of online database accessible via central library website and about 53% of respondents are aware of central library book and journals database where as more then half of them 54% have referred to men timed database, following by 87.2% of the students that the available digital resources substantially meet their information needs. The study revealed that students are less interested to use online database which has attributed to factors such as infrequent provide orientation and limited number of terminals connected to the centre in central library the study unfolds users are facing some problems like low speed connectivity and shortage of inadequate hardware facilities.

  30. Bendhani (2008) has undertaken a survey “Digital Library System : A Need for Emerging Information Society” discussed in this information and electronics era, a digital/virtual library holds a key role in education and research in this context, the paper deals with the necessity of digital library system for the well-being of the present information society. Looking at the prominent role ,a digital library plays in teaching and learning the discourse and focuses upon the issues pertaining to digital libraries and solution there of and highlights special attention towards content creation storage and retrieval etc. The paper also touches upon its effects or relation with the economic and legal problem. The focal intention at the concluding remark of this paper is to attempt the need as well as prospects of digital library and the problems and with suggesting some solution to them.

  31. Verma and Mahawar in their paper (2008) “Digital Library Security: The Challenges Ahead” described the modern world libraries are in transition phase from traditional to digital library and very important aspect of digital information delivery. They also stress the digital library security techniques such as cryptography digital signature firewalls, digital watermarking stenography are used for secure and effective digitization and digital assets to the end user.

  32. Singh (2008) Studied “Digital Preservation: Why and How” discussed how to digitize the library resources and how will they be handled, how to mange digital asset and how do you preserve a digital asset the selection of software for digitization.

  33. Kumar, Joshi and Sharma (2008) on their paper “Building Digital Library Using LS Digital” described digital library technologies are rapidly developing to cater to the information needs of the society. LS digital is commercial software for building digital library and an add-on” item to Libsys software and thus is fully compatible with Libsys. The entire process is fully automated thereby requiring minimum effort by the user and integration with Libsys database implicit. It provides great benefits to the user who would be able to search both digitized and non-digitized library collection through a common library OPAC. LS digital supports the functions like-resources, structure, definition, scanning versions, maintenance, PDF conversion, research database maintenance, searching and retrievals.

  34. Rouknuzzaman, Hasan and Akanda (2011) discussed to suggest a modular approach to KM education in the realm of digital library learning and also review the scientific literature of the field and a mini-case analysis of the international master in digital management in “ A Framework for Knowledge Management Education in Digital Library Learning” .The study discusses emerging nations of DL and KM and explores the current state of DL learning and KM education in library and information science. IT analyses a mini-case and show that the IKM module of DILL comprises dimensions of content, context, people, process and technology. Finally, this paper proposes a framework of KM specialization in the DILL programme which consists of four modules based on the four major perspective of KM information technology, business and human. However, DL professionals require a wide range of skills and competencies related to strategic management of information, IT management, business process management and human capital management to work in knowledge intensive organization like a DL.

  35. Chowdhury in his paper ‘‘Digital Natives and Virtual Learning Environment: A Case Study” (2011) undertook a study about higher educational institutions have realized the importance of virtual space to cater to the information needs of digital natives. This reports aimed to find out as to how undergraduate students at University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Australia use a virtual learning environment. The change in teaching method shows some cultural shift in learning. Class participation method encourages students to actively engage in discussion in the tutorial and make them more prepared for independent learning. Use of UTS online for the subject, more specifically the discussions board, encourage students to take part in discussion with issue related to assignments, and other aspects of the subject during the semester. Over all, this study clearly shows that digital natives expect a blend of technology and content to gain is interactive and stimulating learning experience. On the whole, this study shows that the teaching approach should be stimulating and more technology based learning for the digital natives.

  36. Shukla (2011) in his paper “Digitization Practices in India: Issues and Challenges” described the activities of CDAC Noida and said that CDAC was bringing holography into the digital library wherein CDAC could combine text, audio and video together in to the library science jargon and present a projection system which could not be a flat screen bout would be a table in onto which a three-dimensional image would come up. You could hook at it and get more information. Dr. Shukla affirmed that Dr. Raj Reddy of Carnegie Mellen University once said that about a billion books had been published in the world over and out of them only 15% books were available in print today, 85% were either out of print or archived somewhere. If this was the situation we are definitely getting access to just 15% of the available books. How could we bring this 15% up to 100% was the challenge? He added that this could be achieved through digitization of books. There were two steps to go through one was to create the content in the digital form and second was to create meta data for searching that content. He noted that in order to digitize books it is found that 15% of them were copyright free. So under the mission it is found that less than 20% had specific copyrights and for 65% books copyright details were not clear. He said that more than 18 lakh books stored onto 4c terabyte space on a computer and it’s accessible to the public.

  37. Fatemeh, Abdullah and Chin (2013) carried out a study “An Identification of a Model for Digital Library Critical Success Factors” is established a comprehensive set of critical success factors (CSFs) that would enable successful digital libraries implementation. The results revealed six dimensions of CSFs and 36 potential success factor statements contributed by the study participants. Based on these findings, this paper postulates that successful deployment of a digital library implementation may depend on set of success factors. The identification of these factors has important implications on digital library development.

1.9 Scheme of work

The scheme is a skeleton or blue print of the research work that has followed systematically during the period of investigation. For the sake of clarity and logical relevance which deals the entire spectrum of its investigation, the present study divided under five broad chapters:

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