The Redesigned s a t® w f‑5 k s a 0 9



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The Redesigned  S A T®

W F‑5 K S A 0 9

Reading Test


52 Questions


Turn to Section 1 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.


Directions

Each passage or pair of passages below is followed by a number of questions. After reading each passage or pair, choose the best answer to each question based on what is stated or implied in the passage or passages and in any accompanying graphics (such as a table or graph).



Questions 1 through 10 are based on the following passage.


This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of Beauty. Copyright 1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in 1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his mother to speak to his father to approach a go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?


He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda, so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps, the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt spread over the sides of the table so their legs were tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie questioned as she picked the name card off the maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black military‑style uniform of a student. As he bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption, but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and stole a deferential peek at her face.
In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity. Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would approach you more properly but I’ve received word of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement. “That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message, delivered like a formal speech, filled her with maternal amusement. You know how children speak so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about things that have no importance in an adult’s mind? That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your . . . ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal. I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes much time. Either method comes down to the same thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no more of your evening. My address is on my card. If you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke. “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
“I mean to have him.”

*Endnote

Yoshi: a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her family’s name.

Question 1.

Which choice best describes what happens in the passage?

A. One character argues with another character who intrudes on her home.

B. One character receives a surprising request from another character.

C. One character reminisces about choices she has made over the years.

D. One character criticizes another character for pursuing an unexpected course of action.

Answer and explanation for question 1.


Question 2.

Which choice best describes the developmental pattern of the passage?

A. A careful analysis of a traditional practice

B. A detailed depiction of a meaningful encounter

C. A definitive response to a series of questions

D. A cheerful recounting of an amusing anecdote

Answer and explanation for question 2.


Question 3.

As used in sentence 1 of paragraph 1 and sentence 3 of paragraph 21, “directly” most nearly means

A. frankly.

B. confidently.

C. without mediation.

D. with precision.

Answer and explanation for question 3.


Question 4.

Which reaction does Akira most fear from Chie?

A. She will consider his proposal inappropriate.

B. She will mistake his earnestness for immaturity.

C. She will consider his unscheduled visit an imposition.

D. She will underestimate the sincerity of his emotions.

Answer and explanation for question 4.


Question 5.

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 4?

A. “His voice was soft, refined”

B. “You know how children speak so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?”

C. “Please don’t judge my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal”

D. “Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full in the face”

Answer and explanation for question 5.


Question 6.

In the passage, Akira addresses Chie with

A. affection but not genuine love.

B. objectivity but not complete impartiality.

C. amusement but not mocking disparagement.

D. respect but not utter deference.

Answer and explanation for question 6.


Question 7.

The main purpose of the first paragraph is to

A. describe a culture.

B. criticize a tradition.

C. question a suggestion.

D. analyze a reaction.

Answer and explanation for question 7.


Question 8.

As used in sentence 2 of paragraph 1, “form” most nearly means

A. appearance.

B. custom.

C. structure.

D. nature.

Answer and explanation for question 8.


Question 9.

Why does Akira say his meeting with Chie is “a matter of urgency” (paragraph 9)?

A. He fears that his own parents will disapprove of Naomi.

B. He worries that Naomi will reject him and marry someone else.

C. He has been offered an attractive job in another country.

D. He knows that Chie is unaware of his feelings for Naomi.

Answer and explanation for question 9.


Question 10.

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 9?

A. “I don’t want to trouble you.”

B. “Normally I would approach you more properly but I’ve received word of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”

C. “Depending on your response, I may stay in Japan.”

D. “I see I’ve startled you.”

Answer and explanation for question 10.

Answers and explanations for questions 1 through 10 are provided in the next section of this document. You may skip directly to the beginning of the next passage if you do not want to review answers and explanations now.

Answers and Explanations for Questions 1 through 10

Explanation for question 1.

Choice B is the best answer. In the passage a young man (Akira) asks a mother (Chie) for permission to marry her daughter (Naomi).The request was certainly surprising to the mother, as can be seen from sentence 1 of paragraph 15, which states that prior to Akira’s question Chie “had no idea” the request was coming.

Choice A is incorrect because the passage depicts two characters engaged in a civil conversation, with Chie being impressed with Akira’s “sincerity” and finding herself “starting to like him.” Choice C is incorrect because the passage is focused on the idea of Akira’s and Naomi’s present lives and possible futures. Choice D is incorrect because the interactions between Chie and Akira are polite, not critical; for example, Chie views Akira with “amusement,” not animosity.


Explanation for question 2.

Choice B is the best answer. The passage centers on a night when a young man tries to get approval to marry a woman’s daughter. The passage includes detailed descriptions of setting (a “winter’s eve” and a “cold rain,” paragraph 2); character (Akira’s “soft, refined” voice, paragraph 10; Akira’s eyes “sh[ining] with sincerity,” paragraph 11); and plot (“Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke,” paragraph 28).

Choice A is incorrect because the passage focuses on a nontraditional marriage proposal. Choice C is incorrect because the passage concludes without resolution to the question of whether Akira and Naomi will receive permission to marry. Choice D is incorrect because the passage repeatedly makes clear that for Chie, her encounter with Akira is momentous and unsettling, as when Akira acknowledges in sentence 3 of paragraph 22 that he has “startled” her.


Explanation for question 3.

Choice C is the best answer. Akira “came directly, breaking all tradition,” (sentence 1 of paragraph 1) when he approached Chie and asked to marry her daughter, and he “ask[ed] directly,” without “a go-between” (sentence 3 of paragraph 21) or “mediation,” because doing otherwise would have taken too much time.

Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because in these contexts, “directly” does not mean in a frank, confident, or precise manner.


Explanation for question 4.

Choice A is the best answer. Akira is very concerned Chie will find his marriage proposal inappropriate because he did not follow traditional protocol and use a “go-between” (sentence 3 of paragraph 21). This is clear in sentence 2 of paragraph 21, when Akira says to Chie “Please don’t judge my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.”

Choice B is incorrect because there is no evidence in the passage that Akira worries that Chie will mistake his earnestness for immaturity. Choice C is incorrect because while Akira recognizes that his unscheduled visit is a nuisance, his larger concern is that Chie will reject him due to the inappropriateness of his proposal. Choice D is incorrect because there is no evidence in the passage that Akira worries Chie will underestimate the sincerity of his emotions.


Explanation for question 5.

Choice C is the best answer. In sentence 2 of paragraph 21, Akira says to Chie, “Please don’t judge my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.” This reveals Akira’s concern that Chie may say no to the proposal simply because Akira did not follow traditional practices.

Choices A, B, and D do not provide the best evidence for the answer to question 4. Choice A is incorrect because sentence 1 of paragraph 10 merely describes Akira’s voice as “soft, refined.” Choice B is incorrect because sentence 3 of paragraph 15 reflects Chie’s perspective, not Akira’s. Choice D is incorrect because sentence 1 of paragraph 22 indicates only that Akira was speaking in an eager and forthright matter.


Explanation for question 6.

Choice D is the best answer because Akira clearly treats Chie with respect, including “bow[ing]” (sentence 3 of paragraph 8) to her, calling her “Madame” (sentence 1 of paragraph 9), and looking at her with “a deferential peek” (sentence 2 of paragraph 10). Akira does not offer Chie utter deference, though, as he asks to marry Naomi after he concedes that he is not following protocol and admits to being a “disruption” (sentence 1 of paragraph 9).

Choice A is incorrect because while Akira conveys respect to Chie, there is no evidence in the passage that he feels affection for her. Choice B is incorrect because neither objectivity nor impartiality accurately describes how Akira addresses Chie. Choice C is incorrect because Akira conveys respect to Chie and takes the conversation seriously.


Explanation for question 7.

Choice D is the best answer. The first paragraph reflects on how Akira approached Chie to ask for her daughter’s hand in marriage. In these lines, the narrator is wondering whether Chie would have been more likely to say yes to Akira’s proposal if Akira had followed tradition: “Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his mother to speak to his father to approach a go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?” Thus, the main purpose of the first paragraph is to examine why Chie reacted a certain way to Akira’s proposal.

Choice A is incorrect because the first paragraph describes only one aspect of Japanese culture (marriage proposals) but not the culture as a whole. Choice B is incorrect because the first paragraph implies a criticism of Akira’s individual marriage proposal but not the entire tradition of Japanese marriage proposals. Choice C is incorrect because the narrator does not question a suggestion.


Explanation for question 8.

Choice B is the best answer. In sentence 1 of paragraph 1, the narrator suggests that Akira’s direct approach broke “all tradition.” The narrator then wonders if Akira had “followed form,” or the tradition expected of him, would Chie have been more receptive to his proposal. In this context, following “form” thus means following a certain tradition or custom.

Choices A, C, and D are incorrect because in this context “form” does not mean the way something looks (appearance), the way it is built (structure), or its essence (nature).


Explanation for question 9.

Choice C is the best answer. Akira states that his unexpected meeting with Chie occurred only because of a “matter of urgency,” which he explains as “an opportunity to go to America, as dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community” (sentence 3 of paragraph 13). Akira decides to directly speak to Chie because Chie’s response to his marriage proposal affects whether Akira accepts the job offer.

Choice A is incorrect because there is no evidence in the passage that Akira is worried his parents will not approve of Naomi. Choice B is incorrect because Akira has “an understanding” with Naomi (sentence 1 of paragraph 21). Choice D is incorrect because while Akira may know that Chie is unaware of his feelings for Naomi, this is not what he is referring to when he mentions “a matter of urgency.”


Explanation for question 10.

Choice B is the best answer. In sentence 1 of paragraph 9, Akira clarifies that the “matter of urgency” is that he has “an opportunity to go to America, as dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.” Akira needs Chie’s answer to his marriage proposal so he can decide whether to accept the job in Seattle.

Choices A, C, and D do not provide the best evidence for the answer to question 9. Choice A is incorrect because in sentence 1 of paragraph 13 Akira apologizes for interrupting Chie’s quiet evening. Choice C is incorrect because paragraph 18 address the seriousness of Akira’s request, not its urgency. Choice D is incorrect because sentence 3 of paragraph 22 shows only that Akira’s proposal has “startled” Chie and does not explain why his request is time-sensitive.



This is the end of the answers and explanations for questions 1 through 10. Go on to the next page to begin a new passage.

Questions 11 through 21 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.



This passage is adapted from Francis J. Flynn and Gabrielle S. Adams, "Money Can't Buy Love: Asymmetric Beliefs about Gift Price and Feelings of Appreciation." Copyright 2008 by Elsevier Inc.

Every day, millions of shoppers hit the stores in full force—both online and on foot—searching frantically for the perfect gift. Last year, Americans spent over $30 billion at retail stores in the month of December alone. Aside from purchasing holiday gifts, most people regularly buy presents for other occasions throughout the year, including weddings, birthdays, anniversaries, graduations, and baby showers. This frequent experience of gift-giving can engender ambivalent feelings in gift-givers. Many relish the opportunity to buy presents because gift-giving offers a powerful means to build stronger bonds with one’s closest peers. At the same time, many dread the thought of buying gifts; they worry that their purchases will disappoint rather than delight the intended recipients.


Anthropologists describe gift-giving as a positive social process, serving various political, religious, and psychological functions. Economists, however, offer a less favorable view. According to Waldfogel (1993), gift-giving represents an objective waste of resources. People buy gifts that recipients would not choose to buy on their own, or at least not spend as much money to purchase (a phenomenon referred to as ‘‘the deadweight loss of Christmas”). To wit, givers are likely to spend $100 to purchase a gift that receivers would spend only $80 to buy themselves. This ‘‘deadweight loss” suggests that gift-givers are not very good at predicting what gifts others will appreciate. That in itself is not surprising to social psychologists. Research has found that people often struggle to take account of others’ perspectives—their insights are subject to egocentrism, social projection, and multiple attribution errors.
What is surprising is that gift-givers have considerable experience acting as both gift-givers and gift-recipients, but nevertheless tend to overspend each time they set out to purchase a meaningful gift. In the present research, we propose a unique psychological explanation for this overspending problem—that is, that gift-givers equate how much they spend with how much recipients will appreciate the gift (the more expensive the gift, the stronger a gift-recipient’s feelings of appreciation). Although a link between gift price and feelings of appreciation might seem intuitive to gift-givers, such an assumption may be unfounded. Indeed, we propose that gift-recipients will be less inclined to base their feelings of appreciation on the magnitude of a gift than givers assume.
Why do gift-givers assume that gift price is closely linked to gift-recipients’ feelings of appreciation? Perhaps givers believe that bigger (that is, more expensive) gifts convey stronger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration. According to Camerer (1988) and others, gift-giving represents a symbolic ritual, whereby gift-givers attempt to signal their positive attitudes toward the intended recipient and their willingness to invest resources in a future relationship. In this sense, gift-givers may be motivated to spend more money on a gift in order to send a “stronger signal” to their intended recipient. As for gift‑recipients, they may not construe smaller and larger gifts as representing smaller and larger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration.
The notion of gift-givers and gift-recipients being unable to account for the other party’s perspective seems puzzling because people slip in and out of these roles every day, and, in some cases, multiple times in the course of the same day. Yet, despite the extensive experience that people have as both givers and receivers, they often struggle to transfer information gained from one role (for example, as a giver) and apply it in another, complementary role (for example, as a receiver). In theoretical terms, people fail to utilize information about their own preferences and experiences in order to produce more efficient outcomes in their exchange relations. In practical terms, people spend hundreds of dollars each year on gifts, but somehow never learn to calibrate their gift expenditures according to personal insight.

Begin Skippable figure description.

The figure presents a bar graph titled “Givers’ Perceived and Recipients’ Actual Gift Appreciations.” The horizontal axis is labeled “Role,” and the labels “giver” and “recipient” appear along the axis. Above each of the two labels are two vertical bars, one on the left representing “less expensive gift” and one on the right representing “more expensive gift.” The vertical axis is labeled “Mean appreciation.” There are equally spaced tick marks on the vertical axis labeled, from bottom to top, 4.50 through 7.00, in increments of 0.5. Note that there is a broken scale between 0 and 4.50. According to the graph, the mean appreciations for giver and recipient are as follows.

For giver: the mean appreciation on a less expensive gift is 5.50, and on a more expensive gift is 6.25.

For recipient: the mean appreciation on a less expensive gift is 6.10, and on a more expensive gift is 5.90.

End Skippable figure description.


Question 11.

The authors most likely use the examples in paragraph 1 of the passage (“Every . . . showers”) to highlight the

A. regularity with which people shop for gifts.

B. recent increase in the amount of money spent on gifts.

C. anxiety gift shopping causes for consumers.

D. number of special occasions involving gift-giving.

Answer and explanation for question 11.


Question 12.

In sentence 4 of paragraph 1, the word “ambivalent” most nearly means

A. unrealistic.

B. conflicted.

C. apprehensive.

D. supportive.

Answer and explanation for question 12.


Question 13.

The authors indicate that people value gift-giving because they feel it

A. functions as a form of self-expression.

B. is an inexpensive way to show appreciation.

C. requires the gift-recipient to reciprocate.

D. can serve to strengthen a relationship.

Answer and explanation for question 13.


Question 14.

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 13?

A. “Many relish the opportunity to buy presents because gift-giving offers a powerful means to build stronger bonds with one’s closest peers.”

B. “People buy gifts that recipients would not choose to buy on their own”

C. “Research has found that people often struggle to take account of others’ perspectives”

D. “Although a link between gift price and feelings of appreciation might seem intuitive to gift-givers, such an assumption may be unfounded”

Answer and explanation for question 14.


Question 15.

The “social psychologists” mentioned in paragraph 2 would likely describe the “deadweight loss” phenomenon as

A. predictable.

B. questionable.

C. disturbing.

D. unprecedented.

Answer and explanation for question 15.


Question 16.

The passage indicates that the assumption made by gift-givers in sentence 2 of paragraph 3 may be

A. insincere.

B. unreasonable.

C. incorrect.

D. substantiated.

Answer and explanation for question 16.


Question 17.

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to question 16?

A. “Perhaps givers believe that bigger (that is, more expensive) gifts convey stronger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration.”

B. “According to Camerer (1988) and others, gift-giving represents a symbolic ritual, whereby gift-givers attempt to signal their positive attitudes toward the intended recipient and their willingness to invest resources in a future relationship”

C. “As for gift-recipients, they may not construe smaller and larger gifts as representing smaller and larger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration”

D. “In theoretical terms, people fail to utilize information about their own preferences and experiences in order to produce more efficient outcomes in their exchange relations”

Answer and explanation for question 17.


Question 18.

As it is used in sentence 2 of paragraph 4, “convey” most nearly means

A. transport.

B. counteract.

C. exchange.

D. communicate.

Answer and explanation for question 18.


Question 19.

The authors refer to work by Camerer and others (sentence 3 of paragraph 4) in order to

A. offer an explanation.

B. introduce an argument.

C. question a motive.

D. support a conclusion.

Answer and explanation for question 19.


Question 20.

The graph following the passage offers evidence that gift-givers base their predictions of how much a gift will be appreciated on

A. the appreciation level of the gift-recipients.

B. the monetary value of the gift.

C. their own desires for the gifts they purchase.

D. their relationship with the gift-recipients.

Answer and explanation for question 20.


Question 21.

The authors would likely attribute the differences in gift-giver and recipient mean appreciation as represented in the graph to

A. an inability to shift perspective.

B. an increasingly materialistic culture.

C. a growing opposition to gift-giving.

D. a misunderstanding of intentions.

Answer and explanation for question 21.

Answers and explanations for questions 11 through 21 are provided in the next section of this document. You may skip directly to the beginning of the next passage if you do not want to review answers and explanations now.



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