The Jefferson Era Chapter 10: Section 1 Pages 294 – 301 teks: 8: 17C, 23A, 5C, 30B, 19A, The Election of 1800



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The Jefferson Era

  • Chapter 10: Section 1
  • Pages 294 – 301
  • TEKS: 8:17C, 23A, 5C, 30B, 19A,

The Election of 1800

  • The Election of 1800
  • Federalists:
  • John Adams
  • Democratic – Republicans:
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Believed the nation was going to be ruined by radicals like the French during their revolution
  • Believed the Federalist Party would lead to monarchy and oppression

The Vote

  • The Democratic Republicans earned 73 electoral votes and the Federalists earned 65.. . . .
  • 1. Which party won the Election of 1800?
  • In 1800, political parties ran two candidates. The idea was that whoever won the most electoral votes would be president and the runner up would be vice – president. The Democratic – Republicans ran both Jefferson and Aaron Burr. They assumed Jefferson would become president and Burr would become vice – president.
  • 2. Judging from this graph, what problem arose from the system of electing a president in 1800?

Breaking the Tie

  • According to the Constitution, the House of Representatives had to choose between Jefferson and Burr for President. The Democratic Republicans wanted Jefferson, but the Federalists were undecided.
  • Over a period of 7 days the House voted 35 times without determining a winner.
  • 3. In the case of a tie, who chooses the new president?

Hamilton pulls for Jefferson

  • Though Alexander Hamilton didn’t like Thomas Jefferson, he felt he would be a better president than Aaron Burr.
  • Hamilton said Burr was “a dangerous man who ought not to be trusted with the reins of government.”
  • Hamilton convinced his Federalist friends in the House to vote for Jefferson.

Jefferson Won the Presidency

  • Aaron Burr was furious with Alexander Hamilton. He challenged him to a duel. Hamilton vowed not to fire, but Burr shot him and Hamilton died the next day.
  • Goodbye Alexander

The Talented Jefferson

  • Jefferson was a skilled violinist, horseman, amateur scientist, reader, lawyer, and inventor.
  • In his home at Monticello, he designed storm windows, a seven-day clock, a dumbwaiter, and many other conveniences.
  • Let’s check out his house. . . . . . .

Monticello

  • http://explorer.monticello.org/index.html

Jefferson’s Philosophy

  • One of Jefferson’s first steps as president was to try and calm the political quarrels between parties.
  • He said, “Let us, then, fellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one mind . . . . Every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. . . . We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”
  • 4. Was Jefferson in favor of putting aside party differences in favor of a more united nation?

Another of his steps was to undo Federalist Programs.

  • Another of his steps was to undo Federalist Programs.
  • He did away with the unpopular:
  • Alien and Sedition Acts
  • The Whiskey Tax
  • And he reduced:
  • Federal Employees
  • the size of the Military
  • taxes
  • 5. Judging by these actions, did Jefferson feel the central government should have an extremely powerful role in the United States?

Jefferson’s Tombstone

  • “Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, of the statute of Virginia for religious freedom, and father of the University of Virginia.”
  • Discussion question: What is missing from Jefferson’s list of achievements on his tombstone. Why do you think this was not included?

Jefferson always believed that the best America would be an America of farms. He felt that overcrowded cities led to moral corruption. He hoped that the abundance of land in the United States would prevent people from living in crowded cities.

  • GOOD
  • BAD
  • 6. What did Jefferson mean when he said that cities would lead to moral corruption?
  • 7. Jefferson was elected in 1800. The population of the United States is now at 300,000,000. How much has the population grown since his election?

Jefferson’s Thoughts on the Supreme Court

  • “To consider the judges as the ultimate arbiters of all constitutional questions [is] a very dangerous doctrine indeed, and one which would place us under the despotism of an oligarchy. Our judges are as honest as other men and not more so. They have with others the same passions for party, for power, and the privilege of their corps. . . . . their power the more dangerous as they are in office for life and not responsible, as the other functionaries are, to the elective control.”
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • 8. List two of Jefferson’s fears about the Supreme Court.

Marshall and the Judiciary

  • Under the Judiciary Act of 1801, John Adams elected as many Federalist judges as he could before his term of office ran out.
  • Jefferson was faced with a Federalist Court whose opinions on the Constitution often differed with his own.
  • 9. Why do you think Adams tried to fill the courts with Federal judges before he left the White House?

John Marshall

  • Adams had also appointed a new Chief Justice.
  • John Marshall served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court for over 30 years.

Marbury v. Madison

  • William Marbury had been appointed justice of the peace of Washington D.C. in the last days of John Adams’s presidency. Jefferson’s new secretary of state – James Madison, refused to give Marbury the job.
  • Marbury sued.
  • The new government argued that the law under which Marbury sued was unconstitutional.

The Supreme Court Exercises Judicial Review

  • The Supreme Court decided in favor of the new Democratic – Republican government.
  • They determined that the law under which Marbury sued was unconstitutional.
  • This was the first time the Supreme Court had practiced Judicial Review.
  • From now on, it became the job of the Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of a law.

Final Question for Section 1:

  • 10. What made Marbury v. Madison a landmark Supreme Court decision?

Chapter 10: Section 2 The Louisiana Purchase and Exploration TEKS: 81C, 30C, 5.E, 6.E, 11.A,

  • National Geographic: The Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Chapter 10: Section 3 Problems with Foreign Powers

  • A VOICE FROM THE PAST:
  • Our country! In her [relationships] with foreign nations may she always be in the right; but our country right or wrong.”
  • Stephen Decatur: U.S. Navy Lieutenant
  • 1. What does Decatur mean?

Jefferson’s Foreign Policy

  • In his inaugural address, Jefferson advised the United States to seek the friendship of all nations, but to enter into “entangling alliances with none.”
  • 2. What other United States president warned against foreign alliances?

Problems with France and England

  • Despite Jefferson’s desire to stay out of foreign affairs, the United States was dragged into disputes.
  • The French and the English were still enemies. The British didn’t want the United States trading with her enemy – France.

SO………

  • The British began impressing or kidnapping sailors.
  • They also set up a partial blockade. They would only let a limited number of ships sail from America to Europe.
  • THEN . . . The British ship Leopard attacked an American ship and killed three Americans

War or No War

  • Some Americans wanted war. They accused Jefferson of being a lightweight.
  • One critic called Jefferson a “dish of skim milk curdling at the head of our nation.”
  • Jefferson didn’t want war. He thought it would be better to pass legislation that would stop ALL foreign trade.
  • 3. What does the analogy comparing Jefferson to curdling milk suggest?

Embargo Act of 1807

  • In 1807, Congress passed the Embargo Act.
  • Jefferson thought that closing off all European trade would coerce the British into changing their ways.
  • 4. What problems can you predict as a result of the Embargo Act?
  • His plan backfired. American merchants went broke.
          • One New Englander said, “The Embargo Act was like cutting one’s throat to cure a nosebleed.”
  • 5. What did this New Englander mean?

Madison defeats Jefferson

  • In the election of 1808, Jefferson was defeated by his old friend James Madison.

Tecumseh and Native American Unity

  • Ever since the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Native Americans had been losing more and more territory to white settlers.
  • In September 1809, William Henry Harrison, the governor of the Indian Territory, signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne in which the Miami, the Delaware, and the Potawatomi tribes agreed to sell over three million acres of land to the whites.
  • Tecumseh, the Chief of the Shawnee said
  • the treaty was worthless.
  • “Whites have taken upon themselves to say this land belongs to the Miamis, this to the Delawares and so on. But the Great Spirit intended Native American land to be the common property of all the tribes and it cannot be sold without the consent of all.”
  • Tecumseh called for the Native Americans to unite and fight the whites. The Shawnee were defeated by Harrison’s forces at the Battle of Tippecanoe.
  • 6. Why did Tecumseh feel the Treaty of Fort Wayne was worthless?

War Hawks

  • After the battle of Tippecanoe, the Native Americans ran to Canada and teamed up with the British. They became allies.
  • Many Americans wanted war with England. They were angry over the impressments of American sailors and they wanted the British out of Canada.
  • Those people who wanted war were called War Hawks.

War is Declared

  • On June 18, 1812, the Congress of the United States declared war on England.
  • This became known as the War of 1812.
  • 7. Some people claim that the War of 1812 was the “real war for American independence”. Why do you think some historians agree with this statement?

When to Fight

  • Before the war of 1812, Americans were divided as to whether the United States should go to war.
  • This has been a recurring issue in United States history.

America stayed out of World War I until American lives were lost on the Lusitania.

  • America stayed out of World War I until American lives were lost on the Lusitania.
  • Americans stayed out of World War II despite Franklin Roosevelt’s feelings that Hitler’s aggression in Germany was an imminent threat. We didn’t get involved until Japan directly attacked Pearl Harbor and killed 2700 American servicemen.
  • The Vietnamese War became increasingly unpopular in the United States because many felt that it was not our place to dictate the politics of other countries.
  • Now, people in the United States are beginning to feel that our involvement in Iraq is a mistake.

Your Assignment

  • Write an essay entitled, “When We Should Fight.”
  • Your essay should discuss your beliefs about when it is appropriate for the United States to wage war with another country.

Is it our responsibility as a world power to wage war to protect weaker nations against aggression?

  • Is it our responsibility as a world power to wage war to protect weaker nations against aggression?
  • If so, how do we choose which nations to defend?
  • Should we take a strictly defensive position – striking back only when struck first?
  • Should we take an offensive position – anticipating threats and responding with the “first punch”?
  • This essay is strictly your opinion. It should contain an introduction, supporting arguments, and a conclusion.
  • The assignment is due the next time we meet.

Chapter 10: Section 4 The War of 1812

  • Impressment
  • of
  • U.S. Sailors
  • Interference
  • With
  • American
  • Shipping
  • British
  • Support
  • Of Native
  • American
  • resistance
  • WAR of 1812
  • Causes of the War of 1812
  • When the United States declared war on England in 1812, the English were busy fighting France.
  • The English sent a message to the United States saying they would leave the Americans alone.
  • BUT . . . The mail was slow those days

Naval Warfare

  • The War of 1812 had two phases. From 1812 – 1814, the British were busy fighting the French. They did blockade the American seacoast which led to some pretty intense fighting between the United States navy and the British navy

“Don’t Give Up the Ship”

  • The most famous naval battle of the war was fought on Lake Erie between the American ship the Lawrence commanded by Admiral Oliver Hazard Perry.
  • When Perry’s ship was destroyed, he swam with his ship’s banner to another ship and proceeded to defeat two English ships.
  • The British were defeated at the Battle of the Thames.
  • Let’s take a look at what naval warfare looked like in 1812.
  • Clip from Master and Commander: Scene 4:

The Second Phase of the War

  • After defeating Napoleon in 1814, the British put all of their efforts in to fighting the Americans.
  • The British marched on Washington D.C. and burned the White House. If it hadn’t been for Dolley Madison, James Madison’s wife, many of our nation’s treasures would have been lost.

Fort McHenry

  • After burning the White House, the British attacked Fort McHenry at Baltimore, Maryland. The fighting went on all night . . But .. . . . In the morning . . . Our flag was still there.
  • Francis Scott Key was inspired to write:
  • The Star Spangled Banner – our national anthem.

Star Spangled Banner

  • Oh say can you see by the dawn’s early light
  • What so proudly we hailed at the twilight’s last gleaming.
  • Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight
  • O’er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
  • And the rocket’s red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
  • Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
  • Oh, say does that star spangled banner yet wave
  • O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

The Treaty of Ghent

  • The War of 1812 ended on December 24, 1814 with the Treaty of Ghent.
  • Unfortunately the mail was slow back then. . . SO. .

The Battle of New Orleans

  • An American force led by Andrew Jackson fought the British at New Orleans two whole weeks later. Neither side knew the war was over.

Results of the War

  • War of 1812
  • Weakened Native American Resistance
  • U.S. Manufacturing Grew

Madison’s Presidency Video

  • http://www.unitedstreaming.com/search/assetDetail.cfm?guidAssetID=3EA16EE8-1160-455B-97F3-FD34DD941530


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