The English Civil War & the Glorious Revolution

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The English Civil War & the Glorious Revolution

  • The English Civil War & the Glorious Revolution
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    • Examine the image on the next slide. What do you think is going on?
    • What do you think led to the actions in this slide?

English Civil War (1642-1647)

Reasons for the English Civil War

  • In 1603, Elizabeth died. She never married, so there were no heirs to continue the Tudor Dynasty
  • Mary Stuart’s son James I became the King of England— started Stuart Dynasty in England

Reasons for the English Civil War

  • Queen Elizabeth recognized the importance of working with Parliament
  • James I did not; believed he should be absolute monarch because of Divine Right (God chooses royal families to rule); James I did not listen to Parliament
  • Major problems between Parliament & King over issues of Authority, Money, & Religion

Problems between the King and Parliament

  • Authority—James I believed in divine right and absolutism; Parliament felt king should be limited by Parliament
  • Money—James I has to ask Parliament for money to finance government and life style

What is divine right?

  • King has power to rule from people.
  • King has the power to rule from Congress.
  • King has power to rule from Parliament.
  • King has power to rule from God.

Problems between the King and Parliament

  • Religion—Puritans were members of the Anglican Church who wanted all Catholic rituals removed; Puritans were active members of Parliament & were angered when James I arranged marriage of son (Charles) to a Catholic princess

Reasons for the English Civil War

  • When James I died in 1625, his son Charles I became king
  • Charles was “worse” than James:
    • Charles believed in divine right & absolute monarchy; refused to discuss ideas with Parliament—only called Parliament when he needed money

Reasons for the English Civil War

  • Parliament got fed up with Charles I & refused to give him money unless signed Petition of Rights in 1628:
    • King could not jail people without a good reason
    • King could not make taxes without Parliament's approval
    • King could not keep his soldiers in peoples’ homes & could not use army to maintain order during peacetime

Civil War

  • Charles I was really mad at Parliament & refused to call another Parliament for 11 years until he needed money to end revolts in Ireland & Scotland
  • Conflict between supporters of King (Royalists/Cavaliers) & Parliament grew so bad that a civil war was inevitable

Civil War

  • War between Cavaliers (Royalists) vs Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) lasted for 5 years
  • Roundheads found a strong leader in Oliver Cromwell; Cromwell and Roundheads won & behead the king (1st public execution of a king)

Do you think the Charles I should have been executed?

  • Strongly agree
  • Somewhat agree
  • Somewhat disagree
  • Strongly disagree

What did the 19 Propositions say?

  • Gave the King supreme power.
  • Gave Parliament Supreme power.
  • Made the Commonwealth legal.
  • Gave Oliver Cromwell complete power.

After the Civil War

  • After the Civil War, a Commonwealth was created—type of government with no king & ruled by Parliament
  • Oliver Cromwell led the Commonwealth, but did not use democracy— he became a military dictator

New Commonwealth

  • Life in the Commonwealth was harsh because it was led by Cromwell & the Puritans; Forced strict religious rules on people of England:
  • It was illegal to go to theaters & sporting events; “merrymaking” & “amusement” were illegal
  • Citizens hated living this way & began to want to bring back a king again

English Civil War Graffiti

  • King Charles is a bum! Let Parliament rule!
  • Cavaliers stink!

The Restoration (1660)


  • People grew tired of the severe, religious rule of Oliver Cromwell & the Puritans; many wanted a king again
  • In 1660, Charles I’s son became King of England—Charles II was called the “Merry Monarch” because he brought back theatres, sporting events, dancing & he got along with Parliament!!


  • Charles II learned from the lessons of his father & grandfather:
    • Did not try to rule by Divine Right & did not threaten Parliament’s authority
    • Passed Habeas Corpus Law—everyone guaranteed a trial after arrest; cannot be held in jail forever
    • Anglicanism was official religion, but treated Puritans & Catholics equally


  • During the Restoration, Parliament strengthened the Church of England—only Anglicans could attend universities, serve in Parliament, be priests in Anglican Church
  • Parliament created Constitutional Monarchy based on Magna Carta & Petition of Right (Guaranteed rights of people & limited king)


  • BUT, there were problems:
    • Charles II needed more money than Parliament was willing to give; so he made a secret agreement with Louis XIV of France to convert to Catholicism in exchange for money
    • Charles II had no children; when he died, his openly-Catholic brother James II will be king (Parliament's worst fear!!)

This is James II

  • This is James II

Glorious Revolution

  • James ignoring Parliament’s religious laws, James appointed Catholics to government and university positions.
  • Parliament was worried the throne would go to James II son who was to be raised Catholic.
  • Encouraged William of Orange (ruler of the Netherlands who was married to James II daughter Mary) to invade and take over.

Glorious Revolution (Cont)

  • James II fled to France when he realized he had little support from England.
  • This peaceful transfer of power was called the Glorious Revolution.

William and Mary

  • William and Mary swore an oath that they would govern the people of England.
  • Parliament passed the Bill of Rights.
  • This passage made it clear that Parliament was in control.

What is a commonwealth?

  • A state ruled by the monarch.
  • A state ruled by a hegemon.
  • A state ruled by a constitution.
  • A state ruled by elected representatives.

What is a constitutional monarchy?

  • Form of government in which monarch’s power is limited by the constitution.
  • Form of government in which monarch’s power is unlimited by the constitution.
  • Form of government where Parliament is in control.
  • Form of government where Parliament is not in control.

What is habeas corpus?

  • People have to be tried.
  • People cannot be held in prison w/o just cause or w/o a trial.
  • People need to be read their miranda rights.
  • People have to have an attorney present at trial.

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