Money—James I has to ask Parliament for money to finance government and life style
What is divine right?
King has power to rule from people.
King has the power to rule from Congress.
King has power to rule from Parliament.
King has power to rule from God.
Problems between the King and Parliament
Religion—Puritans were members of the Anglican Church who wanted all Catholic rituals removed; Puritans were active members of Parliament & were angered when James I arranged marriage of son (Charles) to a Catholic princess
Reasons for the English Civil War
When James I died in 1625, his son Charles I became king
Charles was “worse” than James:
Charles believed in divine right & absolute monarchy; refused to discuss ideas with Parliament—only called Parliament when he needed money
Reasons for the English Civil War
Parliament got fed up with Charles I & refused to give him money unless signed Petition of Rights in 1628:
King could not jail people without a good reason
King could not make taxes without Parliament's approval
King could not keep his soldiers in peoples’ homes & could not use army to maintain order during peacetime
Charles I was really mad at Parliament & refused to call another Parliament for 11 years until he needed money to end revolts in Ireland & Scotland
Conflict between supporters of King (Royalists/Cavaliers) & Parliament grew so bad that a civil war was inevitable
War between Cavaliers(Royalists) vs Roundheads(supporters of Parliament) lasted for 5 years
Roundheads found a strong leader in Oliver Cromwell; Cromwell and Roundheads won & behead the king (1st public execution of a king)
Do you think the Charles I should have been executed?
What did the 19 Propositions say?
Gave the King supreme power.
Gave Parliament Supreme power.
Made the Commonwealth legal.
Gave Oliver Cromwell complete power.
After the Civil War
After the Civil War, a Commonwealth was created—type of government with no king & ruled by Parliament
Oliver Cromwell led the Commonwealth, but did not use democracy— he became a military dictator
Life in the Commonwealth was harsh because it was led by Cromwell & the Puritans; Forced strict religious rules on people of England:
It was illegal to go to theaters & sporting events; “merrymaking” & “amusement” were illegal
Citizens hated living this way & began to want to bring back a king again
English Civil War Graffiti
King Charles is a bum! Let Parliament rule!
The Restoration (1660)
People grew tired of the severe, religious rule of Oliver Cromwell & the Puritans; many wanted a king again
In 1660, Charles I’s son became King of England—Charles II was called the “Merry Monarch” because he brought back theatres, sporting events, dancing & he got along with Parliament!!
Charles II learned from the lessons of his father & grandfather:
Did not try to rule by Divine Right & did not threaten Parliament’s authority
Passed Habeas CorpusLaw—everyone guaranteed a trial after arrest; cannot be held in jail forever
Anglicanism was official religion, but treated Puritans & Catholics equally
During the Restoration, Parliament strengthened the Church of England—only Anglicans could attend universities, serve in Parliament, be priests in Anglican Church
Parliament created Constitutional Monarchy based on Magna Carta & Petition of Right (Guaranteed rights of people & limited king)
BUT, there were problems:
Charles II needed more money than Parliament was willing to give; so he made a secret agreement with Louis XIV of France to convert to Catholicism in exchange for money