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  • Chapter Focus
  • Section 1 The Colonial Period
  • Section 2 Uniting for Independence
  • Section 3 The Articles of Confederation
  • Section 4 The Constitutional Convention
  • Chapter Assessment

Why It’s Important

Chapter Objectives

  • The Colonial Period Explain why colonists expected representative government.
  • Chapter Objectives
  • Uniting for Independence Relate how colonists united against British laws, leading to the Declaration of Independence.
  • The Articles of Confederation Explain the weaknesses and achievements of the Articles of Confederation.
  • The Constitutional Convention Describe the creation and ratification of the Constitution.

End of Chapter Focus

Section 1 Introduction-1

  • The Colonial Period
  • Key Terms
  • limited government, representative government, separation of powers
  • Find Out
  • • In what ways were the American colonies democratic? In what ways were they not democratic?
  • • What events of the early American colonial experience led colonists to believe they would have representative government?

Section 1 Introduction-2

  • Understanding Concepts
  • Growth of Democracy What elements of the English political heritage helped develop representative governments in the American colonies?
  • Section Objective
  • Explain why colonists expected representative government.
  • The Colonial Period

Section 1-1

  • Even though the American colonists got many of their ideas about representative government and freedom from England, that country has no written constitution. The British constitution, which is one of the oldest in the world, was never set down in writing. Yet the centuries-old traditions of individual rights and limits on government in that unwritten constitution have been powerful forces for democracy in the United States, as well as in other nations.

Section 1-2

  • A. The English colonists brought with them a heritage of freedom and principles of government that helped shape the development of the United States.
  • I. An English Political Heritage (pages 35–38)
  • B. The concept of limited government, dating from the Magna Carta in 1215, was an accepted part of the English system.
  • C. The Petition of Right in 1628 severely limited the power of the English monarch.

Section 1-3

  • D. The colonists believed in the limits on the ruler’s power and the freedoms protected in the English Bill of Rights, passed by Parliament in 1688.
  • E. The colonists firmly believed in representative government, following the model of Parliament.
  • F. The ideas of the seventeenth-century English philosopher John Locke deeply influenced the American colonists.
  • I. An English Political Heritage (pages 35–38)

Section 1-4

  • I. An English Political Heritage (pages 35–38)

Section 1-5

  • Why were John Locke’s ideas considered revolutionary?
  • Monarchs still ruled by divine right at the time.
  • I. An English Political Heritage (pages 35–38)

Section 1-6

  • A. The present system of American government evolved largely from colonial governments and their practices.
  • II. Government in the Colonies (pages 38–40)
  • B. Written plans of government were a key feature of the colonial period.
  • C. Representative assemblies elected by the people helped establish the tradition of representative government in America.
  • D. The division of government powers among the governor, the colonial legislatures, and colonial courts helped establish the principle of the separation of powers.

Section 1-7

  • II. Government in the Colonies (pages 38–40)

Section 1-8

  • II. Government in the Colonies (pages 38–40)
  • How did democracy in the colonies differ from democracy in the United States today?
  • The vote was limited to white males with property.

Section 1 Assessment-1

  • 1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the one below, list three practices that were established by colonial governments and became a key part of the nation’s system of government.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Answers might include: a written constitution; a legislature of elected representatives; separation of powers.

Section 1 Assessment-2

  • ___ limited government
  • ___ representative government
  • ___ separation of powers
  • A. the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
  • B. a system in which the power of the government is limited, not absolute
  • C. a system of government in which people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government
  • Checking for Understanding
  • B
  • C
  • A
  • Match the term with the correct definition.

Section 1 Assessment-3

  • 3. Identify Magna Carta, Petition of Right, English Bill of Rights, Mayflower Compact, Great Fundamentals.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • The Magna Carta provided the basis for the principle of limited government.
  • The Petition of Right put severe limitations on a king’s power.
  • The English Bill of Rights was a document that set clear limits on what a ruler could and could not do.
  • The Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims in 1620, stands as the first example of many colonial plans for self-government.
  • The Great Fundamentals were the first basic system of laws in the English colonies.

Section 1 Assessment-4

  • 4. Analyze John Locke’s natural law argument as it applies to the social contract theory.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Locke believed that people contract with government to protect their natural rights.

Section 1 Assessment-5

  • 5. Identifying Central Issues The idea of limited government, first established by the Magna Carta, is an important principle of American government. Why must government be limited?
  • Critical Thinking
  • Answers should include the ideas that a government of unlimited power would be more prone to abuse that power, rulers could become tyrants, many groups would not be represented, and civil liberties/natural rights would be endangered.

Section 1 Concepts in Action

  • Growth of Democracy Review the key ideas of the English Bill of Rights outlined on pages 36 and 37. Write an essay explaining which rights granted in the English Bill of Rights are the most important today. Include reasons for your opinion.

End of Section 1

Section 2 Introduction-1

  • Uniting for Independence
  • Key Terms
  • revenue, embargo
  • Find Out
  • • Why were the colonists and the British unable to compromise and settle their differences?
  • • What factors caused the British to allow the colonists to operate with little interference between 1607 and 1763?

Section 2 Introduction-2

  • Uniting for Independence
  • Understanding Concepts
  • Growth of Democracy How did the colonial experience during the dispute with Britain help shape American ideals of constitutional democracy?
  • Section Objective
  • Relate how colonists united against British laws, leading to the Declaration of Independence.

Section 2-1

  • John Hancock of Massachusetts, the president of the Continental Congress, was the first person to sign the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. When he did, he wrote his name in very large letters, declaring, “There, I guess King George will be able to read that!” Even today, Americans often refer to a person’s signature as a “John Hancock.”

Section 2-2

  • A. Although Britain regarded the American colonies largely as a source of economic benefits, it allowed them limited self-government.
  • I. The Colonies on Their Own (pages 42–43)
  • B. The British government tightened its control over the colonies after the French and Indian wars.
  • C. King George III and his ministers made the colonies help pay for the war by levying new taxes on the colonists.

Section 2-3

  • Why did the British government allow its American colonies to develop representative governments?
  • The distance of the colonies from Great Britain made colonial self-government convenient.
  • I. The Colonies on Their Own (pages 42–43)

Section 2-4

  • A. Harsh British policies and taxes helped unite the colonies.
  • II. Colonial Unity (pages 44–45)
  • B. To protest British policies, the colonists sent petitions to the king and also organized committees of correspondence.
  • C. The First Continental Congress held in Philadelphia in 1774 debated what the colonies should do about their relationship with Britain.
  • D. When the Second Continental Congress met in 1775, fighting had begun and Congress acted as a central government to carry on the Revolution.

Section 2-5

  • II. Colonial Unity (pages 44–45)
  • When did the Second Continental Congress become the colonies’ acting government?
  • When fighting broke out at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts.

Section 2-6

  • A. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense strengthened the independence movement.
  • III. Independence (pages 45–47)
  • B. A committee of delegates to the Philadelphia Congress, headed by Thomas Jefferson, drafted the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
  • C. The Declaration set forth the principles for the new nation.

Section 2-7

  • D. The Declaration had three parts: a statement of purpose, including a description of basic human rights; a list of specific complaints against King George III; and a statement of the colonists’ determination to separate from Great Britain.
  • E. By the end of 1776, 10 states had adopted written constitutions, which were based on the consent of the governed, limited government, and the protection of individual rights.
  • III. Independence (pages 45–47)

Section 2-8

  • III. Independence (pages 45–47)
  • Why did Jefferson’s words in the Declaration of Independence stir the hearts of the American people?
  • The Declaration supported principles of human liberty and consent of the governed.

Section 2 Assessment-1

  • 1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the one below, identify the series of events that led the colonies to declare their independence.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Events should include: French and Indian War; Stamp Act; Coercive Acts; Continental Congress; Boston Tea Party.

Section 2 Assessment-2

  • a. ________ is the money a government collects from taxes or other sources.
  • b. A(n) ________ is an agreement prohibiting trade.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Fill in the blank with the correct terms.
  • Revenue
  • embargo

Section 2 Assessment-3

  • 3. Identify Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts, Albany Plan of Union.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • The Stamp Act of 1765 was the first direct tax imposed by Great Britain on the American colonies for legal documents, pamphlets, newspapers, and even dice and playing cards.
  • The Intolerable Acts, or Coercive Acts, were acts passed by Parliament that closed Boston Harbor and withdrew the right of the Massachusetts colony to govern itself.
  • The Albany Plan of Union was a proposal by Benjamin Franklin for uniting the colonies.

Section 2 Assessment-4

  • 4. What actions did George III take to make the Americans pay for the French and Indian War?
  • Checking for Understanding
  • He levied taxes on tea, sugar, glass, paper, and other products. He also passed the Stamp Act and other laws.

Section 2 Assessment-5

  • 5. Analyzing Information Why did Jefferson’s principles and ideas in the Declaration of Independence support separation from England?
  • Critical Thinking
  • The principles of liberty, equality, and consent of the governed were not being recognized by the British government.

Section 2 Concepts in Action

  • Growth of Democracy The right of people to complain to the government is one of the fundamental American rights. Identify a recent government action or policy with which you disagree. Decide on a protest method that would be an effective way for you to express your feelings about the issue. Support your method in the form of a letter to the editor.

End of Section 2

Section 3 Introduction-1

  • The Articles of Confederation
  • Key Terms
  • ratify, unicameral, cede, ordinance
  • Find Out
  • • What evidence shows that financial problems were the main cause of the call to amend the Articles of Confederation?
  • • What weakness of the Articles of Confederation made enforcing the laws of Congress impossible?

Section 3 Introduction-2

  • The Articles of Confederation
  • Understanding Concepts
  • Federalism What deficiencies in the Articles of Confederation made them too weak to ensure the peace and tranquility of the United States?
  • Section Objective
  • Explain the weaknesses and achievements of the Articles of Confederation.

Section 3-1

  • When you fly in a plane over Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, or Wisconsin, you often can see mile after mile of farmland neatly divided into squares. In 1785 Congress provided for a survey of the vast Northwest Territory, dividing it into sections one mile, or 640 acres, square. Families who settled there could buy an acre of land for $1.

Section 3-2

  • A. The nation’s first government included a single-chamber Congress with limited powers.
  • I. Government Under the Articles (page 48)
  • B. Each state had one vote in Congress, but the government had no executive branch or court system.

Section 3-3

  • Why did the delegates who planned the Confederation government give nearly all powers of the central government to Congress instead of to a strong executive?
  • Their experience with a king made delegates cautious about empowering an executive.
  • I. Government Under the Articles (page 48)

Section 3-4

  • A. The Congress had to depend on the states for money and had no power to collect taxes, regulate trade, or enforce the laws.
  • II. Weaknesses of the Articles (pages 49–50)
  • B. Amending the Articles required the approval of all the states.
  • C. The central government had no president or executive branch and carried out much of its work through congressional committees.
  • D. There was no system of national courts; instead state courts enforced and interpreted national laws.

Section 3-5

  • II. Weaknesses of the Articles (pages 49–50)

Section 3-6

  • II. Weaknesses of the Articles (pages 49–50)
  • What do you consider the main weaknesses of the Confederation government? Explain your reasons.
  • See list of weaknesses on text pages 49–50.

Section 3-7

  • A. Despite its weaknesses, the Confederation government established a fair policy for developing western land.
  • III. Achievements (pages 50–51)
  • B. The Confederation government signed the peace treaty with England.
  • C. The Confederation government set up several departments establishing the precedent for cabinet departments later mentioned in the Constitution.

Section 3-8

  • III. Achievements (pages 50–51)
  • How did the Confederation government provide for the future growth of the nation?
  • Individual states ceded western lands to the central government.

Section 3-9

  • IV. The Need for Stronger Government (pages 51–52)
  • B. Many were alarmed when an economic depression in 1786 lead to Shays’s Rebellion, an armed uprising by Massachusetts farmers who could not pay their debts.
  • C. Leaders who favored a stronger government failed to accomplish much at the 1786 Annapolis Convention, but persuaded the Confederation Congress to call a convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.

Section 3-10

  • IV. The Need for Stronger Government (pages 51–52)
  • How did Shays’s Rebellion suggest the need for a stronger government?
  • The rebellion alarmed people who feared mob violence.

Section 3 Assessment-1

  • 1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the one below, list the major weaknesses of government under the Articles of Confederation and its achievements.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Weaknesses include: no power to levy or collect taxes; no power to regulate trade; no power to enforce laws; laws needed approval of 9 states; amendments required all states to agree; no executive branch or national court system. Achievements include: established a fair policy for developing western lands; negotiated a peace treaty with Great Britain; set a precedent for the creation of cabinet departments; established “full faith and credit” among states.

Section 3 Assessment-2

  • ___ unicameral
  • ___ ordinance
  • ___ ratify
  • ___ cede
  • A. to approve
  • B. to yield
  • C. a single-chamber legislature
  • D. a law
  • Checking for Understanding
  • C
  • D
  • A
  • B
  • Match the term with the correct definition.

Section 3 Assessment-3

  • 3. Identify Northwest Ordinance.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established the principle that the territories west of the Appalachians were to be developed for statehood on an equal basis with the older states.

Section 3 Assessment-4

  • 4. How was the original government under the Articles of Confederation organized?
  • Checking for Understanding
  • It had a single-chamber Congress. Instead of an executive, a Committee of the States made up of one delegate from each state was to manage the government when Congress was not in session. Disputes between states were to be settled by Congress rather than by a federal court.

Section 3 Assessment-5

  • 5. Describe two financial problems that could not be resolved under the Articles of Confederation.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Without a strong central government, keeping order and solving economic problems was difficult.

Section 3 Assessment-6

  • 6. Identifying Central Issues What problems did Shays’s Rebellion reveal?
  • Critical Thinking
  • Shays’s Rebellion revealed the lack of security and strength in the national government.

Section 3 Concepts in Action

  • Federalism The plan for confederation that was ratified in 1781 called for a “league of friendship” among 13 independent states. What are some examples of interstate cooperation today? Find a recent example of states cooperating with one another in issues such as curbing air pollution or cleaning up waterways.

End of Section 3

Section 4 Introduction-1

  • The Constitutional Convention
  • Key Terms
  • interstate commerce, extralegal, anarchy
  • Find Out
  • • What were the key arguments presented by the Federalists and Anti-Federalists?
  • • How did the Connecticut Compromise settle the most divisive issue among members of the Constitutional Convention?

Section 4 Introduction-2

  • The Constitutional Convention
  • Understanding Concepts
  • Civil Liberties Why do you think many people insisted on a Bill of Rights in the Constitution?
  • Section Objective
  • Describe the making of the Constitution.

Section 4-1

  • The delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia held all their meetings in secret. For five months, from May until September 1787, guards stood watch at every door of Independence Hall to bar the public and reporters while the delegates argued and debated the provisions of the Constitution. Ironically, the great document that guarantees the basic rights and freedoms of all Americans was written without any input from the people.

Section 4-2

  • A. The delegates to the Constitutional Convention had great practical experience in politics and government and included many of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.
  • I. The Convention Begins (pages 53–54)
  • B. The delegates held their meetings in secret, deciding each state would have one vote, all decisions would be by majority vote, and a quorum of seven states was required for all meetings.
  • C. The delegates decided to give up the idea of revising the Articles of Confederation and to draft a new plan of government about which they shared many ideas.

Section 4-3

  • Why were the delegates to the Constitutional Convention able to work together despite their disagreements?
  • The delegates did agree on many things. They had strong leadership and a common purpose.
  • I. The Convention Begins (pages 53–54)

Section 4-4

  • A. The Virginia Plan proposed a strong executive, a national judiciary, and a strong two-house legislature in which the lower house would be chosen by the people and the upper house would be chosen by the lower house. This plan favored the large, more populous states.
  • II. Decisions and Compromises (pages 54–56)
  • B. The New Jersey Plan proposed a weak executive of more than one person elected by Congress, a national judiciary with limited powers, and a one house legislature, with one vote for each state. This plan favored the small states.

Section 4-5

  • C. A special committee devised the Connecticut Compromise, which proposed a legislative branch with two parts: a House of Representatives with state representation based on population, and a Senate with two members from each state, regardless of size. This compromise gave the large states an advantage in the House and protected the smaller states in the Senate.
  • II. Decisions and Compromises (pages 54–56)

Section 4-6

  • D. The Three-Fifths Compromise settled the issue of representation in the House of Representatives, counting three-fifths of enslaved Africans in determining the number of a state’s representatives.
  • E. The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise allowed the slave trade to continue until 1808. Congress was forbidden to tax exports and was granted power to regulate both interstate commerce and trade with other nations.
  • II. Decisions and Compromises (pages 54–56)

Section 4-7

  • F. Although many Northern delegates wanted to end slavery, they realized that if they insisted on doing so, the Southern states would never accept the Constitution and the nation would face an uncertain future. Thus, the Founders compromised and refused to deal with slavery in the Constitution.
  • G. The delegates agreed to other compromises as well, including a four-year term for the president and an Electoral College rather than a direct election of the president.
  • II. Decisions and Compromises (pages 54–56)

Section 4-8

  • II. Decisions and Compromises (pages 54–56)
  • Why does the word slave not appear in the Constitution?
  • Northern delegates chose not to risk confrontation with southern delegates on an issue that might split the convention.

Section 4-9

  • A. Supporters and opponents of the Constitution began a great debate over whether to accept or reject it.
  • III. Ratifying the Constitution (pages 56–58)
  • B. The Federalists who urged ratification argued that a strong national government was badly needed to solve the nation’s problems and to deal with foreign countries; without the Constitution, disorder or anarchy would undermine the nation.

Section 4-10

  • C. The Anti-Federalists who opposed ratification argued that the delegates had drafted the Constitution in secret and had been given no power to replace the Articles. They contended that the Constitution took important powers away from the states and lacked a Bill of Rights.
  • D. When the Federalists promised to add a Bill of Rights, and the small states learned more about the Connecticut Compromise, the battle over ratification was finally won.
  • III. Ratifying the Constitution (pages 56–58)

Section 4-11

  • E. The new national government was launched in 1789 when Congress met for the first time in New York City. Soon after that George Washington took the oath of office as president of the United States.
  • III. Ratifying the Constitution (pages 56–58)

Section 4-12

  • III. Ratifying the Constitution (pages 56–58)
  • Why did ratification of the Constitution cause great debate among people in the various states?
  • Inland farmers, laborers, and others feared a strong central government.

Section 4 Assessment-1

  • 1. Main Idea In a graphic organizer similar to the one below, analyze how the Connecticut Compromise provided fair treatment for both large and small states.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Small states are protected in the Senate. Large states have an advantage in the House.

Section 4 Assessment-2

  • ___ extralegal
  • ___ anarchy
  • ___ interstate commerce
  • Checking for Understanding
  • B
  • C
  • A
  • Match the term with the correct definition.

Section 4 Assessment-3

  • 3. Identify Father of the Constitution, Patrick Henry.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Father of the Constitution refers to James Madison because he was the author of the basic plan of government that the Convention eventually adopted.
  • Patrick Henry was a strong opponent of the Constitution who demanded that the new Constitution clearly guarantee the people’s freedoms.

Section 4 Assessment-4

  • 4. Identify the key issues on which the delegates to the Constitutional Convention agreed.
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Members of the House of Representatives are chosen by popular vote.

Section 4 Assessment-5

  • 5. Who were the authors of The Federalist and what was the purpose for writing it?
  • Checking for Understanding
  • Hamilton, Madison, and Jay were the authors of The Federalist. Their purpose for writing it was to influence New York to ratify the Constitution.

Section 4 Assessment-6

  • 6. Analyzing Information Evaluate the impact of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists on the Constitution.
  • Critical Thinking
  • Federalists, such as Hamilton and Madison, led the campaign to adopt the Constitution, while the Anti-Federalists insisted on a Bill of Rights. Both contributed to the political development of constitutional government.

Section 4 Concepts in Action

  • Civil Liberties The Bill of Rights, important in the ratification of the Constitution, continues to be a strong foundation of the American political system. Analyze civil liberties issues in the news. Write a short news article about why the Bill of Rights is important today.

End of Section 4

Chapter Assessment 1

Chapter Assessment 2

  • Reviewing Key Terms
  • ___ ordinance
  • ___ limited government
  • ___ interstate commerce
  • ___ cede
  • ___ anarchy
  • ___ representative government
  • ___ revenue
  • ___ ratify
  • C
  • E
  • B
  • F
  • A
  • D
  • G
  • H
  • Match the term with the correct definition.
  • A. political disorder
  • B. trade among the states
  • C. a law
  • D. a system of government in which people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government
  • E. a system in which the power of the government is limited, not absolute
  • F. to yield
  • G. the money a government collects from taxes or other sources
  • H. to approve

Chapter Assessment 3

  • 1. Identify three key ideas found in the English Bill of Rights.
  • Recalling Facts
  • Any three: monarch must rule with consent of governed; monarch must have legislature’s consent to suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain army; monarch may not interfere with legislative elections or debates; people have right to petition government and to fair and speedy trials by juries of peers; no cruel and unusual punishment or excessive fines or bails.

Chapter Assessment 4

  • 2. According to John Locke, what fundamental element made government legitimate?
  • Recalling Facts
  • According to John Locke, the consent of the people made government legitimate.
  • 3. Describe the practices established by colonial governments that became a basic part of our system of government.
  • Practices established by the colonial governments include separation of powers between governor and legislature, legislature of elected representatives, and a written constitution guaranteeing basic liberties and limiting power of government.

Chapter Assessment 5

  • 4. What tasks did the Second Continental Congress accomplish?
  • Recalling Facts
  • They acted as a central government, organized an army and navy, issued money to pay for a war, named George Washington as commander of army, purchased supplies, negotiated treaties with other countries, and rallied support for colonists’ cause.
  • 5. Why was the Declaration of Independence a revolutionary document?
  • It called for a country whose government was founded on principles of human liberty and consent of the governed, the world’s first such country.

Chapter Assessment 6

  • 6. What achievements were made under the Articles of Confederation?
  • Recalling Facts
  • The Articles of Confederation established fair policy for development of western lands; concluded peace treaty with Great Britain; established departments of Foreign Affairs, War, Marine, and Treasury; and provided that states recognize legal acts of other states and treat one another’s citizens without discrimination.

Chapter Assessment 7

  • 7. State the position of small states in the debate over representation in Congress.
  • Recalling Facts
  • Small states favored equal representation with large states. Large states wanted representation based on population.
  • 8. What issue did the Convention delegates refuse to settle in 1787?
  • They refused to settle the issue of slavery.

Chapter Assessment 8

  • 1. Growth of Democracy Analyze the impact of the English political heritage on the United States and its importance to the Declaration of Independence.
  • Understanding Concepts
  • Answers might include ideas expressed in the Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights, principles of limited government and representative government, and ideas of John Locke.

Chapter Assessment 9

  • 2. Federalism In your opinion, why were the Articles of Confederation an unworkable or unrealistic plan of government?
  • Understanding Concepts
  • The Articles of Confederation lacked power to enforce its own laws and lacked power over the states.

Chapter Assessment 10

  • 3. Civil Liberties Why did the Anti-Federalists insist on a Bill of Rights?
  • Understanding Concepts
  • They wanted to prevent government from violating individual rights.

Chapter Assessment 11

  • 1. Understanding Cause and Effect Use a graphic organizer like the one below to analyze the cause for each effect listed.
  • Critical Thinking
  • Causes: the states’ common goals, such as national protection; differences among the states.

Chapter Assessment 12

  • 2. Synthesizing Information How do you account for the contradiction between the constitutional acceptance of slavery and the ideals set forth in both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution?
  • Critical Thinking
  • People who favored slavery did not consider slaves to be entitled to the same rights as whites. People who opposed slavery compromised their beliefs in order to establish a much-needed government.

Chapter Assessment 13

  • 1. What symbol represents the colonies in this 1779 political cartoon?
  • Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
  • The bucking horse represents the colonies.

Chapter Assessment 14

  • 2. Who do you think the rider on the horse is?
  • Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
  • The rider could be King George III or other British leaders.

Chapter Assessment 15

  • 3. What is the message of this cartoon?
  • Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
  • America is breaking its relationship with Great Britain by getting rid of its master, King George III.

Chapter Assessment 16

  • The Liberty Bell in Independence Hall cracked during the funeral of which chief justice of the United States?
  • John Marshall

End of Chapter Assessment

Section Focus 1

  • 1) the British monarch, Parliament, colonial council, and colonial assembly
  • 2) They elected the assembly which made the laws.
  • 3) the British monarch, Parliament

Section Focus 2

  • 1) the British government
  • 2) Stamp Acts and Townsend Acts
  • 3) one year

Section Focus 3

  • 1) They could borrow or request money from states.
  • 2) Weak, they gave little power to government
  • 3) They could wage war and make treaties and alliances with other nations

Section Focus 4

  • 1) the New Jersey Plan
  • 2) the Electoral College compromise
  • 3) large states because they had more people to vote for the lower house

Making It Relevant

Extra Credit

  • Constructing a Time Line Create a time line of the major events in the chapter. Illustrate the time line and write a brief explanation of each event’s importance to the growth of the United States government. Completed time lines and descriptions may be posted on the bulletin board. If you include events from the English political heritage, such as the signing of the Magna Carta and the adoption of the Petition of Right, you will need a device to break the time line, indication the passage of several centuries.

Cover Story 1

Cover Story 2

Cover Story 3

Cover Story 4

Linking Past and Present 2-1

  • John Locke Locke’s purpose for writing Two Treatises of Civil Government was to show that the English people had a right to dethrone James II in 1688. He argued that God gave people reason so they would know their natural rights and so they could devise a government to protect these rights. Today’s citizens still base their notions of government on Locke’s ideas.

Linking Past and Present 2-2

  • Concerning Independence Day, John Adams wrote, “The Second Day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America—I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding Generations as the great anniversary Festival.” Research why Adams said, “the Second Day of July.” Analyze John Adams’s philosophical contributions to American independence.

Did You Know 2-1

  • By the end of the 1600s, several colonies had at least one printing press which published broadsides, almanacs, pamphlets, and books. During this time the most widely read authors were clergy who published sermons.

Did You Know 2-3a

  • Early Armies and Navies
  • Shays’s Rebellion

Did You Know 2-3b

  • Each state in the new nation had its own army, and nine states had their own navies under the Articles.

Did You Know 2-3c

  • Shays’s Rebellion was not the only act of defiance at this time. Unrest also occurred in New Jersey and Rhode Island where riots broke out because storekeepers would not accept the unreliable, state-issued paper money.

Government and You 2-3

  • More About Passports  Passports have been in use for centuries throughout the world. Excluding the Civil War period, travelers to the United States did not need passports until 1918, following World War I.

TIME For the Record 2-2

  • Only John Hancock and Charles Thomson put their names on the first copy of the Declaration of Independence. Just by signing the Declaration, the men could have been jailed or killed by the British. The remaining Founders waited about six weeks to add their names to a copy of the Declaration. This final handwritten copy, bearing Hancock’s super-sized signature, is the one pictured most often in history books.
  • Sign Here

Issues to Debate 2-1

  • Setting Up the Debate Discuss as a class what you have learned about this issue from news media. Call for a vote on the issue and tally the results on the board. Then ask for volunteers to form a panel debate. Have a student volunteer act as moderator, limiting panel members’ statements to an agreed-upon time limit such as three minutes, and recognizing students who wish to ask questions or make comments after the panel members have presented their positions.
  • Concluding the Debate Compare the results of the predebate vote with those of the vote taken afterwards. Ask those whose votes changed to explain why they changed their minds.
  • Should Song Lyrics Be Protected by the First Amendment?

Issues to Debate 2-4

  • Direct Versus Representative Democracy  Some people say that the only “real” democracy is a direct democracy. Choose sides and debate the issue of whether the representative democracy set up by the Constitution is a true democracy.

Participating in Government 2-1

  • Surveys indicate that more than half the teenagers in the United States take part in some volunteer work. Among the many groups with which they are involved are religious institutions, mental health associations, hospitals, senior centers, and libraries.
  • Activity: What benefits are there in doing volunteer work? Make a list of your own interests and skills to help you focus on what type of volunteer work you might enjoy.

Participating in Government 2-4

  • Getting Out the Vote  Civic organizations and people running for office often have volunteers calling registered voters to urge them to get to the polls on Election Day.
  • Activity: Find out how to get involved and volunteer your services for this task on the next Election Day.

We the People 2-2

  • In 1787 Mason was one of three delegates at the Constitutional Convention who refused to approve the Constitution. He was disappointed that the document failed to deal with slavery. Washington felt betrayed by Mason’s refusal to sign, and the longtime friends never visited again.
  • Activity: Investigate the lives of other Americans who paid a price for taking an unpopular stand.
  • George Mason

Political Profiles 2-4

  • Alexander Hamilton, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention who later became secretary of the treasury, owed his success in part to a hurricane. Hamilton was born in the British West Indies, where his father was a trader. When the business hit hard times, young Hamilton had to give up school and go to work. After the hurricane struck, he wrote a letter describing the destruction on the island of St. Croix. After reading the letter in a local newspaper, several plantation owners were so impressed with his talent that they decided to send him to college in New York. His promising career ended when he was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr at almost 50 years of age.
  • Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804)


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