Relevant Costs for Decision Making



Download 2.12 Mb.
Date11.11.2018
Size2.12 Mb.
#71520
  • 11th Edition Chapter 13

Relevant Costs for Decision Making

  • Chapter Thirteen

Cost Concepts for Decision Making

  • A relevant cost is a cost that differs between alternatives.
  • 1
  • 2

Identifying Relevant Costs

  • An avoidable cost can be eliminated (in whole or in part) by choosing one alternative over another. Avoidable costs are relevant costs. Unavoidable costs are irrelevant costs.
  • Two broad categories of costs are never relevant in any decision and include:
    • Sunk costs.
    • Future costs that do not differ between the alternatives.

Relevant Cost Analysis: A Two-Step Process

  • Eliminate costs and benefits that do not differ between alternatives.
  • Use the remaining costs and benefits that do differ between alternatives in making the decision. The costs that remain are the differential, or avoidable, costs.
  • Step 1
  • Step 2

Different Costs for Different Purposes

  • Costs that are relevant in one decision situation may not be relevant in another context.

Identifying Relevant Costs

  • Cynthia, a Boston student, is considering visiting her friend in New York. She can drive or take the train. By car it is 230 miles to her friend’s apartment. She is trying to decide which alternative is less expensive and has gathered the following information:
  • $45 per month × 8 months
  • $1.60 per gallon ÷ 32 MPG
  • $18,000 cost – $4,000 salvage value ÷ 5 years

Identifying Relevant Costs

Identifying Relevant Costs

  • Which costs and benefits are relevant in Cynthia’s decision?
  • The cost of the car is a sunk cost and is not relevant to the current decision.
  • However, the cost of gasoline is clearly relevant if she decides to drive. If she takes the drive the cost would now be incurred, so it varies depending on the decision.
  • The annual cost of insurance is not relevant. It will remain the same if she drives or takes the train.

Identifying Relevant Costs

  • Which costs and benefits are relevant in Cynthia’s decision?
  • The cost of maintenance and repairs is relevant. In the long-run these costs depend upon miles driven.
  • The monthly school parking fee is not relevant because it must be paid if Cynthia drives or takes the train.
  • At this point, we can see that some of the average cost of $0.569 per mile are relevant and others are not.

Identifying Relevant Costs

  • Which costs and benefits are relevant in Cynthia’s decision?
  • The decline in resale value due to additional miles is a relevant cost.
  • The round-trip train fare is clearly relevant. If she drives the cost can be avoided.
  • Relaxing on the train is relevant even though it is difficult to assign a dollar value to the benefit.
  • The kennel cost is not relevant because Cynthia will incur the cost if she drives or takes the train.

Identifying Relevant Costs

  • Which costs and benefits are relevant in Cynthia’s decision?
  • The cost of parking is relevant because it can be avoided if she takes the train.
  • The benefits of having a car in New York and the problems of finding a parking space are both relevant but are difficult to assign a dollar amount.

Identifying Relevant Costs

  • From a financial standpoint, Cynthia would be better off taking the train to visit her friend. Some of the non-financial factor may influence her final decision.

Total and Differential Cost Approaches

  • The management of a company is considering a new laborsaving machine that rents for $3,000 per year. Data about the company’s annual sales and costs with and without the new machine are:

Total and Differential Cost Approaches

  • As you see, the only costs that differ between the alternatives are the direct labor costs savings and the increase in fixed rental costs.
  • We can efficiently analyze the decision by looking at the different costs and revenues and arrive at the same solution.

Total and Differential Cost Approaches

  • Using the differential approach is desirable for two reasons:
  • Only rarely will enough information be available to prepare detailed income statements for both alternatives.
  • Mingling irrelevant costs with relevant costs may cause confusion and distract attention away from the information that is really critical.

Adding/Dropping Segments

  • One of the most important decisions managers make is whether to add or drop a business segment such as a product or a store.
  • Let’s see how relevant costs should be used in this type of decision.

Adding/Dropping Segments

  • Due to the declining popularity of digital watches, Lovell Company’s digital watch line has not reported a profit for several years. Lovell is considering dropping this product line.

A Contribution Margin Approach

  • DECISION RULE
  • Lovell should drop the digital watch segment only if its profit would increase. This would only happen if the fixed cost savings exceed the lost contribution margin.
  • Let’s look at this solution.

Adding/Dropping Segments

Adding/Dropping Segments

  • Investigation has revealed that total fixed general factory overhead and general
  • administrative expenses would not be affected if the digital watch line is dropped. The fixed general factory overhead and general administrative expenses assigned to this product would be reallocated to other product lines.

Adding/Dropping Segments

  • The equipment used to manufacture
  • digital watches has no resale
  • value or alternative use.
  • Should Lovell retain or drop
  • the digital watch segment?

A Contribution Margin Approach

Comparative Income Approach

  • The Lovell solution can also be obtained by preparing comparative income statements showing results with and without the digital watch segment.
  • Let’s look at this second approach.
  • If the digital watch line is dropped, the company gives up its contribution margin.
  • On the other hand, the general factory overhead would be the same. So this cost really isn’t relevant.
  • But we wouldn’t need a manager for the product line anymore.
  • If the digital watch line is dropped, the net book value of the equipment would be written off. The depreciation that would have been taken will flow through the income statement as a loss instead.

Beware of Allocated Fixed Costs

  • Why should we keep the digital watch segment when it’s showing a $100,000 loss?

Beware of Allocated Fixed Costs

  • The answer lies in the way we allocate common fixed costs to our products.

Beware of Allocated Fixed Costs

  • Our allocations can make a segment look less profitable than it really is.

The Make or Buy Decision

  • When a company is involved in more than one activity in the entire value chain, it is vertically integrated. A decision to carry out one of the activities in the value chain internally, rather than to buy externally from a supplier is called a “make or buy” decision.

Vertical Integration- Advantages

  • Better quality control
  • Realize profits

Vertical Integration- Disadvantage

  • Companies may fail to take advantage of suppliers who can create economies of scale advantage by pooling demand from numerous companies.

The Make or Buy Decision: An Example

  • Essex Company manufactures part 4A that is used in one of its products.
  • The unit product cost of this part is:

The Make or Buy Decision

  • The special equipment used to manufacture part 4A has no resale value.
  • The total amount of general factory overhead, which is allocated on the basis of direct labor hours, would be unaffected by this decision.
  • The $30 unit product cost is based on 20,000 parts produced each year.
  • An outside supplier has offered to provide the 20,000 parts at a cost of $25 per part. Should we accept the supplier’s offer?

The Make or Buy Decision

  • 20,000 × $9 per unit = $180,000

The Make or Buy Decision

  • The special equipment has no resale value and is a sunk cost.

The Make or Buy Decision

  • Not avoidable; irrelevant. If the product is dropped, it will be reallocated to other products.

The Make or Buy Decision

  • Should we make or buy part 4A?

Opportunity Cost

  • An opportunity cost is the benefit that is foregone as a result of pursuing some course of action.
  • Opportunity costs are not actual dollar outlays and are not recorded in the formal accounts of an organization.
  • How would this concept potentially relate to the Essex Company?

Key Terms and Concepts

  • A special order is a one-time order that is not considered part of the company’s normal ongoing business.
  • When analyzing a special order only the incremental costs and benefits are relevant.

Special Orders

  • Jet, Inc. makes a single product whose normal selling price is $20 per unit.
  • A foreign distributor offers to purchase 3,000 units for $10 per unit.
  • This is a one-time order that would not affect the company’s regular business.
  • Annual capacity is 10,000 units, but Jet, Inc. is currently producing and selling only 5,000 units.
  • Should Jet accept the offer?

Special Orders

  • $8 variable cost

Special Orders

  • If Jet accepts the offer, net operating income will increase by $6,000.
  • Note: This answer assumes that fixed costs are unaffected by the order and that variable marketing costs must be incurred on the special order.

Quick Check 

  • Northern Optical ordinarily sells the X-lens for $50. The variable production cost is $10, the fixed production cost is $18 per unit, and the variable selling cost is $1. A customer has requested a special order for 10,000 units of the X-lens to be imprinted with the customer’s logo. This special order would not involve any selling costs, but Northern Optical would have to purchase an imprinting machine for $50,000.
  • (see the next page)

Quick Check 

  • What is the rock bottom minimum price below which Northern Optical should not go in its negotiations with the customer? In other words, below what price would Northern Optical actually be losing money on the sale? There is ample idle capacity to fulfill the order and the imprinting machine has no further use after this order.
    • a. $50
    • b. $10
    • c. $15
    • d. $29

Quick Check 

  • What is the rock bottom minimum price below which Northern Optical should not go in its negotiations with the customer? In other words, below what price would Northern Optical actually be losing money on the sale? There is ample idle capacity to fulfill the order and the imprinting machine has no further use after this order.
    • a. $50
    • b. $10
    • c. $15
    • d. $29
  • Variable production cost $100,000
  • Additional fixed cost 50,000
  • Total relevant cost $150,000
  • Number of units 10,000
  • Average cost per unit $15

Key Terms and Concepts

  • When a limited resource of some type restricts the company’s ability to satisfy demand, the company is said to have a constraint.
  • The machine or process that is limiting overall output is called the bottleneck – it is the constraint.

Utilization of a Constrained Resource

  • When a constraint exists, a company should select a product mix that maximizes the total contribution margin earned since fixed costs usually remain unchanged.
  • A company should not necessarily promote those products that have the highest unit contribution margin.
  • Rather, it should promote those products that earn the highest contribution margin in relation to the constraining resource.

Utilization of a Constrained Resource: An Example

  • Ensign Company produces two products and selected data is shown below:

Utilization of a Constrained Resource

  • Machine A1 is the constrained resource and is being used at 100% of its capacity.
  • There is excess capacity on all other machines.
  • Machine A1 has a capacity of 2,400 minutes per week.
  • Should Ensign focus its efforts on Product 1 or 2?

Quick Check 

  • How many units of each product can be processed through Machine A1 in one minute?
  • Product 1 Product 2
    • a. 1 unit 0.5 unit
    • b. 1 unit 2.0 units
    • c. 2 units 1.0 unit
    • d. 2 units 0.5 unit

Quick Check 

  • How many units of each product can be processed through Machine A1 in one minute?
  • Product 1 Product 2
    • a. 1 unit 0.5 unit
    • b. 1 unit 2.0 units
    • c. 2 units 1.0 unit
    • d. 2 units 0.5 unit
  • I was just checking to make sure you are with us.

Quick Check 

  • What generates more profit for the company, using one minute of machine A1 to process Product 1 or using one minute of machine A1 to process Product 2?
    • a. Product 1
    • b. Product 2
    • c. They both would generate the same profit.
    • d. Cannot be determined.

Quick Check 

  • What generates more profit for the company, using one minute of machine A1 to process Product 1 or using one minute of machine A1 to process Product 2?
    • a. Product 1
    • b. Product 2
    • c. They both would generate the same profit.
    • d. Cannot be determined.
  • With one minute of machine A1, we could make 1 unit of Product 1, with a contribution margin of $24, or 2 units of Product 2, each with a contribution margin of $15.
  • 2 × $15 = $30 > $24

Utilization of a Constrained Resource

  • The key is the contribution margin per unit of the constrained resource.
  • Product 2 should be emphasized. Provides more valuable use of the constrained resource machine A1, yielding a contribution margin of $30 per minute as opposed to $24 for Product 1.

Utilization of a Constrained Resource

  • If there are no other considerations, the best plan would be to produce to meet current demand for Product 2 and then use remaining capacity to make Product 1.
  • The key is the contribution margin per unit of the constrained resource.

Utilization of a Constrained Resource

  • Let’s see how this plan would work.

Utilization of a Constrained Resource

  • Let’s see how this plan would work.

Utilization of a Constrained Resource

  • Let’s see how this plan would work.

Utilization of a Constrained Resource

  • According to the plan, we will produce 2,200 units of Product 2 and 1,300 of Product 1. Our contribution margin looks like this.
  • The total contribution margin for Ensign is $64,200.

Quick Check 

  • Colonial Heritage makes reproduction colonial furniture from select hardwoods.
  • The company’s supplier of hardwood will only be able to supply 2,000 board feet this month. Is this enough hardwood to satisfy demand?
    • a. Yes
    • b. No

Quick Check 

  • Colonial Heritage makes reproduction colonial furniture from select hardwoods.
  • The company’s supplier of hardwood will only be able to supply 2,000 board feet this month. Is this enough hardwood to satisfy demand?
    • a. Yes
    • b. No
  • (2  600) + (10  100 ) = 2,200 > 2,000

Quick Check 

  • The company’s supplier of hardwood will only be able to supply 2,000 board feet this month. What plan would maximize profits?
    • a. 500 chairs and 100 tables
    • b. 600 chairs and 80 tables
    • c. 500 chairs and 80 tables
    • d. 600 chairs and 100 tables

Quick Check 

  • The company’s supplier of hardwood will only be able to supply 2,000 board feet this month. What plan would maximize profits?
    • a. 500 chairs and 100 tables
    • b. 600 chairs and 80 tables
    • c. 500 chairs and 80 tables
    • d. 600 chairs and 100 tables

Quick Check 

  • As before, Colonial Heritage’s supplier of hardwood will only be able to supply 2,000 board feet this month. Assume the company follows the plan we have proposed. Up to how much should Colonial Heritage be willing to pay above the usual price to obtain more hardwood?
    • a. $40 per board foot
    • b. $25 per board foot
    • c. $20 per board foot
    • d. Zero

Quick Check 

  • As before, Colonial Heritage’s supplier of hardwood will only be able to supply 2,000 board feet this month. Assume the company follows the plan we have proposed. Up to how much should Colonial Heritage be willing to pay above the usual price to obtain more hardwood?
    • a. $40 per board foot
    • b. $25 per board foot
    • c. $20 per board foot
    • d. Zero
  • The additional wood would be used to make tables. In this use, each board foot of additional wood will allow the company to earn an additional $20 of contribution margin and profit.

Managing Constraints

  • Finding ways to process more units through a resource bottleneck
  • At the bottleneck itself:
    • Improve the process
    • Add overtime or another shift
    • Hire new workers or acquire
    • more machines
    • Subcontract production
    • Reduce amount of defective
    • units produced
    • Add workers transferred from
    • non-bottleneck departments

Joint Costs

  • In some industries, a number of end products are produced from a single raw material input.
  • Two or more products produced from a common input are called joint products.
  • The point in the manufacturing process where each joint product can be recognized as a separate product is called the split-off point.

Joint Products

  • Joint
  • Input
  • Common
  • Production
  • Process
  • Split-Off
  • Point
  • Oil
  • Gasoline
  • Chemicals

Joint Products

  • Separate
  • Processing
  • Separate
  • Processing
  • Final
  • Sale
  • Final
  • Sale
  • Final
  • Sale
  • Separate
  • Product
  • Costs
  • Joint
  • Input
  • Common
  • Production
  • Process
  • Split-Off
  • Point
  • Joint
  • Costs
  • Oil
  • Gasoline
  • Chemicals

The Pitfalls of Allocation

  • Joint costs are often allocated to end products on the basis of the relative sales value of each product or on some other basis.
  • Although allocation is needed for some purposes such as balance sheet inventory valuation, allocations of this kind are very dangerous for decision making.

Sell or Process Further

    • Joint costs are irrelevant in decisions regarding what to do with a product from the split-off point forward.
    • It will always be profitable to continue processing a joint product after the split-off point so long as the incremental revenue exceeds the incremental processing costs incurred after the split-off point.

Sell or Process Further: An Example

  • Sawmill, Inc. cuts logs from which unfinished lumber and sawdust are the immediate joint products.
  • Unfinished lumber is sold “as is” or processed further into finished lumber.
  • Sawdust can also be sold “as is” to gardening wholesalers or processed further into “presto-logs.”

Sell or Process Further

  • Data about Sawmill’s joint products includes:

Sell or Process Further

Sell or Process Further

Sell or Process Further

  • Should we process the lumber further and sell the sawdust “as is?”

Activity-Based Costing and Relevant Costs

  • ABC can be used to help identify potentially relevant costs for decision-making purposes.
  • However, before making a decision, managers must decide which of the potentially relevant costs are actually avoidable.

End of Chapter 13



Download 2.12 Mb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©www.sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page