Reading pretest instructions: Read each question carefully and select the correct answer

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Instructions: Read each question carefully and select the correct answer.
Scantron 7

A dam is a barricade built across a stream of water, such as a river, to hold back or control the water flow. The first known dam was built around 4000 BC along the Nile River in Egypt.

Dams are classified by their functions. There are generally three types of dams: storage, diversion, and detention. Storage dams are built to reserve water for later use. For example, a storage dam may be built to store excess water runoff, which can be used in times of drought. A storage dam can provide water to farms in times of drought. A diversion dam is created to provide water pressure. The water pressure moves the water through ditches and canals. This pressure creates a huge amount of energy that is used to generate power. Detention dams are built to reduce the effect of sudden floods. Detention dams must be very strong in order to hold massive amounts of floodwater.
There are over 50,000 dams in the United States. All three types of dams are equally important in helping to capture water and turn it into a natural resource we can use. Although it is impossible to completely control the forces of nature, dams are able to provide the water control necessary for many communities.
1. Which of the following moves water through ditches and canals?

A. electricity

B. water pressure

C. gravity

D. barricade

2. Storage dams are built ____________________________________.

A. for water skiers

B. to reserve water for later use

C. to reduce the effects of floods

D. to provide water pressure

3. According to the story, a dam cannot ______________________________________.

A. completely control the forces of nature

B. provide water pressure

C. be built across a water stream

D. store excess water runoff

4. How is this passage organized?

A. in chronological order

B. state a problem and offer a solution

C. a cause is given and then its effect

D. from least to most important fact

Scantron 8
Imagine waking in the early morning to see a herd of elk grazing just outside your cabin window. Later, you hike to see a geyser of water shoot 130 feet into the air, and then explore a forest of trees that have turned into stone. Every year, millions of people do just that when they visit Yellowstone National Park. Established in 1872, it is the world's oldest national park and is home to a variety of natural wonders. The designation "national park" means that the federal government manages the area. The money the government supplies each year helps to keep the park open for numerous visitors. The government also limits the building of houses, hotels, and other structures in the area. These limits preserve the park so scientists and tourists alike can learn from it.
The petrified forests in the park offer people a glance into the past. Thousands of years ago, lava and ash from volcanoes covered the area known today as Yellowstone. Once buried under the ash, many of the trees turned to stone— they became petrified. Most of the time, the petrified wood lies in pieces on the ground, but sometimes an entire trunk remains intact. Unfortunately, visitors destroyed many of the trunks by picking off pieces of petrified wood. Now the park fences off such trunks, so visitors can look at the trees without causing damage. Arizona also has a national park called Petrified Forest.
The same volcano that created the petrified trees also heats underground water. When touring the park, you can see the effects of this heat in the hot springs and geysers. Mammoth Hot Springs contains many beautiful rock formations called terraces. The terraces are created when water hot enough to dissolve limestone rises through the earth. When the dissolved limestone and water settle, they form a white crust on the surface that forms the terraces. Sometimes, however, the water does more than just rise to the surface. With the right underground conditions, a fountain of steam and water can appear above ground. These fountains, called geysers, can erupt up to 200 feet in the air. Because some of the geysers erupt regularly, visitors can hike to watch the amazing displays.
Of course, no trip to Yellowstone would be complete without encountering some of its wildlife. Throughout the year, visitors can see moose, elk, and bison grazing in different areas throughout the park. In fact, bighorn sheep have been known to cause traffic jams during the summer. If visitors want to see bears, they should observe large meadows just after sunrise or just before sunset. Of course, everyone should use caution when observing any animal. While a bear attack might seem to offer the most potential for harm, elk and bighorn sheep can also do severe damage to cars and people. Rangers recommend watching from a distance.
Thanks to its designation as a national park, Yellowstone allows visitors to witness some of nature's most amazing events. At the same time, scientists study the park's land and animals to learn more about our environment. Yellowstone National Park serves as one of the world's greatest natural treasures.
5. Which three things in the park were created by an ancient volcano?

A. petrified wood, geysers, and hot springs

B. mountains, meadows, and forests

C. geysers, hiking trails, and forests

D. meadows, petrified wood, and fountains

6. Which group of people would most benefit from reading this passage?

A. scientists studying Yellowstone's plant life

B. newly hired park rangers

C. a family planning a trip to Yellowstone

D. a science class learning about bears

7. Which of the following statements from the passage is an opinion?

  1. Of course, no trip to Yellowstone would be complete without encountering some of its wildlife.

  2. If visitors want to see bears, they should observe large meadows just after sunrise or just before sunset.

  3. The same volcano that created the petrified trees also heats underground water.

  4. These fountains, called geysers, can erupt up to 200 feet in the air.

8. Which of the following animals mentioned in the fourth paragraph is not linked to damaging cars?

A. elk

B. moose

C. bears

D. bighorn sheep

Scantron 9

Imagine that every inhaled breath taken felt as though it came in through a pinched straw. Having very sensitive airways, children with asthma often experience this feeling. Nearly five million children in the United States have asthma, a chronic lung disease. Asthma is caused by muscle swelling, squeezing, or excessive mucus. When suffering an asthma attack, the airflow to and from the lungs is often blocked.
One out of every thirteen school-aged children suffers from this illness. Forty percent of them have parents with asthma. Childhood asthma attacks are the cause of over 200,000 hospitalizations annually. Plus, more than fourteen million school days are missed due to asthma. Some sufferers of asthma will outgrow the illness. However, in many cases the symptoms will persist throughout adolescence and adulthood.
Nearly eighty percent of children with this disorder develop symptoms before turning five years old. These symptoms include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and tightening of the chest. Pediatric physicians often give pulmonary function tests to their patients in order to accurately determine how well the child's lungs function. These tests also help doctors determine a health management system for their patients.
Specific irritants like chalk dust or other allergens often trigger attacks in school-aged children; therefore, many carry special devices and instructions to school. This way these children are prepared if an attack occurs. Quick relievers such as mist inhalers are commonly used to treat the condition when students are away from home and parents. Other elements like extreme weather conditions, strenuous exercise, or even emotional stress can initiate an attack. Many children learn to limit strenuous activities during recess or physical education. However, a good management plan will keep most sufferers from having to totally eliminate themselves from fun childhood activities.
Parents of children with this illness also learn to prevent attacks. Before school begins, many parents use special tools to measure how well their child's lungs are functioning. Tools like peak flow meters help determine a child's breathing ease. If the lungs' airways are agitated, preventive medicines may be given. These medicines can come in the form of dry powder inhalers or pills, which help to open the airways. Other options are liquids and injections.
Although there is no cure for asthma, the illness can be controlled. Being informed about the disease and having an asthmatic management plan in place are great ways for children and parents to start.

9. Why do asthmatic patients have breathing difficulties?

A. because they often take medication through breathing inhalers

B. because the airways in their lungs are often blocked or tightened

C. because of their vulnerability to coughing spells and wheezing

D. because the illness causes them to experience a lot of stress

10. If a person experiencing an asthmatic attack is not treated, _______________ .

A. he or she will need to breathe through a pinched straw

B. he or she could sing to expand the lungs' airways

C. he or she will need to do some strenuous exercises

D. he or she could suffocate due to lack of sufficient oxygen

11. Approximately how many children suffer from asthma in the United States?

A. thirteen million

B. five million

C. fourteen million

D. forty million
12. What is the main idea of this passage?

A. Asthma is an illness that can be controlled with medication.

B. A chronic lung condition affects the lives of millions of children.

C. The lungs' airways are sensitive to many conditions.

D. Various factors can trigger asthma attacks in children.
Scantron 10

Many high school students dream of the day when they will be able to leave home and attend college, experiencing complete independence for the first time in their lives. Many students do not realize how difficult it is to obtain an acceptance letter from colleges or universities across the country. While the college application process can seem overwhelming, and at times unbearable, those who are diligent and follow a few simple steps can increase their chances of gaining entrance to the college of their choice.

One of the most important factors to consider is your overall grade point average, or GPA. Certain colleges have a minimum GPA standard that all incoming students must meet. By taking advanced placement (AP) or honors courses you can raise your GPA, since these courses are based on a five-point scale. Also, don't forget that college admissions officers take into account overall improvement in GPA, and consider junior year the most important year in high school.
While you are working your hardest to ensure success in your scholastic endeavors, do not neglect to create a well-rounded persona. Colleges desire individuals who possess additional positive attributes and interests. Broaden your horizons by joining different school clubs and organizations. All types of volunteer experience will improve the quality of your application. Moreover, if you play on a high school team, you are increasing your chances of gaining entrance into a college. Most colleges desire well-rounded individuals, not just bookworms!
Furthermore, many students neglect to put effort into the personal essay. This is an important part of the application process, since this is where the admissions counselors can determine who you are and what you have to offer the campus. In order to write a successful essay, you need to do a little research and always write from the heart. If you are interested in a college because of a particular program or professor, mention that in the essay. The counselors will be impressed that you have spent time researching their college and that you are focused enough to know what you want to study.
In addition to the personal essay, some colleges and universities require an interview. If the program you select requires this as part of the application process, do not fret. All you need to do is prepare for the interview. Most interviewers have a set of questions they ask every applicant. These questions can range from describing a defining moment in your life, to explaining your greatest strength or biggest challenge. Remember, the interviewers will be judging you not just on your responses, but also on how you carry yourself during the interview.
Finally, one way to ensure acceptance into college is to apply to a number of schools. Always aim high, but have a back-up plan in case your first and second choice schools place you on the deferred or denied list. If you follow the steps delineated in the above essay, your chances of acceptance will greatly improve.
13. Which of the following does not serve as a transition between paragraphs?

A. In addition to the personal essay...

B. Many high school students dream...

C. While you are working your hardest...

D. Furthermore, many students neglect...

14. Which of the following points is not made in the passage?

A. The personal essay is important.

B. College is expensive.

C. A high G.P.A. is essential.

D. Get involved in clubs.

15. What is the main idea of this passage?

A. to stress the importance of college

B. to explain ways to gain acceptance to college

C. to show how to study properly

D. to offer ways to improve your GPA

16. Why is the personal essay an important part of the application process?

A. It breaks up the monotony of your G.P.A.

B. It allows for low entrance exam scores.

C. It communicates who you are as a person.

D. It determines intelligence.

As Regina came around the second bend in the track, she became aware of being in the lead. Though she could feel another runner right on her heels, she did not risking looking behind her. The eight hundred meter was her best event, and she had run it the day before in two minutes and twenty-eight seconds, her personal best. She was confident she could win this race if she paced herself in the first lap, permitting herself enough adrenaline to push forward in the final sprint of the second lap. Now was the time to take off and excel ahead of all the other competitors.

"Go Regina!" her father shouted from the bleachers. Summoning all her strength, she began kicking higher with each step, pumping faster into her sprint. Nearing the far bend once more, Regina could hear the runner behind her closing in, and wanting to get a glimpse of how far ahead she had managed to pace herself, she turned her head ever so slightly. In doing so, Regina felt a small shift in her balance, and before she knew it she had stumbled, crashing into the ground, rolling several feet before she could stop herself.
From the ground, Regina watched as the other athletes crossed the finish line. She stood up to brush the gravel from her legs and noticed cuts and abrasions where the gravel was embedded in her knees, but as she slowly walked over to her team's area to cool down, she realized that her knee wasn't damaged nearly as much as her pride.
Her coach meticulously checked out her knees and made sure she wasn't seriously injured, then went back to help other runners prepare for their races. Regina sat and brooded for a few minutes, reflecting on how she was in the best shape of her running career, on how she had practiced intensely for this track-meet, and on how she had been so confident about achieving first place before her race had begun. At that moment Regina realized she wasn't quite ready to go; she just had to redeem herself to prove what she already knew was more than possible.
Determined to finish better than last place, Regina pleaded for another chance, explaining to her coach that she would gladly run in any of the remaining events. Regina hurried down to the track, hoping that her muscles were still warm and that she would still be able to deliver, since she hadn't sprinted for very long in the first race before she fell. As she lined up and waited for the starting gun, she tried to mentally prepare herself for one long sprint, since this race was just one lap around instead of two.
As the starting gun sounded, Regina took off and claimed second place after the first bend. Although she pumped like mad, she still was behind after the second bend. The final straight-a-way was her chance, and she stretched her legs, kicking as high as she could, as they approached the finish. Regina pulled alongside the lead runner, and as they crossed the finish line, she led by just inches! She could hardly believe she'd won a race she'd never run before in her life, and she glanced over to see her father jumping up and down in the stands, both fists in the air, shouting her name. Regina headed back to her team area, where her coach gave her a congratulatory pat on the back and a big grin. As she sat down on the bench to take off her running shoes, Regina rubbed her sore knees and decided she might switch races more often.

17. After reading this passage, one could assume that the author _______________ .

A. is knowledgeable about track and field sports

B. has been running in races for decades

C. believes that sports are more important than the arts

D. thinks Regina is a poor athlete because she stumbles

18. Which of the following best describes Regina?

A. temperamental and strong-willed

B. nervous and jittery

C. impetuous and determined

D. embarrassed and disappointed

19. In this passage, the climax is when _______________ .

A. Regina falls down in the first race

B. Regina pulls ahead and wins the second race

C. Regina's coach pats her on the back

D. Regina makes up her mind to run another race

20. After reading this passage, you could conclude that _______________ .

A. Regina's mother dislikes competitive sports

B. Regina's father enjoys attending her track meets

C. Regina's coach will force her to practice more intensely

D. Regina will quit running track now that she has won a race

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