Put the following passage into Chinese



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英语试题

公共英语部分


Put the following passage into Chinese:

1、Critics of early schooling cite research that questions whether 4-year-old children are ready to take on formal learning. Educators find that older toddlers are more likely to succeed during their school careers, whereas their younger counterparts are more likely to fail. Kindergarten children who turn five during the latter half of the year seem to be at a disadvantage when it comes to physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development. Additionally, children who are nearly six when they enter kindergarten tend to receive better grades and score higher on achievement tests throughout their schooling experience than do those who begin kindergarten having just turned five. Being bright and verbally skillful and being ready for school do not seem to be the same thing. It is easy to confuse the superficial poise and sophistication of many of today’s children with inner maturity. Indeed, evidence suggests that early schooling boomerangs: Youngsters whose parents push them to attain academic success in preschool are less creative, have more anxiety about tests, and, by the end of kindergarten, fail to maintain their initial academic advantage over their less-pressured peers.

Many psychologists and educators remain skeptical of approaches that place 4-year-olds in a formal educational setting. They question whether environmental enrichment can significantly alter the built-in developmental timetable of a child reared in a non disadvantaged home. They do not deny, however, the value of day-care centers and nursery schools that provide a homelike environment and allow children considerable freedom to play, develop at their own pace, and evolve their social skills. But they point out that many of the things children once did in first grade are now expected of them in kindergarten, and they worry lest more and more will now be asked of 4-year-olds. These psychologists and educators believe we are driving young children too hard and thereby depriving them of their childhood.
2、People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and behaviors are formed. It's not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not, or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.

Social scientists are, of course, extremely interested in these types of questions. They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet, but two distinct schools of thoughts on the matter have developed. As one might expect, the two approaches are very different from one another, and there is a great deal of debate between proponents of each theory. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as “nature/nurture.”Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological and genetic factors. That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics, and behavior is central to this theory. Taken to an extreme, this theory maintains that our behavior is predetermined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.

Proponents of the “nurture” theory, or as they are often called, behaviorists, claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist, B. F. Skinner, sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. The behaviorists' view of the human being is quite mechanistic; they maintain that, like machines, humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.

The traditional belief that a woman's place is in the home and that a woman ought not to go out to work can hardly be reasonably maintained in present conditions. It is said that it is a woman's task to care for the children, but families today tend to be small and with a year or two between children .Thus a woman's whole period of child bearing may occur within five years. Furthermore, with compulsory education from the age of five or six, her role as chief educator of her children soon ceases. Thus even if we agree, that a woman should stay at home to look after her children before they are of school age, for many women, this period would extend only for about ten years.

It might be argued that the house proud women would still find plenty to do about the home. That may be so, but it is certainly no longer necessary for a woman to spend her whole life cooking, mending and sewing. Washing machines take the drudgery out of laundry, the latest models being entirely automatic and able to wash and dry a large quantity of clothes in a few minutes. Refrigerators have made it possible to store food for long periods and many pre-cooked foods are obtainable in tins. Shopping, instead of being a daily task, can be completed in one day a week. The new man-made fibres are more hardwearing than natural fibres and greatly re duce mending, while good ready-made clothes are cheap and plentiful.
3、In country after country, talk of nonsmokers’ right is in the air. While a majority of countries have taken little or no action yet, some 30 nations have introduced legislative steps to control smoking. Many laws have been introduced in other countries to help clear the air for nonsmokers, or to cut cigarette consumption.

In some developed countries the consumption of cigarettes has become more or less stabilized. However, in many developing nations, cigarette smoking is seen as a sign of economic progress—and is even encouraged. As more tobacco companies go international, new markets are sought to gain new smokers in those countries. For example, great efforts are made by the American tobacco industry to sell cigarettes in the Middle East and North Africa—where U.S. tobacco exports increased by more than 27 percent in 1974.

Smoking is harmful to the health of people. World governments should conduct serious campaigns against it. Restrictions on cigarette advertisement, plus health warnings on packages and bans on public smoking in certain places such as theatres, cinemas and restaurants, are the most popular tools used by nations in support of nonsmokers or in curbing smoking. But world attention also is focusing on another step which will make the smoker increasingly self-conscious and uncomfortable about his habit. Great efforts should be made to inform young people especially of the dreadful consequences of taking up the habit. And cigarette price should be boosted.

In the long run, there is no doubt that everybody would be much better-off if smoking were banned altogether, but people are not ready for such drastic action.


4、We are told the mass media are the greatest organs for enlightenment that the world has yet seen; that in Britain, for instance, several million people see each issue of the current affairs programme, Panoroma. It is true that never in human history were so many people so often and so much exposed to so many intimations about societies. This kind of exposure may well be a point of departure for acquiring certain important intellectual and imaginative qualities, width of judgement, a sense of the variety of possible attitudes. Yet in itself such exposure does not bring intellectual or imaginative development. It is no more than the masses of stone which lie around in a quarry and which may, conceivably, go to the making of a cathedral. The mass media cannot build the cathedral, and their way of showing the stones does not always prompt others to build. For the stones are presented within a self-contained and self-sufficient world in which, it is implied, simply to look at them, to observe fleetingly individually interesting points of difference between them is sufficient in itself.

Life is indeed full of problems on which we have to — or feel we should try to — make decisions, as citizens or as private individuals. But neither the real difficulty of these decisions, nor their true and disturbing challenge to each individual, can often be communicated through the mass media. The disinclination to suggest real choice, individual decision, which is to be found in the mass media is not simply the product of a commercial desire to keep the customer happy. It is within the grain of mass communications. The organs of the Establishment, however well-intentioned they may be and whatever their form (the State, the Church, voluntary societies, political parties), have a vested interest in ensuring that the public boat is not violently rocked, and will so affect those who work within the mass media that they will be led insensibly towards forms of production which, though they go through the motions of dispute and enquiry, do not break through the skin to where such enquiries might really hurt. They will tend to move, when exposing problems, well within the accepted cliché-assumptions of democratic society and will tend neither radically to question these clichés nor to make a disturbing application of them to features of contemporary life. They will stress the “stimulation” the programs give, but this soon becomes an agitation of problems for the sake of the interest of that agitation itself; they will therefore, again, assist a form of acceptance of the status quo (现状). There were exceptions to this tendency, but they are uncharacteristic.

The result can be seen in a hundred radio and television programs as plainly as in the normal treatment of public issues in the popular press. Different levels of background in the readers or viewers may be assumed, but what usually takes place is a substitute for the process of arriving at judgement. Programs such as this are noteworthy less for the “stimulation” they offer than for the fact that stimulation (repeated at regular intervals) may become a substitute for and so a hindrance to judgements carefully arrived at and tested in the mind and on the pulses. Mass communications, then, do not ignore intellectual matters; they tend to castrate (使…丧失活力) them, to allow them to sit on the side of the fireplace, sleek and useless, a family plaything.
5、Writing, as a career, offers a range of personal rewards. It enables people to express themselves, as well as to entertain, inform, and influence others. With only a few tools -- paper, a typewriter, a pencil, and often a personal computer, a writer can have an impact on the surrounding world. But most authors spend hundreds of hours perfecting their skills before they can sell any of their works.

A person who wants to be a writer should set aside some time to write every day. Learning to express ideas clearly and effectively in writing takes a great deal of practice. Many experienced writers keep a journal. A journal can serve as a storehouse for information, observations, and ideas. It can also be a place to develop new material.

Beginning writers should read many kinds of writing encountered every day and pay special attention to what they find most interesting. News items, feature stories, textbooks, cookbooks, repair manuals, poems, essays, short stories, novels, and plays differ in their methods of organizing and presenting material. A beginning writer who reads widely and carefully will develop an appreciation of different writing approaches and styles. In time, the writer can acquire a more flexible approach to his or her own work.

Successful authors write about subjects they know and understand. They sometimes take weeks or months revising or refining an article, poem, or story. Beginning writers usually benefit from finding one or more friendly critics who will read their work and discuss its strengths and weaknesses with them.

High schools and colleges offer many learning opportunities for young writers. Composition and literature courses can be helpful. Creative writing and journalism courses may further assist a beginning writer in developing his or her skills. Many students work on literary magazines, newspapers, or yearbooks published by their schools. They may write stories, edit articles, or gain other valuable experience.
6、Few people doubt the fundamental importance of mothers in child-rearing, but what do fathers do? Much of what they contribute is simply the result of being a second adult in the home. Bringing up children is demanding, stressful and exhausting. Two adults can support and make up for each other's deficiencies and build on each other's strengths.

Fathers also bring an array of unique qualities. Some are familiar: protector and role model. Teenage boys without fathers are notoriously prone to trouble. The pathway to adulthood for daughters is somewhat easier, but they must still learn from their fathers, in ways they cannot from their mothers, how to relate to men. They learn from their fathers about heterosexual trust, intimacy and difference. They learn to appreciate their own femininity from the one male who is most special in their lives. Most important, through loving and being loved by their fathers, they learn that they are love-worthy.

Current research gives much deeper -- and more surprising -- insight into the father's role in child-rearing. One significantly overlooked dimension of fathering is play. From their children's birth through adolescence, fathers tend to emphasize play more than caretaking. The father's style of play is likely to be both physically stimulating and exciting. With older children it involves more teamwork, requiring competitive testing of physical and mental skills. It frequently resembles a teaching relationship: come on, let me show you how. Mothers play more at the child's level. They seem willing to let the child direct play.

Kids, at least in the early years, seem to prefer to play with daddy. In one study of 2-5-year olds who were given a choice, more than two-thirds chose to play with their father.

The way fathers play has effects on everything from the management of emotions to intelligence and academic achievement. It is particularly important in promoting self-control. According to one expert, "children who roughhouse with their fathers quickly learn that biting, kicking and other forms of physical violence are not acceptable." They learn when to "shut it down."

At play and in other realms, fathers tend to stress competition, challenge, initiative, risk taking and independence. Mothers, as caretakers, stress emotional security and personal safety. On the playground fathers often try to get the child to swing even higher, while mothers are cautious, worrying about an accident.


7、Critics of early schooling cite research that questions whether 4-year-old children are ready to take on formal learning. Educators find that older toddlers are more likely to succeed during their school careers, whereas their younger counterparts are more likely to fail. Kindergarten children who turn five during the latter half of the year seem to be at a disadvantage when it comes to physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development. Additionally, children who are nearly six when they enter kindergarten tend to receive better grades and score higher on achievement tests throughout their schooling experience than do those who begin kindergarten having just turned five. Being bright and verbally skillful and being ready for school do not seem to be the same thing. It is easy to confuse the superficial poise and sophistication of many of today’s children with inner maturity. Indeed, evidence suggests that early schooling boomerangs: Youngsters whose parents push them to attain academic success in preschool are less creative, have more anxiety about tests, and, by the end of kindergarten, fail to maintain their initial academic advantage over their less-pressured peers.

Many psychologists and educators remain skeptical of approaches that place 4-year-olds in a formal educational setting. They question whether environmental enrichment can significantly alter the built-in developmental timetable of a child reared in a non disadvantaged home. They do not deny, however, the value of day-care centers and nursery schools that provide a homelike environment and allow children considerable freedom to play, develop at their own pace, and evolve their social skills. But they point out that many of the things children once did in first grade are now expected of them in kindergarten, and they worry lest more and more will now be asked of 4-year-olds. These psychologists and educators believe we are driving young children too hard and thereby depriving them of their childhood.


8、Sociologically, advertising supports the mass communication media. It pays all the costs of commercial television and radio. It provides viewers with free entertainment and news programs, though viewers are often annoyed by commercial interruptions. Without advertising, readers would have to pay a higher price for newspapers and magazines, and many of the publications would go out of business.
9、Most publications have lots of advantages. Paper is pleasant to handle, easy to read, and very portable: you can read it almost anywhere. On the other hand, print has its weaknesses. Paper is expensive, and articles are often cut to fit the space available. Printing and distributing paper is expensive and takes time. Printed materials are expensive to store and almost impossible to search. Electronic publishing offers solutions to all these problems.
10、In a report called Research Capability of the University System launched this week the group claims that funds are needed to pay for the “professional development” of university teachers who are not active in research, to help them keep up with their subject and improve the courses they teach.
11、None of the methods conceived two decades ago has yet to discover a uniform warning signal that preceded all quakes, let alone any sign that would tell whether the coming temblor is mild or a killer. Earthquake formation can be triggered by many factors. So, finding one all-purpose warning sigh is impossible.
12、Challenge assumptions. Reserve the assumptions you make about problems. List the assumptions and write the opposite. Henry Ford challenged the practice of having workers go to where building materials were kept, in order to build cars, by creating a system that brought the materials to the workers instead. With this reversal, the assembly line was born.
13、Nowadays, we hear a lot about the growing threat of globalization, accompanied by those warnings that the rich pattern of local life is being undermined, and many dialects and traditions are becoming extinct. But stop and think for a moment about the many positive aspects that globalization is bringing. Read on and you are bound to feel comforted, ready to face the global future, which is surely inevitable now.

Consider the Internet, that prime example of our shrinking world. Leaving aside the all-to-familiar worries about pornography and political extremism, even the most narrow-minded must admit that the net offers immeasurable benefits, not just in terms of education, the sector for which it was originally designed, but more importantly on a global level, the spread of news and comment. It will be increasingly difficult for politicians to maintain their regimes of misinformation, as the oppressed will not only find support and comfort, but also be able to organize themselves more effectively.

MTV is another global provider that is often criticized for imposing popular culture on the unsuspecting millions around the world. Yet the viewers' judgment on MTV is undoubtedly positive; it is regarded as indispensable by most of the global teenage generation who watch it, a vital part of growing up. And in the final analysis, what harm can a few songs and videos cause?

Is the world dominance of brands like Nike and Coca-Cola so bad for us when all is said and done? Sportswear and soft drinks are harmless products when compared to the many other things that have been globally available for a longer period of time--- heroin and cocaine, for example. In any case, just because Nike shoes and Coke cans are for sale, it doesn't mean you have to buy them--- even globalization cannot deprive the individual of his free will.

Critics of globalization can stop issuing their doom and gloom statements. Life goes on, and has more to offer for many citizens of the world than it did for their parents' generation.
14、A quality education is the ultimate liberator. It can free people from poverty, giving them the power to greatly improve their lives and take a productive place in society. It can also free communities and countries, allowing them to leap forward into periods of wealth and social unity that otherwise would not be possible.

For this reason, the international community has committed itself to getting all the world's children into primary school by 2015, a commitment known as Education for All.

Can education for all be achieved by 2015? The answer is definitely "yes", although it is a difficult task. If we now measure the goal in terms of children successfully completing a minimum of five years of primary school, instead of just enrolling for classes, which used to be the measuring stick for education, then the challenge becomes even more difficult. Only 32 countries were formerly believed to be at risk of not achieving education for all on the basis of enrollment rates. The number rises to 88 if completion rates are used as the criterion.

Still, the goal is achievable with the right policies and the right support from the international community. 59 of the 88 countries at risk can reach universal primary completion by 2015 if they bring the efficiency and quality of their education systems into line with standards observed in higher-performing systems. They also need significant increases in external financing and technical support. The 29 countries lagging farthest behind will not reach the goal without unprecedented rates of progress. But this is attainable with creative solutions, including use of information technologies, flexible and targeted foreign aid, and fewer people living in poverty.

A key lesson of experience about what makes development effective is that a country's capacity to use aid well depends heavily on its policies, institutions and management. Where a country scores well on these criteria, foreign assistance can be highly effective.
15、Speechwriting

The success of a speech is often attributed to the skill of the speaker, with merit being given to speakers who are confident, articulate, knowledgeable and able to deliver a speech with conviction.

But often it is not the speakers who write these moving speeches, it is a speechwriter. And one industry in which this practise is common is that of politics.

So what does it take to be a political speechwriter?

One technique is introducing contrast. This is extremely useful when presenting a positive spin on a negative issue. One of the most famous examples of this can be seen in a speech given by former American President John F Kennedy: "Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country."

Another technique is the use of three-part lists. This can be an excellent way of adding finality or confirming a statement. Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair was a fan of this technique. One of his most famous campaign slogans was "education, education, education".

These techniques can be used like tools - they can be chosen from a toolbox and applied as necessary. A few other techniques you might find in a speechwriter's toolbox might be the use of imagery, anecdotes and alliteration.

So next time you have to prepare a speech or presentation, try applying one or more of these techniques and see if you have what it takes to be a winning speechwriter.

16、What makes an original contributor in science is often not only ability, but also something else, something apparently intangible, and not easily detected. This extra something lies deeply within the individual and needs to be nurtured and tested.

Motivation is a personal trait that is primarily instilled by seniors such as teachers or parents. An important aspect in developing motivation is the setting of goals. A person probably has set long-range goals, or at this point more like dreams, such as winning the Nobel Prize. This is great as long as the individual is realistically working toward short-range goals also. These are the day-to-day accomplishments that really make working hard seem fun.



Proficiency in anything requires a great deal of determination and self-discipline. I addition, a person’s ability to cope with frustration is also an important factor in one’s life career. Repeated failures at making experiments may be too much for many talented would-be scientists. The determination to continue, with the realization that everything worthwhile takes a great deal of patience, is an essential requirement. These factors, together with inherent dedication, will bring about the realization of one’s aspirations. Through all this it is not the triumph but the struggle that brings about the complete personal satisfaction in knowing that you as a scientist have given your all.
17、I would compare reading to visiting friends — in the spiritual rather than physical sense. Opening the book is like getting into the door uninvited; and turning a few pages, we may find ourselves in his study. Besides, we can go visit him as frequently as we want and at any time we wish. If we fail to get the pith of his argument, we can just leave without saying "good-bye" or turn to someone else for help, and come back to challenge him. We can get close to the host and listen to every word he has to say, no matter where he resides, at home or abroad, what a person he was or is, a contemporary or a man of the past, whatever field he specializes in, or whether he is talking about a serious subject of importance or simply chatting plus cracking jokes. We can indulge ourselves in the anecdotes and amazing tales of the past, and appreciate the profound nouveau theories of our own age or hear sensational arguments meant to shock the world. In a nutshell, we can bang the door shut —closing the book that is —the minute we find anything disagreeable or distasteful, and leave forthwith. No one will blame us. This is the kind of freedom we can hardly expect other than from the books.
18、The current visit to Taiwan for exchange, brief and cursory as it is, has enabled us to see many places, to visit old friends while making new acquaintances. Whenever people gather together, an important topic of discussion has been how the Chinese nation can become prosperous and powerful in the 21st century. Although the young people on the Mainland and in Taiwan live in different social contexts, with their individually different experiences of life, in the innermost recesses of their hearts are wrought an indelible mark by the fine traditions of the Chinese culture. They all cherish the same ideal to rejuvenate the Chinese nation. In this great epoch at the turn of the century, our motherland is developing toward greater prosperity and powerfulness. People across the Taiwan Straits are bound to strengthen their exchanges and will mutually promote the earliest possible achievement of the great cause of reunification of the motherland. The precious opportunities and the tremendous challenges at the turn of the century have pushed the young people to the foreground of the historical arena. At this transitional phase between the two millennia, in what way the young generation should embrace the forthcoming new century replete with hopes is a question to which we have to seek an answer.
19、The culture of any society is usually thought to be of two kinds: material and nonmaterial. Material culture includes the man-made phenomena which have physical properties such as height, breadth, and weight. A boat, a machine, a house—all these objects are part of the material culture. The nonmaterial culture is that portion of the environment which surrounds man and which has an impact on his behavior but which lacks these material properties: values, beliefs, traditions, and all the other habits and ideas invented and acquired by man as a member of society. Contemporary sociological theory tends to assign primary importance to the nonmaterial culture in choosing problems for study. It assumes, for example, that boats, planes, automobiles, and so forth, are not nearly so important as the traditions we have developed which make their manufacture possible—indeed, which prescribe how we are to use them. The emphasis of contemporary sociology is to insist that the material culture would not exist had not the nonmaterial culture first been available to suggest the ideas which are embodied in the inventions of material culture.
20、As a scourge of the modern society, obesity has become the world’s biggest public-health issue today--the main cause of heart disease, which kills more people these days than AIDS, malaria, war. Since the World Health Organization labeled obesity an "epidemic" in 2000, reports on its fearful consequences have come thick and Fast. Will public-health warnings, combined with media pressure, persuade people to get thinner, just as they finally put them off tobacco? Possibly. In the rich world, sales of healthier foods are booming and new figures suggest that over the past year Americans got very slightly thinner for the first time in recorded history. But even if Americans are losing a few ounces, it will be many years before the country solves the health problems caused by half a century’s dining to excess. And, everywhere else in the world, people are still piling on the pounds. That’s why there is now a consensus among doctors that governments should do something to stop them.


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