Potential Short-Answer Questions Exam 3 Behavioral/Social Learning Approach

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Don S. Christensen Shoreline Community College

Psyc 236 Psychology

Potential Short-Answer Questions

Exam 3

Behavioral/Social Learning Approach

  1. Define the essential aspects of classical and operant conditioning (UCS, UCR, CS, CR, positive & negative reinforcers, aversive & response cost punishment, generalization, descrimination).

  2. List, define, and specify the relation between the three basic elements in Julian Rotter’s formula for predicting behavior.

  3. What does Bandura's concept of Reciprocal Determinism refer to? (you may use words or a diagram)

  4. According to behaviorists, the initial development of a phobia can often be explained by ____________ conditioning while the maintenance of a phobia is often best explained by ___________ conditioning.

  5. What is meant by the term “behavior modification?” Give an example of a therapy treatment technique based on 1.) classical conditioning and 2) operant conditioning.

  6. Define (using the book or lecture) the term “self-efficacy.” List and give examples of 4 different sources for self-efficacy judgments.

  7. Briefly describe two strengths and two criticisms of the behavioral/social learning approach.

  8. According to behaviorists and social learning theorists, gender-role socialization is acquired and maintained largely through what two learning processes? Give an example demonstrating each process.

  9. What is meant by the term “androgyny” and according to Bem’s androgyny model, how is this construct related to adjustment?

  10. Summarize the design and results of the Ickes and Barnes (1978) study (discussed in the text) examining the association between relationship satisfaction and androgyny (See Figure 14.3).

  11. Explain Bandura’s four-step model of the observational learning of aggression?

  12. Site two examples of research studies that are consistent with Seligman’s notion of learned helplessness.

  13. Define the term “locus of control.” How is this variable related to psychological disorders (like anxiety & depression), achievement, psychotherapy progress, and health?

  14. Match the following people with their corresponding term.

a. John B. Watson ___ reinforcement value

b. B.F. Skinner ___ early classical conditioning research

c. Ivan Pavlov ___ observational learning

d. Edward Thorndike ___ Little Albert

e. Julian Rotter ___ radical behaviorism

f. Albert Bandura ___ early operant conditioning research

Cognitive Approach

  1. According to George Kelly, what are people’s primary cognitive structures and what two primary functions do these structures serve?

  2. Unlike most personality theorists, Kelly assumed that human beings were similar to ____________.

  3. According to the lecture, upon which philosophical principle (not fundamental postulate) is George Kelly’s theory of personal constructs based? Define this principle. (from lecture)

  4. List and give examples of the five cognitive-affective units in Mischel and Shoda’s personality system?

  5. According to Mischel and Shoda’s CAPS model, a person’s behavior in different settings/situations will be consistent if the _______________ are similar.

  6. Define and give an example of a schema.

  7. Explain Ellis’ A-B-C model of emotion. According to Ellis, why is it that people can often respond differently to the same situation?

  8. What is the REP test and how is it used to assess personal construct systems?

  9. According to the text, what are two strengths and two criticisms of the cognitive approach to personality?

  10. What is a depressive schema? To what kinds of things do depressive people attend?

  11. What are the three dimensions of the attributional model of learned helplessness? Describe the typical attributional pattern of people who are prone to depression.

Personality, Emotion, and Health

  1. List and briefly define the three different types of cognitive appraisals proposed by Richard Lazarus.

  2. What is the difference between problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping? Under what type of conditions (e.g., controllable or uncontrollable) does each coping style tend to work best?

  3. In the athletic injury study conducted by Smith and Smoll, which student-athletes were most prone to sport injuries?

Personality Disorders

  1. Using Millon’s two dimensions of reinforcement strategies that shape personality, classify each of the normal personality types, the personality disorders, and the extreme personality disorders (see handout). Be able to describe the essential characteristics of each personality disorder.

  2. What gender differences are there in the prevalence of the following personality disorders: histrionic, antisocial, dependent, borderline, schizoid, paranoid, and narcissistic?

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