Plan: The European Space Agency should. Counterplan solves the case Brauer and Monte 05



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***ESA CP


1NC
Plan: The European Space Agency should ______________.
Counterplan solves the case

Brauer and Monte 05 (Gerard and Luca del, Gerard is the head of the ESA, “European Space Research and Developmentfor the Security and Military Sectors” pdf)

The above described scenario suggests that the potential contribution of ESA in the framework of a European network of technical agencies in support of a European security/defence system for the time framework 2013-2015, could be the step wise development of a balanced mix of top-down and bottom-up initiatives complementing each other. On the one hand there is a recognized need for the collaboration and eventually for the convergence of these two approaches in the short-medium time, on the other hand there is the responsibility of national Governments for the security of their citizens. Nationally owned assets are going to be the main tools for security and defence, but these assets need to be linked by using commonly agreed standards and by a commonly owned basic infrastructures. Some elements of the future architecture are being discussed by the European Member States interested in space. The definition of future situation awareness capabilities must be a short term goal. The development of multi/hyper-spectral, radar, optical, infrared sensors and platforms will be necessary to support the security user communities.. Today, the next generation of these systems is far from being mature. Their development should be coordinated from the very beginning. ESA, the organisation charged with developing the major European space programmes, possesses the overall set of capabilities in the definition and conduct of space infrastructure programmes and in the definition of technology preparation and accompaniment programmes. It has an intimate knowledge of the industrial fabric and the capabilities available in Europe. Through its programmes, ESA has access to all categories of space applications and possesses ground facilities and space systems, which could be made available in support of specific applications with defence relevance (launchers, observation and telecommunications satellites, test and operations facilities, etc.). The Agency is the primary source of institutional contracts in a number of applications areas and in the R&D field. Being an intergovernmental agency with a programme remit, ESA has demonstrated its ability to establish cooperative ventures at European level. Under its leadership the space sector has indeed come to be seen as a pioneer and an acknowledged model for the process of European integration. The optional programme, a tried and tested legal form, provides a basis for a flexible model of cooperation between States, one which accommodates the participants’ specific objectives and constraints while at the same time allowing resources to be pooled and common rules to be applied. In practice, the Agency’s contribution to the emergence of a space component for the European defence policy and the ensuing activities may take many forms. These may be classified in accordance with the level of Agency involvement and the extent to which the activity concerned is defence-specific. A first group of activities are those concerned with optimising synergies in technologies and infrastructures. ESA has started consultations with the defence entities on technological priorities and critical technologies of interest to both communities with a view to coordinating preparatory work and upstream research activity. The requirements emerging in this way from the defence entities should be incorporated in the European space technologies master plan. The consultation process could be extended to test and operations facilities to ensure more effective investment planning on all sides and avoid unwarranted duplication. Another possibility to be considered is the development by the Agency of dedicated dual use programmes or the availability of Agency’s infrastructures for defence uses (one example might be a demonstration of data relay between an Agency satellite and a military aircraft). The Agency might, lastly, be assigned responsibility for developing prototypes, demonstrators or space borne infrastructure components to serve defence requirements.


Solvency – Generic



Counterplan solves the case – has an effective framework for successful space policy

Brauer and Monte 05 (Gerard and Luca del, Gerard is the head of the ESA, “European Space Research and Developmentfor the Security and Military Sectors” pdf)

The above described scenario suggests that the potential contribution of ESA in the framework of a European network of technical agencies in support of a European security/defence system for the time framework 2013-2015, could be the step wise development of a balanced mix of top-down and bottom-up initiatives complementing each other. On the one hand there is a recognized need for the collaboration and eventually for the convergence of these two approaches in the short-medium time, on the other hand there is the responsibility of national Governments for the security of their citizens. Nationally owned assets are going to be the main tools for security and defence, but these assets need to be linked by using commonly agreed standards and by a commonly owned basic infrastructures. Some elements of the future architecture are being discussed by the European Member States interested in space. The definition of future situation awareness capabilities must be a short term goal. The development of multi/hyper-spectral, radar, optical, infrared sensors and platforms will be necessary to support the security user communities.. Today, the next generation of these systems is far from being mature. Their development should be coordinated from the very beginning. ESA, the organisation charged with developing the major European space programmes, possesses the overall set of capabilities in the definition and conduct of space infrastructure programmes and in the definition of technology preparation and accompaniment programmes. It has an intimate knowledge of the industrial fabric and the capabilities available in Europe. Through its programmes, ESA has access to all categories of space applications and possesses ground facilities and space systems, which could be made available in support of specific applications with defence relevance (launchers, observation and telecommunications satellites, test and operations facilities, etc.). The Agency is the primary source of institutional contracts in a number of applications areas and in the R&D field. Being an intergovernmental agency with a programme remit, ESA has demonstrated its ability to establish cooperative ventures at European level. Under its leadership the space sector has indeed come to be seen as a pioneer and an acknowledged model for the process of European integration. The optional programme, a tried and tested legal form, provides a basis for a flexible model of cooperation between States, one which accommodates the participants’ specific objectives and constraints while at the same time allowing resources to be pooled and common rules to be applied. In practice, the Agency’s contribution to the emergence of a space component for the European defence policy and the ensuing activities may take many forms. These may be classified in accordance with the level of Agency involvement and the extent to which the activity concerned is defence-specific. A first group of activities are those concerned with optimising synergies in technologies and infrastructures. ESA has started consultations with the defence entities on technological priorities and critical technologies of interest to both communities with a view to coordinating preparatory work and upstream research activity. The requirements emerging in this way from the defence entities should be incorporated in the European space technologies master plan. The consultation process could be extended to test and operations facilities to ensure more effective investment planning on all sides and avoid unwarranted duplication. Another possibility to be considered is the development by the Agency of dedicated dual use programmes or the availability of Agency’s infrastructures for defence uses (one example might be a demonstration of data relay between an Agency satellite and a military aircraft). The Agency might, lastly, be assigned responsibility for developing prototypes, demonstrators or space borne infrastructure components to serve defence requirements.
EU more efficient than US government

PENNINGS ’02 (Paul, Associate Professor Department of Political Science at the Vu University of Amsterdam “The Dimensionality of the EU Policy Space

The European Elections of 1999” European Union Politics http://eup.sagepub.com/content/3/1/59.short)



In any full-grown democracy, parties must confront voters with real choices that matter. The European Union is often said to be devoid of these choices owing to minor policy differences between parties. The manifestos issued at European Parliament elections by party groups are often perceived as being bland and indistinguishable from each other. How correct is this perception? In this article, the diversity of policy positions within and between the main European party groups is analyzed by means of the European election manifestos of 1999. The content analysis of these manifestos shows that there are significant differences both within and between the party groups. These differences indicate that these groups are (potentially) able to present meaningful choices to voters.
EU solves-multiple reasons

3AF Writers Group ‘07( October 22 “The Militarization and Weaponization of Space: towards a European Space Deterrent” 3AF Strategy and International Affairs Commission – Writers' Group 

http://www.aaafasso.fr/DOSSIERSAAAF/DOSS.ACCES_LIBRE/PJ_CT/Comm.Aff.Internat/Militarisation_et_Arsenalisation_Vers.angl.oct07.pdf


In effect, the Chinese test has shown the incapacity of Europe to detect, characterize and appreciate the potential menace which it constitutes. Only an inter­governmental collaboration within Europe appears appropriate for preparing to deal with such a situation. It would avoid massive investment in fully autonomous resources. The first example we have is the tripartite agreement between France, Germany and Italy for the exchange of high resolution images from the reconnaissance satellites, respectively, Pléiades, SAR­Lupe and Cosmo Skymed, when these three systems are operational. However, France must continue with what it has already embarked on, on the one hand the operational programmes Helios, Essaim and Syracuse and, on the other hand, the technological demonstration programmes SPIRALE and ELISA, to ensure the continuation of the former and, for the latter, to arrive at operational capacities fit to put at the disposal of the armed forces. Europe does not have to imitate the United States. It is not exposed to the same risks and has no intention of being a rival as a dominating world power. On the economic level, Europe doubts it has the financial resources to be able to catch up with the United States in terms of the quantity of operational devices, even though it is the second economic power in the world. But having systems which are autonomous and complementary to those of its partners appears to be more and more of a priority, in the light of the recent advances observed in other countries. China has just reminded us of this. Germany has the FGAN­TIRA radar and the United Kingdom the PIMS optical instruments. They provide a capacity for detection, orbitography, the management of a catalogue of orbiting objects and their identification. However, these systems, with Graves, are not inter­operable and don’t satisfy the global need for detection, warning and response which future threats will require
CP solves the aff—the EU has a wide variety of space technology that allows them to do the plan

EU 09-[“The EU and Space; Reaping the Benefits of Space Exploration and Technology” <

http://www.eurunion.org/News/eunewsletters/EUFocus/2009/EUFocus-Space-7-09.pdf>]



Forty years ago, the world watched in awe as the first humans stepped foot on the moon. Today, nations routinely rely on space-based technology in areas including communications, navigation, and earth observation. No longer the sole domain of Cold War superpowers, space activities have become strategic and economic priorities not only for the U.S. and Russia, but also for the European Union, Japan, and the emerging economies of China and India. From satellite communications to weather forecasting, from earth observation satellites monitoring climate change to global positioning satellites that help planes navigate safely, the technological offshoots of space activities offer important benefits to 21 st century citizens. Space exploration programs help to develop human understanding of both the universe and our own planet; they help our search for answers to fundamental questions: “Where did life come from? Is human life possible in extraterrestrial environments?” and “How can we harness the natural resources of Mars or other bodies? Can knowledge of and solutions for earthly challenges be found in space?” However, by their very nature, space ventures are often massive, costly, and complex; they require long-term planning, substantial investment, and strategic vision. Very few nations can accomplish this alone. Even the two original space powers— the U.S. and Russia—are engaged in international cooperation to further their space goals. European nations long ago joined forces to reap the full benefits of space for their citizens. The European Union’s collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) provides the scale and expertise necessary to drive European space applications, exploration, science, and technology, and together the EU and ESA have launched a forward-looking vision for European Space Policy. The European Space Policy promotes two priority EU space program: Galileo and GMES. Galileo, the EU’s satellite navigation system, and GMES, the EU’s earth observation system, represent significant innovations in their respective domains. Europe has its own independent access to space through ESA’s Kourou launch site on the northeast coast of South America, and has also developed arrangements with the U.S. and Russia for human spaceflight—European astronauts regularly fly to the International Space Station (ISS) from launch sites in both countries. Right now, multinational crews on the ISS are collaborating on highly complex work in a cont ain e d env i ronm ent mi l e s above the Earth, despite differences of nationality, culture, ethnicity, and language. Europe is a major partner in the ISS; it has constructed an impressive state-of-theart laboratory module, developed and launched the first in a series of unmanned supply shuttles, and provided a continuous supply of astronauts. Among its many objectives, the ISS serves as a laboratory and platform for the development of technology to further human space exploration…to the Moon, to Mars, and beyond.
The EU has the research, resources and technology to increase space exploration

EU 09-[“The EU and Space; Reaping the Benefits of Space Exploration and Technology” <

http://www.eurunion.org/News/eunewsletters/EUFocus/2009/EUFocus-Space-7-09.pdf>]



For nearly half a century, Europe has been actively involved in developing space technology through national and European programs. The European Space Agency (ESA), an intergovernmental agency, was launched in 1975 to promote European cooperation in space. In 2003, the European Commission—the EU’s executive arm—and ESA formally joined forces, drawing on each other’s complementary strengths to further advance European space applications, exploration, research, and technology in the 21 st century. The European Commission drives the exploitation of space for the benefit of its citizens; ensures the continuity of relevant operational services; develops appropriate regulatory frameworks; and coordinates and promotes a single European position in international forums. ESA and its 18 member countries—including 16 of the 27 EU Member States—are responsible for the conception and implementation of space programs, space-related scientific research, and the procurement of resources needed for space activities, particularly access to space and technology. The European Space Policy, drafted jointly by the European Commission and ESA, outlines a unified European vision for the space sector. The policy strives to develop and exploit space applications that serve the needs of Europe; address space-related security and defense issues; apply space technology to improved understanding of climate change; foster a strong and competitive space industry; ensure independent, cost-effective access to space; and promote a European initiative in space exploration. Through the European Space Policy, Europe has increased its coordination with international partners. For example, the European Commission and ESA jointly represent Europe in cooperation with other strategic partners and closely coordinate European participation in intergovernmental forums such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO).
Space is a top priority for the EU

EUROPA ‘11( April 4“A new space policy for Europe: Independence, competitiveness and citizens quality of life” Europe.edu http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/11/398)
Improving the safety and daily lives of European citizens thanks to radio navigation, guiding tractors by satellite for high-yield crops, optimizing response to humanitarian crisis… This is not science fiction but just a few examples of innovations related to space technologies developed today. This crucial role of space is reflected in the European Commission communication presented today as a first step of an integrated Space Policy to be developed with the new legal basis provided by the Lisbon Treaty. The new Communication aims at reinforcing Europe’s space infrastructure and calls for increasing support for research to increase European technological non-dependence, foster cross-fertilisation between the space sector and other industry sectors, and boost innovation as a driver of European competitiveness. Vice-President Antonio Tajani, responsible for Industry and Entrepreneurship, said: “Space is strategic for Europe's independence, job creation and competitiveness. Space activities create high-skilled jobs, innovation, new commercial opportunities, and improve citizens’ well-being and security. This is why we need to reinforce European space policy to best exploit its social and economic opportunities for industry and SMEs. In order to achieve our goals, Europe needs to keep an independent access to space.” Faced with important economic, societal and strategic challenges, today’s communication sets out priorities for the future EU space policy: Pursue the achievement of the European navigation satellite programmes Galileo and EGNOS. For example, a service that was recently introduced under EGNOS enables precision approaches and renders air navigation safer (IP/11/247). Implement with Member States the European Earth Monitoring Programme (GMES) which is designed for land, ocean, atmosphere, air quality and climate change monitoring, as well as emergency response and security, with the objective to become fully operational from 2014; Protect space infrastructures against space debris, solar radiation and asteroids by setting-up a European Space Situation Awareness (SSA) system; Identify and support actions at EU level in the field of Space exploration. The Union could notably explore options to work with the ISS ensuring that all Member States participate in it; Pursue a Space Industrial policy developed in close collaboration with the European Space Agency and Member States; Support research and development to increase European technological non dependence and ensure that innovation in this field will be of benefit to non-space sectors and citizens. Communication satellites play a key role in this context; Strengthen the partnerships with EU Member States and the European Space Agency (ESA) and implement improved management schemes.
US standing in space is over-time to let the EU take over

BARR ‘11( Bob ,July 13a former federal prosecutor and a former member of the United States House of Representatives He represented Georgia's 7th congressional district as a Republican, served on its National Committee, the Libertarian Party nominee for President of the United States in the 2008 election. “Us lost “Space Race” Long Ago” AJC The Barr Code http://blogs.ajc.com/bob-barr-blog/2011/07/13/us-lost-space-race-long-ago/)
Last week’s launch of the Atlantis Space Shuttle — the very last Space Shuttle mission — was described widely as the end of America’s leadership in manned space exploration. In fact, we lost the “space race” long agowhen as a nation we decided it was far more important to pay for cradle-to-grave social programs of all sorts, and to engage in multiple and costly military adventures around the world, than it was to focus seriously on manned space exploration. The Shuttle Program itself, as the most visible aspect of America’s space program, was conceived in the 1970s based on that era’s technology, but which for years through its high visibilty and PR, masked the decline in America’s commitment to space exploration and the many medical, scientific, and technological benefits it produced. The tragic loss in 2003 of the Columbia Shuttle was a direct result of decisions to cobble together Shuttle missions based on outdated technology, rather than spend money to develop spacecraft and rocket delivery vehicles with contemporary technology. Neither Republican nor Democratic presidents since the end of the Apollo lunar exploration program in 1975 were willing to take the political heat they would have incurred had they proposed to cut back a single federal benefit program, in order to continue development of newer and more technologically advanced manned spacecraft and missions. At the same time, not one of those many presidents had the courage to admit their decisions were slowly killing NASA in this regard; so they proposed — and Congress routinely concurred — to spend just enough to continue duct-tape fixes to the woefully aged Shuttle program, as evidence they really were committed to manned space exploration. The demise of America’s manned space program, and the fact that European and Russian programs will now eclipse ours, is a sad tribute to the myopic national vision that has captured national policy in recent decades. Rather than focus — as Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy did in launching America’s manned space program in the late 1950s and early 1960s — on taking risks and pushing the envelope of entrepreneurship and American know-how, the United States in this 21st Century has become risk-averse; and turned its national gaze from the sky and the far reaches of human advancement, to government coddling and control of virtually every aspect of citizens’ lives here on earth. In spending every last dollar Washington can squeeze from the taxpayers or which the Treasury Department can print as IOUs to future generations, in order to fund these myriad federal social programs, it’s no wonder there’s almost nothing left over for space exploration.
The EU is becoming a bigger player in space

NEATHER ‘10 (Adam, August 31, “Is Europe in the space race?” ES Euroscience, http://euroscientist.com/2010/08/is-europe-in-the-space-race/)
There are a surprising number of European countries with space programmes, especially if compared to the days of the cold war when the US and USSR led the race. Germany (DLR), France (CNES), the Netherlands (SRON), Norway (NSC), and Sweden (SNSB) all have current projects underway, as well as the umbrella pan-European organisation, ESA, which has 18 member states and six cooperating states, which includes, interestingly, Canada. The UK has UKSA, which is a newly formed body. The European Space Agency (ESA), was formed in 1975 with an initial membership of ten states, and has its headquarters in Paris, and secondary sites in Germany, Spain, Italy and the Netherlands. Though ESA is relatively small compared to NASA (the former having a budget of US$4.8 billion , while the latter enjoys funding to the tune of US$17.6 billion) it has undertaken a surprising number of space programmes. Though sadly the Hermes manned programme was abandoned in 1992, and European space travellers must currently hitch a ride on American or Russian missions, there are fresh plans for a new mission to send “spationauts” (European astronauts) to space in 2020 in a Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle. The project is still in the conceptual stages and the first uses of the vehicle will be for unmanned cargo missions, but it’s a promising start.


Europe has been empirically successful-the plan is key to future success

COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ’08 (September 26, “Council Resolution Taking forward the European Space Policy” 2891ist Competitiveness (internal market, industry and research) council meeting http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/intm/103050.pdf
AFFIRMS that Europe, building on its successful track record in exploration over a number of decades, in which science has been the key driver, is committed to playing a significant role in the international enterprise to explore the Solar system and to develop a deep understanding of the conditions for life to function beyond our planet and ACKNOWLEDGES the fact that establishing Europe as a fundamental pillar of these activities will be achieved only through sustained investment; REALISES that the technologies to be developed must be assessed carefully with a perspective of taking key decisions, and HIGHLIGHTS that these may have a lasting impact on the perception of Europe's scientific and technological capabilities in the world and the self-perception of European citizens; UNDERLINES the value of space exploration for inspiring young Europe.
ESA’s SMART-1 presents the key step towards ESA’s new technology, space communication, development, and exploration.

Space Daily 3, (8/20/03, Space Daily, “Europe Looking Forward to Small Smart Lunar Mission” http://www.spacedaily.com/news/lunar-03g.html, AT)

Europe is going to the Moon for the first time! In just over two weeks the European Space Agency's (ESA) lunar probe, SMART-1, begins its journey to the Moon. Due to be launched from Kourou in French Guiana on 3rd September (12.04am Sep 4 BST) SMART-1 will be powered only by an ion engine which Europe will be testing for the first time as the main spacecraft propulsion. Onboard will be D-CIXS, an X-ray spectrometer built by scientists in the UK, which will provide information on what the Moon is made of. SMART-1 represents a new breed of spacecraft. It is ESA's first Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology - designed to demonstrate innovative and key technologies for future deep space science missions. As well as the ion propulsion mechanism SMART-1 will test miniaturised spacecraft equipment and instruments, a navigation system which in the long term will allow spacecraft to autonomously navigate through the solar system, and a space communication technique whereby SMART-1 will establish a link with the Earth using a laser beam. Once it has arrived at the Moon (expected to be in January 2005), SMART-1 will perform an unprecedented scientific study of the Moon- providing valuable information which will shed light on some of the unanswered questions. The spacecraft will search for signs of water-ice in craters near the Moon's poles, provide data on the still uncertain origin of the Moon and reconstruct its evolution by mapping and the surface distribution of minerals and key chemical elements. Commenting on the mission Prof. Ian Halliday, Chief Executive of PPARC said," This mission to our only natural satellite is a masterpiece of miniaturisation and UK scientists have played a leading role in providing one of the spacecraft's key instruments - testament to the UK's expertise in space science." Halliday added, "SMART-1 is packed with innovative technology that promises to revolutionise our future exploration of neighbouring planets whilst answering some fundamental questions about the Moon - how did the Moon form and how did it evolve?" UK scientists have a lead role in the mission. D-CIXS, a compact X-ray Spectrometer, which will make the first ever global X-ray map of the Moon's surface, has been built by a team led by Principal Investigator Professor Manuel Grande from the CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory near Oxford. rays to determine many of the elements found on its surface. This will provide us with vital clues which will help understand the origins of our Moon." Weighing just 4.5 kilograms and the size of a toaster, one of the challenges for the D-CIXS team has been to fit all the necessary components into the instrument. This has been achieved through clever miniaturisation and the development of new technology such as novel X-ray detectors - based on new swept charge devices (similar to the established charged couple devices found in much of today's technology) and microfabricated collimators with walls no thicker than a human hair. Lord Sainsbury, Minister for Science and Innovation at the Department of Trade and Industry said: "SMART-1 is an unprecedented opportunity to provide the most comprehensive study ever of the surface of the Moon. The UK is playing a key role in this important European mission by providing technology that demonstrates excellent collaboration between engineering and science in this country. This mission will also give the European Space Agency the opportunity to develop new technology for future missions, demonstrating once again the effectiveness of joint working between the UK and our European partners in space."

ESA gaining leadership in space exploration and technology – their plan includes mars, lunar exploration and mining, and robotic space travel

Messina and Vennemann 5, (5/31/05, Piero, Dietrich, “The European space exploration programme: Current status of ESA’s plans for Moon and Mars exploration” http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576505001116) AT

• A robust European contribution: Europe is already actively engaged in space exploration. It intends to build on that legacy in order to play an essential role in the context of a global effort, while maintaining a certain level of autonomy and independence by developing key elements to acquire and maintain technological capabilities and competences in order to increase knowledge and stimulate innovation and technology. The robustness of the programme will also represent a significant means to support competitiveness of industry. In addition, such a programme provides for a positive and inspirational vision of the future attracting young people to science and technology related studies. All these elements will allow Europe to withstand unilateral decisions by other partners through innovative and flexible models of cooperation, thus contributing to strengthen and European identity citizenship. • A flexible European programme: In the spirit of a truly international collaboration, Europe will strive to establish a programme able to adjust to partners’ calendars and potential variations in the international environment. The approach followed for the future European exploration activities consists of: • the definition of different scenarios, for extended robotic and human exploration, which will allow the identification of priorities and the elaboration of architectures; • the elaboration of the main elements of the programme, based on a building blocks approach, comprising the development of Early Robotic Missions (Entry Vehicle Demonstrator Mission, EDLS Technology Demonstration Mission, Mars Exobiology Mission, Mars Sample Return), the improvement of extended human spaceflight capabilities in Earth orbit, as well as the development of enabling technologies; • the development of a policy conceived to attract and inspire the youth and mobilise public support (increasing public awareness and enhancing youth motivation in science and technology). 7. The current status The programme is currently open for subscription to Participating States and other ESA Member States. The final status will be known at the ESA Council meeting in October 2004. The preparatory phase outcome is a sound and credible fully fledged programme proposal for the 2006–2010 period that will be put forward for decision at the next ESA Council at ministerial level currently scheduled for the end of 2005. During the next 15 months the proposed workplan includes:continuation of the activities on the ExoMars mission both on the mission itself and on the Rover in order to keep the target date of 2009/2011. The work will focus not only on the supervision of industrial activities but also on the interface with the Pasteur Scientific Advisory Body, the implementation of planetary protection policies as well as the support to possible international cooperation; • pursuing of the EVD design and development; • industrial work on MDL mission or missions; • system study for the Mars Sample Return mission along with establishment of a science advisory team and exploration of international cooperation opportunities; • studies concerning the future transportation systems (CARV, Klipper) and habitability issues conducted in connection with Human Spaceflight Programme; • further activities on human medical and physiological issues as well as psychology studies conducted in the Concordia Station; • the definition of scenarios and of a roadmap including the exploration and exploitation of the Moon; • reflection on the role of nuclear power sources with the establishment of a European Working Group. 8. Conclusions Europe has been working since 2001 to prepare itself to play a significant role in the future international exploration endeavours. The new international and European context have led to a revision of the Aurora Programme approach while maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived originally as precursor to human exploration. The new approach will rest on an enhanced synergy between the exploration programme and other ESA programmes, namely the scientific one and the human spaceflight one. ESA will establish over the next months a new roadmap to space exploration that will take into account the expertise, the strength and the goals of Europe as well as the international context and the opportunities for international cooperation.
ESA wants to do more in space

Dinerman 6 (Taylor, 1/23/6, “NASA and ESA: a parting of ways?” http://www.thespacereview.com/article/539/1 MGE)

ESA, with its much smaller budget, still wants to do a little of everything. It wants to support Europe’s launcher and satellite industries. It also wants to support robotic exploration and its aforementioned quasi-military role. It will also continue its partnership with the US, Russia, and Japan on the International Space Station. Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director General, announced that, sometime this year, they will be shipping the Columbus laboratory module from Germany to Cape Canaveral, to be delivered to the ISS on a future shuttle mission. He said, “We can permit ourselves to be confident that Columbus will be launched and utilized.”
ESA wants to do more and is not burdened by the economic crisis

RT 11 (RT, 5/17/11, “We make future on planet Earth possible – ESA boss” http://rt.com/news/esa-space-future-exploration/ MGE)

The ESA director told RT that the agency has three main objectives to develop – like practically all other space agencies in the world. The first one is science or improving the knowledge about the universe and exploring the solar system and Earth from space. The second topic is the production and launch of satellites of all possible kinds: communication, navigation, exploration, meteorological – all of them aimed to improve life of the people. The third task of the agency is improving technology and competitiveness.

Space has demonstrated that its main message is the future on planet Earth is a collective future. There is no individual future; no individuals on Earth have future without the others,” Jean-Jacques Dordain stated.

According to Dordain, though it is true that the space industry is very costly, it gives the expenses back hundredfold by forecasting weather, natural disasters, analyzing crop forecasts, allowing the use of navigation systems possible for everyday life, and doing thousands of other things a modern human being is accustomed to without asking who does the job for him or her.

Also, “space is the main field of the international co-operation. We [ESA] are representing 19 countries working together so we are [an] international corporation co-operating with the US, Russia, Japan, China, African and South American countries.”

Jean-Jacques Dordain confirms that the great economic crisis does affect space programs, particularly America’s NASA projects, but he assures that in ESA they do understand that investing in space is equal to investing in future so financing reduction of space exploration in Europe is not that much significant.

ESA’s IXV spacecraft is the key step towards space transportation and technology

Saucer 6/24 (6/24/11, Brittany, Technology Review, published by MIT, “Space News this Week: An ESA Spacecraft, New Moon Images, and Solar-Electric Propulsion”, http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/deltav/26933/)
The European Space Agency announced that its re-entry spacecraft, called Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), will be ready to fly in 2013. The agency first announced the vehicle concept in 2009. Now the detailed design and technologies are ready and the agency has partnered with Thales Alenia Space Italia to manufacture the vehicle. Its first flight will be in 2013. According to the press release, Europe's ambition for a spacecraft to return autonomously from low orbit is a cornerstone for a wide range of space applications, including space transportation, exploration and robotic servicing of space infrastructure. This goal will be achieved with IXV, which is the next step from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight of 1998. More maneuverable and able to make precise landings, IXV is the 'intermediate' element of Europe's path to future developments with limited risks. The new spacecraft, which resembles a wing-less space shuttle and it s test vehicle, will launch aboard a small ESA rocket, reaching an altitude of 450 kilometers. It will test technologies like advanced thermal protection systems, new guidance, navigation and control systems, and will collect lots of data. It will operate autonomously. It could be proving ground for ESA to develop a vehicle that can travel to the space station or other destinations.

The EU takes the lead role in science and technology

Shelton and Holdridge 04-[“ The US-EU Race for Leadership of Science and Technology: Qualitative and Quantitative Indicators “-International Technology Research Institute R.D. Shelton, Director Geoffrey M. Holdridge, WTEC Division Director and ITRI Series Editor ]

Both the United States and the European Union have set goals for worldwide leadership of science and technology. While the U.S. leads in most input quantitative indicators, output indicators may be more specific for determining present leadership. They show that the EU has taken the lead in important metrics and is challenging the U.S. in others. Qualitative indicators of fields of research and development, based on expert review studies organized by the authors, confirm that many EU labs are equal or better than those in the U.S. I. Introduction A. Purpose Since the 1950s, the top science goal of the U. S. Government has been “maintaining world leadership in science, mathematics, and engineering,” and there is wide acceptance in the U. S. of the premise that it is already ahead. With the new emphasis on planning mandated by the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA), federal agencies need goals, plans for achieving them, and performance reports on their progress. While the U.S. may currently lead the world in science and technology (S&T) in some aggregated sense, research agencies must assess the status in the sub-disciplines they fund. Systematic assessments of individual fields are sparse, but the best available evidence shows that the U.S. does not lead the world in many important fields. In particular many European research centers now present a challenge to U.S. leadership. In 2000 the European Union set itself a goal of becoming the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world by 2010. Strategies are being implemented to achieve this goal, including the tighter integration of research and development activities into a European Research Area. In addition the EU also plans to sharply increase its investment in research and development (R&D) to 3% of GDP by 2010. The EU has already made good progress in some output indicators of S&T performance, and these policy measures plus its expansion from 15 countries to 25 in the coming year are likely to accelerate that progress. This paper will compare the status of indicators of S&T leadership by U.S. versus the EU.
ESA has missions planned

NASA 8 (NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate 7/16/8, “The NASA-ESA Comparative Architecture Assessment,” http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/259221main_NASA_ESA_CAA-Report.pdf MGE)

In order to define and analyze potential European contributions to global exploration initiatives, ESA has developed a long-term, international space exploration roadmap, based on a current understanding of international space exploration plans. The roadmap assumes development of exploration architectures in a phased approach, leading ultimately to the implementation of the first international human mission to Mars. The phased approach allows for the incremental development of technologies and systems over time, and is mindful of both political constraints and financial budgets. The four phases are: Phase 1, through 2016 and perhaps through 2020: This period will see the advancement of human operations in LEO based on extensive utilization of the International Space Station (ISS), or potential new orbital infrastructures. At the same time, the development of a new generation of crew space transportation systems, designed for access to both LEO and low lunar orbit (LLO), will secure human access and frequent flight opportunities to space. Early robotic preparatory missions towards the Moon (e.g. the International Lunar Network) and Mars will pave the way for future human exploration and demonstrate key capabilities such as planetary descent and landing, surface mobility, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and perform valuable in-situ science.

Phase 2, early-to-mid 2020s: This period could see extended human operations in LEO based on the transition to new orbital infrastructures replacing ISS, while first human missions to the Moon commence. During this period, further orbital infrastructures beyond LEO (e.g. in LLO or at the Earth-Moon libration points) might be constructed as an element of a transportation architecture. Such infrastructure could facilitate the assembly of vehicles, crew exchange, docking operations, lunar landings and sustained surface operations, while also enabling research for interplanetary mission preparation. The first Mars Sample Return mission would be implemented during this phase and its findings will drive further Mars exploration.

• Phase 3, late 2020’s or early 2030s: Phase 3 would introduce extended lunar surface installations for fixed and mobile habitation and research. ESA assumes that during this phase lunar exploration would move forward as a coordinated international endeavor. Initial activities towards the preparation of an international human mission to Mars may commence.

Phase 4, mid-to-late 2030s: Based on the essential knowledge gained from and capabilities developed for continued lunar surface activities, Phase 4 will see the implementation of the first human Mission to Mars. Continuation of lunar surface activities will depend on the long-term exploitation objectives of institutional and private actors.



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