Multiple choice. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question



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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)



The smallest stable units of matter are

1)


_______

A)



molecules.

B)


neutrons.

C)


electrons.

D)


protons.

E)


atoms.


2)



The "atomic number" of an atom is determined by the number of ________ it has.

2)


_______

A)



protons

B)



electrons

C)



neutrons

D)



protons + neutrons

E)



protons + electrons


3)



Isotopes of an element differ in the number of

3)


_______

A)



electrons in the nucleus.

B)



protons in the nucleus.

C)



electrons in energy shells.

D)



electron clouds.

E)



neutrons in the nucleus.


4)



The mass number represents the number of

4)


_______

A)



protons in an atom.

B)



neutrons in an atom.

C)



electrons in an ion.

D)



neutrons + electrons.

E)



protons + neutrons.


5)



The "atomic weight" of an atom reflects the average number of

5)


_______

A)



protons.

B)



protons + neutrons.

C)



neutrons.

D)



protons + neutrons + electrons.

E)



electrons.


6)



If an isotope of oxygen has 8 protons, 10 neutrons, and 8 electrons, its mass number is ________.

6)


_______

A)



18

B)


8

C)


12

D)


26

E)


16


7)



Which element commonly has only a proton as its nucleus?

7)


_______

A)



helium

B)



argon

C)



hydrogen

D)



neon

E)



none of the above


8)



The mass of an atom is largely determined by the number of ________ it has.

8)


_______

A)



protons

B)



electrons

C)



neutrons

D)



protons + neutrons

E)



protons + electrons


9)



By weight, which element is the most plentiful in the human body?

9)


_______

A)



carbon

B)


sodium

C)


oxygen

D)


potassium

E)


sulfur


10)



By weight, which element is the second most abundant in the human body?

10)


______

A)



calcium

B)


oxygen

C)


nitrogen

D)


hydrogen

E)


carbon


11)



Which of the following lists contain only trace elements?

11)


______

A)



boron, oxygen, carbon

B)



selenium, hydrogen, calcium

C)



sulfur, chlorine, oxygen

D)



cobalt, calcium, sodium

E)



silicon, fluorine, tin


12)



The nucleus of an atom consists of

12)


______

A)



protons + neutrons.

B)



electrons.

C)



protons.

D)



neutrons.

E)



protons + electrons.


13)



Oxygen is required in biological systems for

13)


______

A)



serving as catalysts.

B)



storage of energy.

C)



cellular respiration.

D)



serving as structural components of bone.

E)



chemical messengers.


14)



If an element is composed of atoms with an atomic number of 6 and a mass number of 14, then the nucleus of a neutral atom of this element contains

14)


______

A)



6 protons and 8 neutrons.

B)



6 protons.

C)



6 protons and 8 electrons.

D)



8 electrons.

E)



8 neutrons.


15)



The innermost electron shell in an atom holds up to ________ electrons.

15)


______

A)



8

B)


1

C)


4

D)


2

E)


6


16)



The chemical behavior of an atom is determined by

16)


______

A)



the outermost electron shell.

B)



the number of protons.

C)



the size of the atom.

D)



the mass of the nucleus.

E)



the number of neutrons.


17)



Ions with a + charge are called

17)


______

A)



isotopes.

B)


positrons.

C)


anions.

D)


radicals.

E)


cations.


18)



Elements that have atoms with full outer shells of electrons

18)


______

A)



frequently form hydrogen bonds.

B)



will form many compounds.

C)



will normally form anions.

D)



will normally form cations.

E)



are inert gases.


19)



Which of the following is not a cation?

19)


______

A)



Mg2+

B)


Cl-

C)


Na+

D)


Ca2+

E)


K+


20)



In an aqueous solution, cations are attracted toward

20)


______

A)



salt.

B)



hydrogen ions.

C)



buffers.

D)



anions.

E)



water.


21)



In an aqueous solution, sodium ions would move toward

21)


______

A)



a negative terminal.

B)



a positive terminal.

C)



the bottom.

D)



a pH terminal.

E)



an organic terminal.


22)



Magnesium atoms have two electrons in the outermost shell. As a result, you would expect magnesium to form ions with a charge of

22)


______

A)



-1.

B)



+1.

C)



either +2 or -2

D)



-2.

E)



+2.


23)



Ionic bonds are formed when

23)


______

A)



atoms share electrons.

B)



two or more atoms lose electrons at the same time.

C)



a pair of electrons is shared unequally by two atoms.

D)



hydrogen forms bonds with negatively charged atoms.

E)



electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another.


24)



In a molecule of oxygen gas, two pairs of electrons are shared equally by two oxygen atoms. The type of bond that is formed is an example of a(n)

24)


______

A)



single trivalent bond.

B)



hydrogen bond.

C)



double nonpolar covalent bond.

D)



triple nonpolar covalent bond.

E)



double polar covalent bond.


25)



If one pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, a(n) ________ occurs.

25)


______

A)



double polar covalent bond

B)



hydrogen bond

C)



single polar covalent bond

D)



double nonpolar covalent bond

E)



single nonpolar covalent bond


26)



When atoms complete their outer electron shell by sharing electrons, they form

26)


______

A)



anions.

B)



covalent bonds.

C)



ionic bonds.

D)



cations.

E)



hydrogen bonds.


27)



Which of the following is both an anion and a compound?

27)


______

A)



Cl-

B)


HCO3-

C)


K+

D)


Na+

E)


NaCl


28)



When electrons are transferred from one atom to another, and the two atoms unite as a result of the opposite charges,

28)


______

A)



a hydrogen bond is formed.

B)



an ionic bond is formed.

C)



a free electron is formed.

D)



a covalent bond is formed.

E)



an ion is formed.


29)



Magnesium atoms have two electrons in their outermost shells and chlorine atoms have seven. The compound magnesium chloride would contain

29)


______

A)



2 magnesium and 7 chlorine.

B)



1 magnesium and 1 chlorine.

C)



2 magnesium and 1 chlorine.

D)



1 magnesium and 2 chlorine.

E)



impossible to tell without more information


30)



The weakest bond between two atoms is the ________ bond.

30)


______

A)



nonpolar

B)


polar

C)


covalent

D)


ionic

E)


hydrogen


31)



Which of the following statements about hydrogen bonds is false?

31)


______

A)



Hydrogen bonds can occur within a single molecule.

B)



Hydrogen bonds are responsible for many of the properties of water.

C)



Hydrogen bonds are important for holding large molecules together.

D)



Hydrogen bonds are strong attractive forces between hydrogen atoms and negatively charged atoms.

E)



Hydrogen bonds can form between neighboring molecules.


32)



Which one of the following statements is not correct about the reaction H2 + Cl2 → 2 HCl?

32)


______

A)



This reaction is easily reversible.

B)



H2 and Cl2 are the reactants.

C)



HCl is the product.

D)



Two molecules of HCl are formed in the reaction.

E)



One molecule of hydrogen contains two atoms.


33)



In chemical notation, the symbol Ca2+ means ________.

33)


______

A)



a calcium ion that has gained two electrons

B)



a calcium ion that has lost two electrons

C)



a calcium ion that has lost two protons

D)



two calcium atoms

E)



a calcium ion that has gained two protons


34)



The molecule CO2 is known as

34)


______

A)



carbonated oxygen.

B)



carbon dioxide.

C)



carbon monoxide.

D)



carbon oxide.

E)



carbonized oxygen.


35)



The molecule H2 is known as

35)


______

A)



hydrogen.

B)



hydroxide.

C)



hydrohydrogen.

D)



semi-water.

E)



helium.


36)



The molecule O2 is known as

36)


______

A)



oxygen.

B)



oxyous.

C)



organic.

D)



oxide.

E)



oxygen and organic.


37)



H2O is an example of a(n)

37)


______

A)



ionic formula.

B)



glucose molecule.

C)



covalent formula.

D)



water molecule.

E)



molecular formula.


38)



In the reaction listed below, what coefficient needs to be added to balance the equation?

6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + _____ O2


38)

______


A)



6

B)


8

C)


4

D)


10

E)


2


39)



AB → A + B is to decomposition as A + B → AB is to

39)


______

A)



metabolism.

B)



synthesis.

C)



exchange.

D)



combustion.

E)



replacement.


40)



The reaction N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3 is an example of a(n)

40)


______

A)



decomposition reaction.

B)



exchange reaction.

C)



synthesis reaction.

D)



metabolic reaction.

E)



enzyme reaction.


41)



In hydrolysis reactions, compounds react with

41)


______

A)



glucose, causing decomposition.

B)



hydrogen, causing decomposition.

C)



water, causing decomposition.

D)



water, causing synthesis.

E)



carbon, causing decomposition.


42)



In dehydration reactions, compounds

42)


______

A)



convert water molecules to hydrogen and oxygen.

B)



lose water molecules.

C)



gain electrons.

D)



gain water molecules.

E)



convert hydrogen and oxygen to water.


43)



The reaction A + B + energy → AB is an example of a(n)

43)


______

A)



endergonic reaction.

B)



equilibrium reaction.

C)



exchange reaction.

D)



exergonic reaction.

E)



decomposition reaction.


44)



Chemical reactions that yield energy, such as heat, are said to be

44)


______

A)



activated.

B)



exergonic.

C)



neutral.

D)



endergonic.

E)



thermonuclear.


45)



All of the following are true concerning enzymes,

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