Module Five Assignment Two-Writing Lesson Plan Develop a lesson plan based on the following criteria

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Module Five Assignment Two-Writing Lesson Plan
1. Develop a lesson plan based on the following criteria:
* The teachers at your school have informed you that all low intermediate classes need to learn to write a letter in correct business format, and that includes your class. Therefore you will be expected to teach these skills to your students.

* What will students need to learn in order to write a letter? How will you teach those concepts? How can you incorporate all learning styles into the presentation?

* How can you make writing the letter an authentic purposeful experience?

* Design a PPP Writing Lesson using the lesson format from module three for your low intermediate level students.

* Include all your needed materials and S>T interactions

* Include a general idea of the timing for each segment of the lesson.

* Describe how you will elicit relevant personal experiences

* What vocabulary or grammar will students need to know in order to write the letter?

* Consider the four language components described in Module 5, when designing your lesson.

* Will the students get a response to their letter?

* How will you provide feedback to their assignment?

2. Comment on two of your classmates’ submissions.

* Can you suggest any additional areas the lesson could extend into?
Module 5 Reading

Developing Writing Skills

Developing Writing Skills
Although speaking and writing are both productive skills, there are many differences between them.
Spoken language evolved many thousands of years before the appearance of any type of written language. Over the course of human history many languages evolved, developed and died out without ever having developed a written form, and even today there are numerous languages which exist only in spoken forms. In addition, there are hundreds of millions of people in the world who speak languages which have written forms, but who never learn or use those forms. So, in a real sense, writing is not an essential or integral part of language. Writing systems evolve from spoken languages, or are grafted onto them, after the latter have already existed for many years. Many quite different spoken languages have developed, so have widely different systems of writing.
When we speak, we are able to reinforce and clarify our message by the use of intonation, stress, and body language. If we feel our message is not being understood, we are able to react to clarify it. By comparison, writing has to stand alone, and we therefore have to take more care in how we produce it. Also, as written language is less ephemeral than the spoken word, recipients can and usually do examine it more critically. They tend to notice deficiencies in the form of our message, and they often draw conclusions about us from what we write. This is particularly significant in the case of people who have never met us: Their whole opinion of us is influenced by how we write. Given this, and that much of our writing is for important purposes and in formal situations, what we write needs to conform to agreed conventions and rules.
Students, thus, need to be made aware that there are differences between the writing systems of their native language and English, as they learn formal writing in their second language.
Module 5 Reading

Writing Systems - DIfferent Languages

Writing Systems Different Languages
Basic Script
Chinese is written using some five thousand characters, each of which represents a word.
Arabic is written from right to left using an alphabet of 24 consonants and 4 long vowels.
Each letter has three forms, according to whether it occupies an initial, middle or final position in a word.

English is written left to right using an alphabet of twenty-six letters, each of which has an upper and lower case form. Sets of letters are combined to form words.

Accent and Stress Marks
French writing contains accent marks placed above certain vowels. A written vowel which carries an accent mark is pronounced differently from the same vowel written without an accent mark.
In Spanish, word stress generally follows fixed rules. When a word does not follow these rules, the stressed syllable carries a special stress mark so that the reader knows how to pronounce the word.

Written English does not use accent or stress marks, except with a few words imported from other languages.

In German, all sentences start with a capital letter. All proper and common nouns are capitalized, regardless of where they occur in a sentence.
The formal you pronoun is always capitalized.

All sentences begin with a capital letter, as do all proper nouns.

The personal pronoun I is always capitalized.
Basic Punctuation
In Spanish, statement sentences end with a period/full-stop. Questions end with a question mark and begin with an inverted question mark. Exclamations end with an exclamation mark/point and begin with an inverted exclamation mark/point.

Except in cases involving quotations, English sentences do not have initial punctuation. They always end with a full-stop/period, question mark or exclamation mark/point.

In French, one sound may be spelled in a variety of ways. For example, er and et are pronounced the same. It is therefore difficult to take dictation in French.
On the other hand, each spelling pattern is always pronounced one way, irrespective of the words in which it occurs. So it is easy to read written French aloud.

As happens with some other languages, many sounds in English can be spelled in different ways. For example, the same spoken vowel is represented by different spellings in the words green, bean, siege, and seize.

Unlike in other languages, one English spelling can represent greatly differing sounds in different words. For example, ough in the words through, although, tough, and cough.
The fact that there is no simple correlation between sounds and spelling makes reading and writing English extremely difficult.
In Italian, longer pieces of writing are usually divided into paragraphs, each consisting of one or more sentences. Each paragraph normally contains one major topic or idea.

In English, longer pieces of writing are usually divided into paragraphs, each consisting of one or more sentences. Each paragraph normally contains one major idea or topic. Each paragraph starts on a new line.

Module 5 Reading

Types of Writing

Types of Writing
Most of the writing which is produced in everyday life can be divided into three types according to the intended recipient of the finished product.
1. Notes, Lists, Journal entries, etc. which are written for oneself
* The writing which is done for ourselves does not have to conform to any rules or conventions whatsoever, except those which we choose to use.
2. Notes, Lists, Postcards, Letters, etc. which are written for and to friends or family members
* The written language which is produced for family and friends will generally closely reflect our spoken language, and those who read it will normally be concerned only with the content of what we have written.
3. Pieces of writing which are to be read by other people.
* This type of writing is quite different from the other types.

* It must conform more closely to rules or conventions of writing. It is normally written with more care and is read with a more critical eye.

* It is this type of writing which is most relevant to foreign learners of English.

* Outside the classroom, most learners rarely if ever produce writing of the first two types. Even if they do produce such informal writing, how they write will usually be unimportant, provided that the content is comprehensible.

The types of writing that teachers need to help their students to deal with include the following:
* Shorter pieces of writing

* Longer pieces of writing

* Notes and messages

* Official forms such as immigration forms, bank account applications, etc.

* Job application forms

* University application forms

* Resumes

* Invoices and bills

* Business letters

* University entrance exams (e.g., essays)

* Cover letters for university application

* Cover letters for job applications

* Inquiry letters (e.g., to hotels)

* Papers or articles for professional journals

* Business reports

* Papers or reports to be read at conventions or meetings

* Instruction manuals
By incorporating a variety of writing for a number of purposes, students develop their English, and also survival and academic skills in writing for future experiences in English.

Additional Resources:

ER With Adult Learner's of English

"The best way to improve one's knowledge of a foreign language is to go and live among its speakers. The next best way is to read extensively in it."

-Renandya, W.A., Rajan, B.R.S., & Jacobs, G.M. (1999), Extensive reading with adult learners of English as a second language. RELC Journal, 30, 39 - 61.
ESL/EFL Writing Activiites

"Here you can find tools for improving your students' writing." Pat Byrd Department of Applied Linguistics & ESL Georgia State University Atlanta, GA

PIZZAZ!...People Interested in Zippy and Zany Zcribbling

An online resource since 1995 for Scribblers and Teachers of English of as a Second Language by Leslie Opp-Beckman

Module 5 Reading

The Components of Writing

Four Major Language Components
Success in formal writing involves more than familiarity with the spoken language and with our alphabet and its punctuation system. It also requires proficiency in at least four major language areas or language components.
1. Language component

grammatical structures

vocabulary items

2. Mechanical component





3. Discourse component

ordering and linking together of ideas

4. Stylistic component

choosing language items and other devices which are appropriate to our purpose in writing

choosing language items and other devices which are appropriate to our readership.

A Writing Sample

The following essay was written by a high intermediate ESL student in Chicago.
The student is attempting a three paragraph academic style essay on the topic: Someone I Admire.
My Father and my Mother

They are the best parents

on the World and my life.
They are the most important. because they gave me a education and worry of me.when I was baby, they feed me when I was sick, they always care me.
I remember too much, when I was a child before I went to the bed my Mother always help me to make the cross over and she gave me a kiss , I always tell her gave other one please. My Father always work to hard for Us, he always want the best Education. When my father done his job, of 9 hrs. or more after, he went to my uncle for work 5 hrs. more. My Father always arrive too late and tired. He tell me you will go to the school for you not be a worker more like me. you will be better.
That thinks are important because when I think on my father urge to be always better.
That's moments was the most important in my life.
They're the most important persons in my life forever.
They're always in my mind and in my heart.
I LOVE THEY.......

Error Analysis

Teachers use writing as a means of assessing their students' abilities with the four language components, and helps teachers to shape their writing lessons. It also demonstrates which grammar points may need to be reviewed in class. Grammar is often taught as a sub skill of writing.
Though there are quite a few lessons that could be designed to help this student craft his future writing. The following general analysis of the errors in this particular essay exposes the needs of this student, and offers clues to future lesson planning for the teacher.

1. Language Component

a education/was baby-student needs to know when to use articles a, an
My Father always work/He tell me-student needs to practice with subject verb agreement in simple present tense
she gave me a kiss , I always tell her gave other one please.-student needs to know exactly when to use simple present and simple past tense.
I LOVE THEY-student needs to know the difference between subject and object pronouns and when to use them

2. Mechanical Component

Us/Education-student needs to review some capitalization rules for common and proper nouns
you will be better.-student needs to know that sentences always begin with a capital letter in English

3. Discourse Component

The ideas in this essay follow a logical order. The student is well developed in this area.

4. Stylistic Component

That thinks are important because when I think on my father urge to be always better.

That's moments was the most important in my life.

They're the most important persons in my life forever.

They're always in my mind and in my heart.

-the student needs to know that this is in fact one paragraph and is the conclusion to this essay.

The lesson Plan on the following page offers one idea of what a teacher might develop as a result of this error analysis.

Module 5 Reading

Providing Written Feedback

Written Feedback
Once the assignment has been completed and viewed by the teacher in terms of future lessons, the question is What kind of feedback should be given to the students on his/her performance?
Think about how a teacher might give feedback on and comment on the previous essay. What would you do?
1. Would you use a red pen for your comments? Or another color? A pencil? Can you account for your choice?
2. For which areas would you give a written assessment? (Good.Needs Work. etc.) Why or why not?
3. Would you correct all the mistakes? Why or why not? If not, how would you decide what to correct and what not to correct?
4. For those mistakes you would correct, would you write the correct form? Would you give a hint what was wrong? Would you simply indicate that it was wrong? Why?
5. Would you only note what was wrong, or would you also comment on what was right or particularly good?
6. Would you provide any kind of informative feedback other than mistake correction and overall assessment designed to help the student improve?

(This was good because...Be careful about....)

7. When responding to the assignment, would you express any opinions of your own? (I agree with this point...Yes, but have you thought about..)
8. Try rereading your corrections and imagine you are the student. How do you think the student will feel?


What conclusions can you draw about what makes feedback effective? What are the three principles you consider most important about feedback?
Adapted from Penny Ur-A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory
Module 5 Reading

Writing Lesson Plan Based on Needs Analysis

PPP Teaching Writing: Sample Lesson Plan
1. Students Will Be Able To write a story by creating a dialog for supplied storyboard pictures
2. Students Will Be Able To peer evaluate portions of each other’s work
3. Students Will Be Able To practice pre-writing skills
4. Students Will Be Able To write conclusions for other student’s stories
Aims: Writing Short Stories, Writing Conclusions. Creating a storyboard.
Levels: Low-Intermediate
Materials: Seven (one for each class member) copies of blank storyboards illustrating a first date story that takes place in England. Storyboards contain ten scenes.
Preparation: 20 minutes
Time: 90 minutes
Interaction: Student to Student, Student to Teacher
Potential Problems: Writing skills such as sentence and/or paragraph structure, vocabulary, and spelling.
Step One: Preview of storyboards
(5 minutes)
Interaction: T>S S>T
a. Explain how storyboards work
b. Who uses them (ad agencies, Hollywood, etc.)?
c. Discuss Beginning, Middle and End of a Story
d. Discuss introductions and conclusions
Step One: Pass out “First Date” storyboards (a series of cartoon pictures showing a couple on their first date)
(30-45 minutes)
Interaction S>S
a. Give students five minutes to look at the storyboard pictures
b. Ask students to try and come up with a title for the story based solely on the pictures presented
c. Students will review each scene individually and write three adjectives next to the scene
d. Students will have to write a script for each of the first seven scenes of the storyboard. Minimum of two lines, maximum four lines for each script
e. Keep or rewrite original title
Step Two: Peer evaluation
(15-20) minutes
Interaction S>S
a. Each student will exchange their storyboard with another student
b. Students will edit grammar mistakes for each other and make suggestions
Step One. Writing Conclusions
(20 minutes>homework>
Interaction S>S
a. Each student will be responsible for writing a conclusion to another student’s story using the last three blank scenes of the storyboard.
b. Begin this exercise in class and finish for homework
Next Class-Step Two: Feedback
Tomorrow’s class will begin with students giving their storyboards back to original writer. Adjectives and simple past tense will be reviewed and conclusions discussed.
Module 5 Reading

Writing Lesson Ideas _ Patterned Poetry

Writing Through Patterned Poetry
Much of what teaching writing entails is also the teaching of grammar. It is in the context of writing that students present the best sample
of their language abilities. This chart offers some ideas on how to use poetry as a form of writing and a means of applying previously taught
grammar concepts.


Furry face

Red hair

Intelligent eyes

Ears that hear everything

Nose that sniffs

Dog of my dreams

Few people are

Real friends

In my life. I

Enjoy seeing true, not

New friends every

Teaching Points

• spelling

• vocabulary

• dictionary usage



Guacamole is delicious

Guacamole is delicious, spicy

Is delicious, spicy, smooth

Delicious, spicy, smooth, creamy


Line 1: Noun

Line 2: Same noun + is or are + adjective 1

Line 3: Same noun + is or are + Adjective 1, adjective 2

Line 4: Is or are + adjective 1, adjective 2, adjective 3

Line 5: Adjective 1, adjective 2, adjective 3, adjective 4

Line 6: New related noun

Teaching points
• adjectives

• adjectives after linking verbs

• Thesaurus usage
We’re taking a trip to Egypt,

And we’re taking along our favorite things:

My fun, rectangular, old, blue, Japanese Game Boy,

My big, sharp-beaked, old, singing, white and yellow cockatoo,

My soft, playful, short, small-eared, female black lab,

And we’ll have fun.

Line 1: I’m (we’re) taking a trip to_____,

Line 2: And I’m (we’re) taking all of my (our) favorite things:

Line 3: Noun clauses with descriptive adjectives

Line 4: “ “ “ “ “

Line 5: “ “ “ “ “

Line 6: “ “ “ “ “

Line 7: (Last line begins with “and”)

Order of Adjectives

1. determiners 5. general description 9. color

2. possessive words 6. size, height, length 10. origin

3. ordinal numbers 7. shape 11. nouns as adjectives

4. cardinal numbers 8. age, temperature 12. head noun

a beautiful big old brown Italian leather sofa

1 5 6 8 9 10 11 12

Teaching Points
• adjectives

• order of adjectives in a noun phrase

• vocabulary

Cats creep slowly

Cats creep slowly, quietly

Cats creep slowly, quietly, sneakily

Slowly, quietly, sneakily, nimbly

To catch mice.

Line 1: Noun

Line 2: Same noun + verb + adverb 1

Line 3: Same noun + verb + adverb 1, adverb 2

Line 4: Verb + adverb 1, adverb 2, adverb 3

Line 5: Adverb 1, adverb 2, adverb 3, adverb 4

Line 6: Phrase or clause showing condition, time, or place

Teaching Points
• adverbs

• dictionary skills

• thesaurus usage

Big basketball players

Cold hallways

Daily work

Exercise center

French fries at lunch

Good grades

Happy students

I love LVHS stickers

Jackets with letters

Keys to the school

Language class

My favorite friends

Nice teachers

Open doors

Principal’s office

Quick learners

Room 828

Soccer balls

Tough security guards

Unusual hair colors

Volleyball nets

Wildcat people

“X” on my test

Yellow school bus

Zero errors

Teaching Points
• order of letters in the alphabet

• parts of speech, phrases, or sentence structures

• dictionary usage
One full moon glowed in the sky.

Two people watched it.

Three owls flew by it.

Four dogs howled at it.

And the moon just sat there.
Line 1: One_____.

Line 2: Two_____.

Line 3: Three_____.

Line 4: Four _____.

Continue with as many numbers as desired.

Final line: Ending to the idea begun.

Note: Numbers can be counted backwards.

Teaching Points

• number words

• complete sentences

• logical sequence
Farewell to overcoats.

Hello to tennis lessons.

Farewell to rainy days.

Hello to sunshine.

It’s spring, spring, spring.
Farewell to____. Yes to_____.

Hello to_____. No to_____.

Farewell to_____. Yes to_____.

Hello to_____. No to_____.

It’s _____, _____. _____. It’s _____, _____, _____.
Teaching Points
• exclamatory statements

• opposites

• contrast

Honest, able, intelligent,. humble

Husband of Mary Todd

Lover of freedom, justice, and peace

Who felt destined to make history, determined to free the slaves,

dedicated to make men equal

Who needed to make people listen, win the war, reunite the country

Who feared the hatred in men’s eyes, ignorance bred by prejudice, social injustice

Who gave his dreams, his hopes, and his life

Who would have liked to have had more days

Resident of the White House


Line 1: First name

Line 2: Four traits that describe the character

Line 3: Relative of___(brother, sister, daughter, etc.)

Line 4: Lover of ___ (list 3 people, things, or ideas)

Line 5: Who feels ___(list 3 emotions)

Line 6: Who needs____(list 3 items)

Line 7: Who fears___ (list 3 items)

Line 8: Who gives___(list 3 items)

Line 9: Who would like to see___(list 3 items)

Line 10: Resident of___

Line 11: Last name
Teaching Points
• adjectives

• relative clauses

• items in a series


This is a bugaboo.

Bugaboos live on baking beaches off the Bay of Bengal.

Bugaboos eat bacon, beef, bologna, burgers, bread, and especially bugs.

Bugaboos like to bake gingerbread, play basketball and baseball, and squish bombing


Bugaboos teach biology, ride bicycles, play with butter, and draw blond babes.

This bugaboo bleached our beautiful bodacious hair and baked us burgers with bacon.
Line 1: Name your creature (This is a ___.)

Line 2: Tell where your creature lives (using 4 or more words that begin with the same

beginning sound of the creature’s name)

Line 3: Tell what your creature eats (using 4 or more words that begin with the same

beginning sound of the creature’s name)

Line 4: Tell what your creature likes (using 4 or more words that begin with the same

beginning sound of the creature’s name)

Line 5: Tell something about your creature (using 3 or more words with the same

beginning sound of the creature’s name)

line 6: Tell something about what your creature did to you (using 3 or more words with

the same beginning sound of the creature’s name)
Teaching Points
• vocabulary

• dictionary skills



White is paper

waiting for a pencil.

White is snow

falling from the sky.

White is polar bears

playing on the ice.

White is the clouds

floating in the sky.

White is a cat

playing with yarn.

Line 1: Color name is (noun).

Line 2: Beginning of a phrase describing noun

Line 3: End of the phrase describing noun

Teaching Points

• vocabulary associated with colors

• sentences using the verb “to be”

• metaphors

Furry, cuddly

Running, playing, barking

Always loyal and loving

Line 1: Noun

Line 2: Two adjectives

Line 3: Three present participles

Line 4: Four-word phrase

Line 5: Synonym for noun or closely related noun
Teaching Points
• nouns

• adjectives

• participles

• synonyms

Soccer games are black and white because you start clean and end dirty.

They taste like dry mouth.

They sound like bombs exploding.

They smell like sweat and dust.

They look like crazy people running around.

They make me feel excited.

Line 1: (An emotion or idea) is (one or two colors).

Line 2: It tastes like_____.

Line 3: It sounds like _____.

Line 4: It smells like_____.

Line 5: It looks like _____.

Line 6: It makes me feel (like)_____.

Teaching Points
• sensory verbs

• basic sentence structure

• metaphors and similes

• phrases

I like dogs.

I like cats.

I like horses,

but I don’t like rats.

I (we) like_____.

I (we) like_____.

I (we) like_____,

but I (we) don’t like _____.

Teaching Points
• simple and compound sentence structure

• conjunction “but”

• negatives

• active verbs

On Monday I saw a boy.

On Tuesday I heard his name.

On Wednesday I touched his hand.

On Thursday I tasted chocolate.

On Friday I smelled roses.

On Saturday we went on a date.

On Monday I saw_____.

On Tuesday I touched_____.

On Wednesday I heard_____.

On Thursday I tasted_____.

On Friday I smelled_____.

On Saturday I_____. (sensory verb)

On Sunday I _____. (any verb)
Note: The weekends are optional. Verbs may be sequenced in any logical order.
Teaching Points
• punctuation and capitalization of proper nouns

• days of the week (sequence and spelling)

• paragraphing concepts (unity and coherence)

• sensory verbs

I am a studious girl who loves to read.

I wonder if I could someday be an author, too.

I hear the voices of characters talking as I read.

I see what they look like and what they are doing.

I want to be able to create my own stories and have other people read them.

I am a studious girl who loves to read.

I pretend that I am a character in a book.

I feel what she feels.

I touch the people she touches.

I worry that I won’t be able to bring my characters to life.

I cry when I think my eyes won’t be able to see the printed page some day.

I am a studious girl who loves to read.

I understand that I may not be a successful writer.

I say that success is in me and I must pursue it.

I dream of the joy my writing could bring to others.

I try to keep reading and writing to learn to do both better.

I hope my dream can come true.

I am a studious girl who loves to read.

I am (two special characteristics you have)

I wonder (something you are curious about)

I hear (an imaginary sound)

I see (an imaginary sight)

I want (an actual desire)

I am (the first line of the poem repeated)

I pretend (something you pretend to do)

I feel (a feeling about something imaginary)

I touch (an imaginary touch)

I worry (something that really bothers you)

I cry (something that makes you very sad)

I am (the first line of the poem repeated)

I understand (something you know is true)

I say (something you believe in)

I dream (something you really dream about)

I try (something you make an effort about)

I hope (something you actually hope for)

I am (the first line of the poem repeated)

Teaching Points
• sentences

• subordinate clauses

• relative clauses


Big Bird

Huge, yellow, fluffy

Friend to children

Dancing, singing, entertaining

Every day on Sesame Street

He’s more than a bird—he’s my buddy.

Line 1: The name of a person (or other creature) you admire

Line 2: Three adjectives to describe that person

Line 3: Place, group, or activity identified with that person

Line 4: Three action words (-ing words) for the person

Line 5: When or where the person’s actions take place

Line 6: Thoughts or feelings about the person

Teaching Points
• proper nouns, capitalization

• adjectives

• noun phrases

• prepositional phrases

Adapted from: Writing Simple Poems by Vicki L. Holmes and Margaret R. Moulton Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers, 2001


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Module 5 Reading


Journal Writing
One really great way to get students writing is to encourage them to use journals. Many teachers ask students to write journals as a sort of diary of what they do, or what they've done. The students write and the teacher makes comments about the content of the writing. Journals are very informal and grammar is never corrected. The emphasis is on the flow of the writing and the content. Since many students have never written in English, confidence building is essential.
The journals are generally private, between teacher and student and offer an additional opportunity to foster a one on one relationship with each student.
Benefits of Journal Writing

Clarity of thought

Define values and goals

Consideration of other perspectives

Summarize experiences

Read past journals to see personal growth

Learn by hearing other people's responses

Possible Journal Topics

With a little creativity, teachers can develop all sorts of appropriate writing prompts for journal activities. Here are some starters.

1. What is your favorite time of year?

2. Describe a place from your past.

3. Describe your concept of luxury.

4. Describe a family member.

5. Describe sloppy.

6. Describe your ride home.

7. Nothing can be worse than. . . .

8. Describe the most comfortable spot you can find. 9. The problem is. . . .

10. Compare the personalities of two of your friends.

11. The place I would most like to be is. . . .

12. I was happiest when. . . .

13. I felt the most inadequate when. . . .

14. How do you feel about competition? (sports, school, friends, etc.)

15. What is the most important thing you will ever do?

16. I know better now.

17. If my desk could talk. . . .

18. Write about an incident that illustrates shyness.

19. Write about an incident that illustrates kindness.

20. I'll never forget_______.

21. The new me. . . .

22. Ten years from today. . . .

23. I always wanted to _____

24. How I can earn money

25. I took the blame.

All in all journaling is an excellent teaching strategy for helping students to overcome writer's block. Creating personal journal topics for students gets them writing in English on topics of personal interest to them.

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