Module 2 Roles and Responsibilities



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Module 2 Roles and Responsibilities

  • David E. Gesner, MA, NREMT-P

Cognitive Goals

  • Use their own words to provide a descriptive definition of the Primary and Secondary EMS Instructor.
  • Describe the differences between the Primary and Secondary Instructor.
  • Describe the duties of a Primary Instructor providing the majority of instruction during the entirety of an EMS course.

Cognitive Goals

  • Describe the duties of a Secondary Instructor assisting a Primary Instructor.
  • Describe the importance of professional development through continuing education, conference offerings and formal academic coursework for the EMS instructor.
  • Describe sources for locating relevant educational and research materials.

Cognitive Goals

  • Describe the relationship between the instructor and the student, assistant instructor, program director and medical director.
  • Describe the role of the course syllabus and lesson plan in course management.
  • Describe the major components of the syllabus and lesson plan.

Psychomotor Goals

  • There are no psychomotor objectives for this section.

Affective Goals

  • Defend the importance of continuing professional development for the professional educator.
  • Value the role of the instructor in the EMS classroom.
  • Serve as a role model for other educators in the EMS setting.

Affective Goals

  • Assess personal attitudes and demeanor that may distract from professionalism.
  • Value the variety of the classroom culture.
  • Appreciate the importance of the teacher-student relationship.
  • Value the need to provide fair, timely and constructive feedback to students.

Affective Goals

  • Exhibit professional behaviors in the following areas: integrity, empathy, self-motivation, appearance and personal hygiene, self-confidence, communications, time management, teamwork, diplomacy, and respect.
  • Explain the value of serving as a mentor.
  • Value the importance of mentoring in the development of a professional EMS instructor.

Why This Module is Important

  • EMS instructors do more than teach students in the classroom setting so it is important to have an understanding of the scope of duties and responsibilities.
  • EMS instructors should value the team approach to teaching and know those individuals included on the instructional team.

Why This Module is Important

  • EMS instructors should know the desirable character traits of an educator and the commonalties that exist between the characteristics of an EMS provider and an EMS educator.
  • EMS instructors should understand the value of mentoring in the professional development of an instructor.

Module Terms

  • Primary instructor:
    • An individual who possesses the appropriate academic and/or allied health credentials, an understanding in education principles and theories, and the required teaching experience to provide quality instruction to a cohort of EMS students.
  • Secondary instructor:
    • An individual who possesses the appropriate academic and/or allied health credentials and an understanding in education principles and theories that may have limited teaching experience. This individual is responsible for providing instruction to students and in assisting a primary instructor.

Module Terms

  • Cohort:
    • A defined group of students who are attending a class together.
  • Class (2 Terms):
    • Class: A single block of instruction provided at a single point in time, like when a class meets for 3 hours and the topic is the ABCs of CPR.
    • Class: Refers to a cohort of students who are attending an ongoing program of study (with multiple meeting sessions) that will lead to certification or licensure, like EMT-basic training.

Module Terms

  • Program (2 Terms):
    • Program: Another term for a class of students attending training with multiple blocks of instruction, like first responder training
    • Program: Term for an organized body that designs, develops and/or delivers a variety of EMS education products including primary instruction, refresher and continuing education. This body may be found within a training academy, hospital, industrial setting, business or academic setting. In this use of the term, programs organize and administrate classes and events.

Module Terms

  • Event: Refers to a single educational product like a daylong workshop or a refresher course. Event generally does not refer to education products that continue to have classroom sessions for an extended period of time like an EMT-Intermediate or Paramedic course.

Overview of EMS Education Practice

  • The primary source for information concerning EMS instructor education is derived from the following sources:
    • National EMS Education and Practice Blue Print.
    • EMS Agenda for the Future.
    • EMS Education Agenda for the Future.
    • Revisions of BLS and ALS National Standard Curricula (NSC).
    • DOT EMS Instructor NSC (Revised 2002).

Overview of EMS Education Practice

  • Secondary sources of information on education:
    • Education professional groups.
    • Academic settings.
    • Internet sites on education.
    • Collected bodies of knowledge recognized for their expertise in educational theories and best practices.
    • Others.

Professional Attributes and Skill Sets of EMS Instructors

  • Ten professional attributes and skills sets are identified for EMS instructors.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #1

  • The EMS educator understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the EMS discipline(s) they teach and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for the adult learner.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands major concepts, assumptions, debates, processes of inquiry, and ways of knowing that are central to the discipline(s) they teach.
  • Understands how the adult learners’ conceptual frameworks and their misconceptions for an area of knowledge can influence their learning.
  • Can relate knowledge of the discipline to other specific subject areas.

Affective Goals

  • Realizes that EMS subject matter knowledge is not a fixed body of facts but is complex and ever evolving; they seek to keep abreast of new ideas and understandings in the EMS field.
  • Appreciates multiple perspectives and conveys to adult learners how knowledge is developed from the vantage point of the learner.

Affective Goals

  • Has enthusiasm for the discipline(s) they teach and is able to relate the subject matter to clinical practice.
  • Is committed to continuous learning and engages in professional discourse about subject matter knowledge.

Performance Outcomes

  • Effectively uses multiple representations and explanations of concepts that capture key ideas and link them to the adult learners’ prior understandings.
  • Can represent and use differing viewpoints, theories, "ways of knowing“ and methods of inquiry in the teaching of subject matter concepts.
  • Can evaluate teaching resources and curriculum materials for their comprehensiveness, accuracy, and usefulness for representing particular subject matter and concepts.

Performance Outcomes

  • Develops and uses curricula that encourage the adult learner to see, question, and interpret ideas and subject matter from diverse perspectives.
  • The EMS educator can create interdisciplinary learning experiences that allow the adult learner to integrate knowledge and skills from several subject areas.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #2

  • The EMS educator understands how the adult student learns, and can provide learning opportunities that support their intellectual, professional and personal development.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands how learning occurs--how the adult learner constructs knowledge, acquires skills, and develops values--and knows how to use instructional strategies that promote student learning.
  • Understands that the adult learners' physical, social, emotional, moral and cognitive attributes influence learning and knows how to address these factors in the instructional environment.

Cognitive Goals

  • Is aware of the domains of learning (cognitive, affective and psychomotor), can identify levels of readiness in learning, and understands how development in any one domain may affect performance in others.

Affective Goals

  • Appreciates individual variations within each domain of learning, shows respect for the diverse talents of all learners, and is committed to helping them develop self-confidence and competence.
  • Uses the adult learners’ strengths as a basis for growth, and their errors as an opportunity for learning.

Performances Outcomes

  • Considers the level of individual and group performance in order to deliver instruction that meets learners' current needs in each domain (cognitive, affective and psychomotor).

Performances Outcomes

  • Stimulates student reflection on prior knowledge and links new ideas to already familiar ideas, making connections to the adult learners’ experiences, providing opportunities for active engagement, manipulation, and testing of ideas and materials, and encouraging the adult learner to assume responsibility for learning and performance outcomes.

Performances Outcomes

  • Considers the adult learners' experiences as a basis for instructional activities by, encouraging discussion, listening and responding to group interaction, and eliciting samples of student thinking orally and in writing.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #3

  • The EMS educator understands how the adult learner differs in their approaches to learning and creates instructional opportunities that can be adapted to diverse learning styles and situations.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands and can identify differences in approaches to learning and performance, including different learning styles and performance levels, and can provide instruction that helps use the adult learners' strengths as the basis for growth.
  • Knows about areas of exceptionality in learning--including learning disabilities, visual and perceptual difficulties, and special physical or mental challenges.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands how individual experiences, talents, and prior learning experience influence adult learning.
  • Has a well-grounded framework for understanding cultural diversity and knows how to learn about and draw upon the adult learners’ experiences and cultures in the instructional setting.

Affective Goals

  • Believes that all adult learners can learn at high levels and persists in helping all students to achieve success.
  • Appreciates and values human diversity, shows respect for the adult learners’ varied talents and perspectives, and is committed to the pursuit of individual excellence for all students.

Affective Goals

  • Respects adult learners as individuals with differing personal and family backgrounds and various skills, talents, and interests.
  • Is sensitive to community and cultural norms.
  • Makes the adult learner feel valued for their potential as EMS provider.

Performance Outcomes

  • Selects instructional techniques and methods appropriate to the adult learners' learning styles, strengths, and needs.
  • Recognizes and seeks assistance in making appropriate provisions (in terms of time and circumstances for work, tasks assigned, communication) for the adult learner who has particular learning differences or needs.

Performance Outcomes

  • Can identify when and how to access appropriate services or resources to meet exceptional learning needs.
  • Seeks to understand the adult learners' culture, and uses this information as a basis for connecting instruction to the adult learners' experiences (e.g. drawing explicit connections between subject matter and clinical practice, making assignments that can be related to the adult learners’ experiences).

Performance Outcomes

  • Creates a learning community within the classroom setting in which individual differences are respected.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #4

  • The EMS educator understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage the adult learners’ development of high level thinking skills, problem solving skills, and psychomotor performance skills.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands the cognitive processes associated with various kinds of learning (e.g. high level, critical and creative thinking, problem solving, memorization and recall) and how these processes can be stimulated.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands principles and techniques, along with advantages and limitations, associated with various instructional strategies (e.g. lecture format, demonstration, scenario based, participatory learning, etc.).

Cognitive Goals

  • Knows how to enhance learning through the use of a wide variety of materials as well as human and technological resources (e.g. computers, audio-visual technologies, videotapes and discs, local experts, texts, reference books).

Affective Goals

  • Values the development of the adult learners’ critical thinking, independent problem solving, and skill performance capabilities.
  • Values flexibility and reciprocity in the teaching process as it relates to student responses, ideas, and needs.

Performance Outcomes

  • Uses learning goals to assist in choosing teaching strategies and materials to achieve instructional purposes and to meet student needs.
  • Uses teaching and learning strategies to engage the adult learner in active learning opportunities that promote the development of critical thinking, problem solving, and skill performance capabilities and that help the student assume responsibility for identifying and using learning resources.

Performance Outcomes

  • Varies their role in the instructional process (e.g. instructor, role modeling, coach,) in relation to the content and purposes of instruction and the needs of the adult learner.
  • Utilizes a variety of clear, accurate presentations of EMS concepts, using alternative explanations to assist the adult learners’ understanding.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #5:

  • The EMS educator uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive group interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands how groups function and how to influence people in the educational environment.
  • Knows how to assist the adult learner to work productively and cooperatively with others in the educational environment.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands the principles of effective classroom management and uses the knowledge to promote positive relationships, cooperation, and purposeful learning in the classroom.
  • Recognizes factors and situations that are likely to promote or diminish intrinsic motivation, and knows how to help the adult learner become self-motivated.

Affective Goals

  • Takes responsibility for establishing a positive climate in the classroom and participates in maintaining such a climate.
  • Values the role of the adult learner in promoting each other's learning and recognizes the importance of peer relationships in establishing a climate of learning.

Affective Goals

  • Recognizes the value of intrinsic motivation to the adult learners’ life-long growth and learning.

Performance Outcomes

  • Creates a learning setting in which the adult learners assume responsibility for themselves and one another, participate in decision making, work collaboratively and independently, and engage in purposeful learning activities.
  • Engages the adult learner in individual and cooperative learning activities that help them develop the motivation to achieve by, for example, relating didactic lessons to clinical experiences, encouraging the adult learner to ask questions and pursue problems that are meaningful to them.

Performance Outcomes

  • Maximizes the amount of class time spent in learning by creating expectations and processes for communication and behavior along with a physical setting conducive to education goals.
  • Helps the group to develop shared values and expectations for student interactions, academic discussions, and individual and group responsibility that create a positive classroom climate of openness, mutual respect, support, and inquiry.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #6

  • The EMS educator uses knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands how cultural and gender differences can affect communication in the classroom.
  • Recognizes the importance of nonverbal as well as verbal communication.
  • Knows about and can use effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques.

Affective Goals

  • Values many ways in which people seek to communicate and encourage many modes of communication in the classroom.
  • Is a thoughtful and responsive listener to students concerns and questions.
  • Appreciates the cultural dimensions of communication, responds appropriately, and seeks to foster culturally sensitive communication by and among all the adult learners in the class.

Performance Outcomes

  • Models effective communication strategies in conveying ideas and information and in asking questions (e.g. monitoring the effects of messages, restating ideas and drawing connections, being sensitive to nonverbal cues).

Performance Outcomes

  • Knows how to ask questions and stimulate discussion in different ways for particular purposes, for example, probing for learner understanding, helping the adult learner articulate their ideas and thinking processes, promoting risk-taking and problem-solving, facilitating factual recall, stimulating curiosity, helping the adult learner to question.

Performance Outcomes

  • Communicates in ways that demonstrate sensitivity to cultural and gender differences (e.g. appropriate use of eye contact, interpretation of body language and verbal statements, acknowledgment of and responsiveness to different modes of communication and participation).

Performance Outcomes

  • Knows how to use a variety of media communication tools, including audio-visual aids and computers, to enrich learning opportunities.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #7

  • The EMS educator plans instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, the attributes of the adult learner, and curriculum goals.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands the basics of learning theory, and is competent in the subject matter, is aware of the process of curriculum development, and knows how to use this knowledge in the instructional setting to meet instructional goals.
  • Knows when and how to adjust instructional delivery methods based on student responses and performances.

Affective Goals

  • Values both long term and short term planning to ensure a productive classroom setting.
  • Believes that plans must always be open to adjustment and revision based on student needs and changing performance outcomes.
  • Values planning as a collegial activity and includes other instructors and students in the process.

Performance Goals

  • Provides learning experiences that are appropriate for curriculum goals, relevant to learners, and based upon principles of effective instruction (e.g. that activate the adult learners’ prior knowledge, encourages exploration and problem-solving, and builds new skills on those previously acquired).

Performance Goals

  • Plans for learning opportunities that recognize and address variations in learning styles and performance modes.
  • Respond to unanticipated sources of input, evaluates plans in relation to short- and long-range goals, and systematically adjusts plans to meet student needs and enhance learning.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #8

  • The EMS Educator understands and uses formative and summative strategies with both formal and informal techniques to evaluate and ensure the continuous cognitive, affective and psychomotor development of the learner.

Cognitive Goals

  • Is aware of the characteristics, uses, advantages, and limitations of different types of assessments (e.g. criterion-referenced and norm-referenced instruments, traditional standardized and performance-based tests) for evaluating the adult learner.
  • Knows how to select and use assessment strategies and instruments appropriate to the learning outcomes being evaluated.

Affective Goals

  • Values ongoing assessment as essential to the instructional process and recognizes that many different assessment strategies, accurately and systematically used, are necessary for monitoring and promoting student learning.
  • Is committed to using assessment to identify student strengths and promote student growth rather than to deny the adult learner access to learning opportunities.

Performance Outcomes

  • Appropriately uses a variety of formal and informal assessment techniques (e.g. observation, portfolios of student work, teacher-made tests, performance tasks, projects, student self-assessments, peer assessment, and standardized tests) to evaluate the adult learners’ progress and performances, and modify teaching and learning strategies.

Performance Outcomes

  • Uses assessment strategies to involve learners in self-assessment activities, to help them become aware of their strengths and needs, and to encourage them to set personal goals for learning.
  • Evaluates the effect of class activities on both individuals and the class as a whole, collecting information through observation of classroom.

Performance Outcomes

  • Monitors his or her own teaching strategies and behavior in relation to student success, modifying plans and instructional approaches accordingly.
  • Maintains useful records of student work and performance and can communicate student progress knowledgeably and responsibly to the adult learner.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #9

  • The EMS educator is a reflective practitioner who continually evaluates the effects of their choices and actions on others (the adult learner and other professionals in the learning community) and who actively seeks out opportunities to grow professionally.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands methods of inquiry that provide them with a variety of self assessment and problem-solving strategies for reflecting on their practice and its influences on the adult learner.
  • Is aware of major areas of research on teaching and of resources available for professional learning (e.g. professional literature, colleagues, professional associations, and professional development activities).

Affective Goals

  • Values high level thinking and self-directed learning.
  • Is committed to reflection, assessment, and learning as an ongoing process.
  • Is willing to give and receive help.
  • Is committed to seeking out, developing, and continually refining practices that address the individual needs of the adult learner.

Affective Goals

  • The EMS educator recognizes their professional responsibility for engaging in and supporting appropriate professional practices for self and colleagues.

Performance Outcomes

  • Uses classroom observation, information about the adult learner, and research as sources for evaluating the outcomes of teaching and learning and as a basis for experimenting with, reflecting on, and revising practice.
  • Seeks out professional literature, colleagues, and other resources to support their own development as a learner and a teacher.

Performance Outcomes

  • The EMS educator draws upon professional colleagues as supports for reflection, problem-solving and new ideas, actively sharing experiences and seeking and giving feedback.

Professional Attributes and Skills Set Criteria #10

  • The EMS educator fosters relationships with EMS colleagues and EMS agencies in the larger community to support the students learning and well-being.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands the EMS educational program is an organization within the larger EMS community and understands the operations of the relevant aspects of the EMS system within which they work.
  • Understands how factors in the adult learners’ environment outside of school (e.g. family circumstances, community environments, health and economic conditions) may influence the adult learners’ life and learning.

Cognitive Goals

  • Understands and implements laws related to the adult learners’ rights and teacher responsibilities (e.g. for confidentiality, privacy, and appropriate treatment of the adult learner).

Affective Goals

  • Values and appreciates the importance of all aspects of the adult learner’s classroom experience.
  • Respects the privacy of the adult learner and confidentiality of information.
  • Is willing to work with other professionals to improve the overall learning environment for the adult learner.

Performance Outcomes

  • Participates in collegial activities designed to make the EMS program and educational setting a productive learning environment.
  • Makes links with the adult learners' other environments on behalf of the adult learner, by consulting with other EMS educators and professionals in other EMS agencies.

Performance Outcomes

  • Can identify and use EMS community resources to foster student learning.
  • Talks with and listens to the student, are sensitive and responsive to clues of distress, investigates situations, and seeks outside help as needed and appropriate to remedy problems.
  • Acts as an advocate for the adult learner.

General Professional Educator Characteristics

Characteristics Considered Appropriate for Educators

  • Possessing integrity and honesty
  • Empathetic and compassionate
  • Highly self-motivated
  • Maintains a professional appearance with good personal hygiene
  • Self-confident
  • Possesses clear verbal and written communication skills
  • Exhibits effective time management

Characteristics Considered Appropriate for Educators

  • Advocates the teamwork approach for teaching and for student interaction
  • Diplomatic and respectful when dealing with others
  • Has a desire to continue improving, growing professionally and intellectually (valuing "life-long learning")
  • Possesses knowledge of the subject and content areas
  • Is a student advocate

EMS Provider Professional Behaviors and Characteristics

  • The DOT NSC for the EMT-paramedic identifies eleven professional behaviors for paramedics.

EMS Provider Professional Behaviors and Characteristics

  • 1. Integrity.
  • 2. Empathy.
  • 3. Self-motivation.
  • 4. Appearance / personal hygiene.
  • 5. Self-confidence.
  • 6. Communications.
  • 7. Time management.
  • 8. Teamwork and diplomacy.
  • 9. Respect.
  • 10. Patient advocacy.
  • 11. Careful delivery of services.

Instructors: Primary and Secondary

Definition of Primary Instructor

  • The “primary instructor” is defined by the scope of responsibility more so than by seniority or time spent in direct instruction of students.
    • 1. The primary instructor is often the individual held responsible for a course.

Primary Instructor

  • The primary instructor has experience in teaching and may be moving into a role with greater program responsibilities in addition to classroom responsibilities.

Primary Instructor

  • Some classification strategies for EMS educators call the primary instructor the "lead" or "instructor of record" and instructors who assist this individual in the classroom are sometimes called "support" or "adjunct" instructors.

Primary Instructor

  • For purposes of consistency in this curricula, the terms primary and secondary instructor will be used.
    • The content of this curriculum applies to both the primary and secondary instructor.
    • The individual user of this curriculum will determine how to best implement this curriculum to meet their unique needs and obligations.

Primary Instructor

  • In addition to using "primary" and "secondary" to describe EMS instructors, another method classifies instructors into distinct levels based upon education credentials and/or teaching experience.

Primary Instructor

  • Depending upon the classification strategy used the most senior instructor may have a higher or lower number designation.
    • Example one: Level I: most senior instructor, Level II: assistant instructor, Level III: clinical instructor, Level IV: field preceptor, etc.
    • Example two: Level 1: classroom presenter and/or probationary new instructor, Level 2: experienced educator with X # of hours teaching, Level 3: course coordinator, Level 4: instructor trainer, etc.

Primary Instructor

  • The primary instructor may be called upon to provide leadership or oversight of the course in the following areas:
  • Program responsibilities: the primary instructor may also serve at a program level to assist in coordinating operations of the training program and other courses.

Primary Instructor

  • Course administration: completing documentation and paperwork and providing timely feedback to the stakeholders in the course.
    • Stakeholders are those individuals who have a financial stake or interest in the successful completion of the course and its students.
    • Examples of some types of stakeholders: employer, employee union, course sponsor etc.

Primary Instructor

  • Course coordination: including coordinating visiting faculty and guest lecturers, secondary instructors, clinical rotations, fieldtrips, etc.
  • Interface with the Medical Director and course stakeholders on a regular basis

Primary Instructor

  • Guidance on policies and procedures for the courses or program.
    • Selecting and screening students.
    • Evaluating the students and program.
  • Student discipline and feedback.
    • Assess the student and situation to identify the problem and the cause of the problem.
    • Work with medical director, program administration, faculty, and the student to correct problem behaviors.

Primary Instructor

  • Student remediation:
    • Assess the student and situation to identify the cause of the problem.
    • Develop a workable strategy to assist the student in succeeding on reevaluation.
  • Classroom instruction: deliver curriculum, mentor junior and support instructors, and ensure that the class maintains a high standard of quality.
  • Perform all of the additional duties listed as secondary instructor duties.

Definition of a Secondary Instructor

  • Like the primary instructor, the secondary instructor is often defined by the scope of responsibility.
    • The main responsibilities of the secondary instructor are to provide instruction to the student and to support the primary instructor.

Secondary Instructor

  • Because the primary instructor often sets the tone for the class the secondary instructor must be aware of the expectations of the primary instructor regarding:
    • Content to be covered.
    • Presentations styles expected for content delivery.
    • Rules and regulations pertinent to the class.

Secondary Instructor

  • The secondary instructor generally possesses an entry level competency and is not expected to behave or perform with the same proficiency as an “experienced” teacher.
    • The optimal relationship between the primary instructor and secondary instructor is one where mentoring and professional growth is taking place for both individuals.

Common EMS Instructor Roles & Responsibilities

  • Manage daily class activities.
  • Manage the learning environment.
  • Monitor student attendance.
  • Provide evaluations and feedback to students, course coordinator, medical director, and appropriate stakeholders as appropriate.
  • Manage discipline and grievance issues.
  • Manage course paperwork.
  • Maintain course and student records.

Common EMS Instructor Roles & Responsibilities

  • Teach: deliver didactic content, direct and control classroom discussions, conduct practical skills development sessions, evaluate student performance on cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills.
  • Design/develop (as required) and effectively use testing instruments.
  • Mentor students and faculty.
  • Adhere to the course syllabus.
  • Design/develop (if required) and effectively use lesson plans.

Managing Daily Class Activities

  • Additional information on this topic is interspersed through this curriculum in several modules.
  • Maintain schedule as posted in syllabus.
  • Set the tone for the classroom environment by modeling desired affective behaviors.

Managing the Learning Environment

  • Assure classes are held in an adequate learning environment.
    • Adequate room size, lighting, ventilation, and temperature are all considerations.
  • Start and end class sessions on time.
    • Breaks are important.
  • Vary the pace of delivery and content of material as appropriate to keep class interesting and the learners engaged.

Manage Student Attendance

  • Create and review student attendance rosters.
  • Comply with reporting requirements regarding attendance.
  • Provide feedback to students and appropriate stakeholders throughout class.

Provide Evaluations and Feedback

  • To be most effective, feedback should be continuous and timely.
  • Provide students, course administration, the medical director and appropriate stakeholders with regular progress reports.
    • Grade tests and papers quickly.
  • Process and report course grades by the specified deadline.

Manage Discipline and Grievance Issues

  • Each student should be aware of their right to an environment free of violence, threats, harassment, demeaning comments and other negative conduct.

Manage Discipline and Grievance Issues

  • Students must have access to a process for reporting problems.
    • Determine if your agency has a formal policy already in place.
    • Provide students with copies of policies and procedures.
    • Consider designing a student handbook if one does not exist.
      • Involve your medical director, program coordinator and advisory group in the development of any policies or procedures.

Manage Discipline and Grievance Issues

  • Problems must be investigated and resolved by the instructor.
    • Determine if it can be resolved at your level or it needs to be taken further up the chain of command.
      • You may need to consult with your supervisor or employer.
    • Remember to maintain confidentiality of all parties involved.

Manage Discipline and Grievance Issues

  • Students who fail to adhere to appropriate conduct rules may be removed from the classroom and or reported to other authorities.
    • Ensure students have knowledge of the appeals process.
    • Issues of insensitivity may require outside intervention and or counseling (e.g., racial slurs, inappropriate gender remarks, etc.).
    • If the incident involves illegal activity, domestic violence or abuse you MUST report it to the proper authorities.

Manage Course Paperwork

  • Understand and comply with all laws and regulations regarding the maintenance and storage of confidential files and information.
  • Maintain accuracy and confidentiality of:
    • Attendance roster.
    • Course grade report.
    • Disciplinary action report.
    • Student conference and counseling report.
    • Course correspondence.

Maintain Course and Student Records

  • Verify with the state EMS office, accrediting body, and academic host of the course the amount of time required to maintain student and course records.
    • When in doubt - don’t throw it out!
  • Records may be maintained in writing, on computer file, or via other media (example: microfiche) as approved.
  • Records must be kept in a secure area (e.g., locked file cabinet, secured computer with password, etc.).

Maintain Course and Student Records

  • Confidentiality of information is very important.
    • Students must not be identified by personal information if grades and or progress reports are distributed publicly.
  • Student and course information and records may not be accessible by stakeholders unless:
    • The student has given written permission to release documents and information.
    • The document or information has been demanded through a legal summons.

Deliver Didactic Content

  • Use a variety of methods including lecture to deliver didactic content.
  • Vary the pace and content to keep students engaged.
  • Include material for every learning style (auditory, visual and kinesthetic learners).

Direct / Control Classroom Discussions

  • Provide equal access to all students and encourage participation, monitoring and controlling students who monopolize conversations.
    • Advocate for introverted students by encouraging them to participate.
  • Encourage open discussion.
  • Do not allow discussions to become lengthy without direction or purpose.

Conduct Instruction in Practical Skills Development

  • Included in the appendix of this document is a practical skill sample lesson plan.
  • Meet with all secondary instructors to ensure consistency in procedures and expectations.

Evaluate Practical Skills Competence

  • Practical skills competence should be measured on multiple occasions at various levels of mastery.
  • Mastery of skills must be thoroughly documented and reviewed.

Observe Student Performance

  • Demonstrate skills objectives during classroom and/or laboratory setting.

Allow Students to Practice Skill

  • G. Allow students to practice the skill under direct observation, for example, by performing the skill in a simulated patient encounter or scenario.
    • 1. Direct the practice of the skill with close supervision and feedback.
    • 2. Evaluate the skill.
    • 3. Remediate as needed to achieve successful performance.
    • 4. Reevaluate to document when mastery level performance occurs.
    • 5. Review periodically to ensure mastery is maintained.

Testing

  • Testing may be through written, oral or skills demonstrations and should be conducted in each Domain of Learning.

Testing

  • Test design may not be required of entry level instructors.
    • It is important for an entry level instructor to understand the goal of the testing and what level of proficiency is required for the student to be successful.
      • This is critical when psychomotor skills are being evaluated.
    • Question items should always be designed based upon the objectives of the presented material.
    • It is always important to review “test banks” or “canned” testing items for accuracy and relevancy.

Testing

  • E. Provide students with timely feedback following an evaluation (report grades and give suggestions for improvement when appropriate).

Testing Formats

  • Many written test formats are available:
    • Multiple choice.
    • Short answer / essay.
    • True false.
    • Fill in the blank.
    • Matching.

Testing

  • Multiple choice questions are extremely common in EMS tests.
    • National and state licensing examinations usually contain only multiple choice items.
    • Multiple choice questions may be purchased through vendors in test banks (textbook publishers, websites, colleagues) or written by the instructor.

Testing

  • Regardless of the format used, all test items should be evaluated for validity and reliability:
    • Validity - does the test item test the knowledge intended.
    • Reliability - does the test item reproduce similar results when administered over a period of time.

Mentoring

  • EMS instructors should develop professional relationships with students.
  • Foster growth and development of students through excellent teaching, feedback and support.
    • Encourage students who show an aptitude for teaching to get more involved.
    • Help facilitate their progress through the instructor credentialing process.
  • Serve as an on-going and renewable resource for students by assisting the process of networking.

Mentoring

  • Assist other instructors in their development by sharing ideas and experiences
    • Seek their input and advice on issues of importance as well as day to day issues in classroom administration
    • Encourage experimentation in the classroom by new instructors
      • Model the behaviors you expect instructors to emulate
      • Understand that failure is a natural and expected part of the growth and development of competence in teaching
      • Introduce new instructors to your network of peers

Course Syllabus

Maintaining the Course Syllabus

  • The course syllabus is a dynamic document that provides accurate information on the policies and procedures for the course.
    • It is often considered a legal document so it is important to review and revise the syllabus prior to beginning each new cohort group.
      • It may be the basis for determining the course rules, regulations, policies and procedures when a grievance is brought forward by a student.
      • Many programs require students sign documentation verifying receipt of the syllabus or to verify they have read and/or understand the document.

Maintaining the Course Syllabus

  • Check with your agency for guidelines and a sample document.
    • Determine if there is a specific format that is required.

Maintaining the Course Syllabus

  • The entry level instructor may not be called upon to actually write a syllabus, but every instructor should ensure that the following elements are included:
    • Instructor's contact information.
    • Objectives for the course.
    • Outline of topics of instruction.
    • Details of grading scale and policy.
    • Rules, regulations, policies and procedures.
    • Additional information.

Maintaining the Course Syllabus

  • Instructor’s contact information.
    • Do not disclose home address or phone number.
    • Arrange a means of contact through the course administrator/coordinator that allows for reasonable access during normal business hours.
      • Arrange for a means of communication when access is needed outside of normal business hours, like during weekend clinical rotations, that maintains your personal privacy.

Maintaining the Course Syllabus

  • Objectives for the course.
    • Sometimes a reference to a block of DOT/NSC objectives along with information on where to obtain the DOT/NSC curricula are given instead of listing every objective.
      • When this occurs it is recommended that copies of the DOT/NSC curricula objectives be easily available to students upon request.

Maintaining the Course Syllabus

  • Outline of topics of instruction.
    • Include date, time and location of each class session (especially if this varies).
    • Reading assignment.
    • Include additional information pertinent for that session like any uniform or special dress requirement, equipment or supplies the student should bring with them, etc.

Maintaining the Course Syllabus

  • Details on grading scale
    • Include an evaluation strategy or process for each domain of learning: cognitive, affective and psychomotor.

Rules, Regulations, Policies and Procedures

  • Address the following:
    • Absences.
    • Tardiness.
    • Grievance procedures.

Rules, Regulations, Policies and Procedures

  • Rules and regulations come from many sources: state and national standards and guidelines, local jurisdiction, hosting academic setting, and your personal rules and regulations.
    • It is important to review these to determine if there is any conflict between the rules and regulations from a variety of sources.
    • Seek to resolve these conflict before a problem occurs in the classroom setting.
    • Provide students with information on their rights as well as their responsibilities and how to begin a grievance.

Rules, Regulations, Policies and Procedures

  • Additional information
    • Inclement weather statements, ADA accommodation requirements and physical examination requirements are examples of additional information that may be included.

Design, Develop, and Effectively Use Lesson Plans

Lesson Plans

  • This section provides an overview of why lesson plans are important and lists several sources for lesson plans.
  • An entry-level EMS instructor may not be required to write a lesson plan.
    • Each time an instructor teaches, even if they are using a prepared lesson plan, they need to modify it to their specific needs.

Lesson Plans

  • EMS instructors have varied perspectives for the amount of detail in lesson plans.
    • Even experienced educators need to use lesson plans to keep their teaching focused and organized.

Lesson Plans

  • A lesson plan should be used to assure that required material is covered during the allotted time and that it is covered in the correct sequence.
  • Lesson plans should be available for all instructors and guest lecturers.
  • Update lesson plans to reflect changes in curricula and or current educational models.

Sources for Prepared Lesson Plans

  • DOT/NHTSA
    • National Standard Curricula for EMS topics and for specialty items like transportation issues.
    • According to the EMS Agenda for the Future, the future of the NSC is to move away from providing lesson plans in the curricula so it is imperative that EMS educators know how to design, develop and utilize a lesson plan.

Sources for Prepared Lesson Plans

  • Maternal Child Health Bureau (MCHB).
  • Department of Labor (DOL).
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
  • Centers for Disease Control (CDC).
  • Department of the Environment (DOE).
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

Sources for Prepared Lesson Plans

  • Lesson plans for proprietary continuing EMS education courses (sometimes referred to as “canned products”).
    • There are too many courses to list each individually and more are being developed all the time.
    • Using these materials may or may not require additional instructor credentials, special permission or financial arrangements.
      • Resource materials from these courses may be available even if you are not seeking course completion or certification.

Sources for Prepared Lesson Plans

  • Publishers have companion material for textbooks.
    • Instructor guides and lesson plans.
    • Website support.
  • Other sources of material:
    • Medical equipment and supply manufacturers and vendors.
      • Canned specialty topic areas for their equipment or supplies.
      • Be cautious of bias in their presentations.
    • EMS instructor groups sharing resources.
    • State EMS agency training division or bureau.

Bibliographical References

  • Altman and Cashin. (1992). Writing a syllabus, Idea Paper no. 27. Manhattan: Kansas State University.
  • DOT/NHTSA EMT-Paramedic NSC.
  • Grunert, R. M. (n.d.) The Course Syllabus: A Learning-Centered Approach. Bolton: Anker Publishing Company.
  • Nilson, L. B. (n.d.) Teaching At Its Best A Research-Based Resource For College Instructors. Bolton: Anker Publishing Company.


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