Mla in-text documentation



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MLA IN-TEXT DOCUMENTATION

Brief documentation in your text makes clear to your reader what you took from a source and where in the source you found the information.

In your text, you have three options for citing a source: QUOTING, PARAPHRASING, and SUMMARIZING. As you cite each source, you will need to decide whether or not to name the author in a signal phrase—"as Toni Morrison writes"—or in parentheses—"(Morrison 24)."

The first examples in this chapter show basic in-text citations of a work by one author. Variations on those examples follow. All of the examples are color-coded to help you see how writers using MLA style work authors and page numbers—and sometimes titles—into their texts. The examples also illustrate the MLA style of using quotation marks around titles of short works and italicizing titles of long works.

1. AUTHOR NAMED IN A SIGNAL PHRASE

If you mention the author in a signal phrase, put only the page number(s) in parentheses. Do not write page or p.

McCullough describes John Adams as having "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood" (18).

McCullough describes John Adams's hands as those of someone used to manual labor (18).

2. AUTHOR NAMED IN PARENTHESES

If you do not mention the author in a signal phrase, put his or her last name in parentheses along with the page number(s). Do not use punctuation between the name and the page number(s).

Adams is said to have had "the hands of a man accustomed to pruning his own trees, cutting his own hay, and splitting his own firewood" (McCullough 18).

One biographer describes John Adams as someone who was not a stranger to manual labor (McCullough 18).

Whether you use a signal phrase and parentheses or parentheses only, try to put the parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence or as close as possible to the material you've cited without awkwardly interrupting the sentence. Notice that in the first example above, the parenthetical reference comes after the closing quotation marks but before the period at the end of the sentence.

3. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR

If you cite multiple works by one author, you have four choices. You can mention the author in a signal phrase and give the title and page reference in parentheses. Give the full title if it's brief; otherwise, give a short version.

Kaplan insists that understanding power in the Near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (Eastward 330).

You can mention both author and title in a signal phrase and give only the page reference in parentheses.

In Eastward to Tartary, Kaplan insists that understanding power in the Near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (330).

You can indicate author, title, and page reference only in parentheses, with a comma between author and title.

Understanding power in the Near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (Kaplan, Eastward 330).

Or you can mention the title in a signal phrase and give the author and page reference in parentheses.

Eastward to Tartary argues that understanding power in the Near East requires "Western leaders who know when to intervene, and do so without illusions" (Kaplan 330).

4. AUTHORS WITH THE SAME LAST NAME

If your works-cited list includes works by authors with the same last name, you need to give the author's first name in any signal phrase or the author's first initial in the parenthetical reference.

Edmund Wilson uses the broader term imaginative, whereas Anne Wilson chooses the narrower adjective magical.



Imaginative applies not only to modern literature (E. Wilson) but also to writing of all periods, whereas magical is often used in writing about Arthurian romances (A. Wilson).

5. AFTER A BLOCK QUOTATION

When quoting more than three lines of poetry, more than four lines of prose, or dialogue from a drama, set off the quotation from the rest of your text, indenting it one inch (or ten spaces) from the left margin. Do not use quotation marks. Place any parenthetical documentation after the final punctuation.

In Eastward to Tartary, Kaplan captures ancient and contemporary Antioch for us:

At the height of its glory in the Roman-Byzantine age, when it had an amphitheater, public baths, aqueducts, and sewage pipes, half a million people lived in Antioch. Today the population is only 125,000. With sour relations between Turkey and Syria, and unstable politics throughout the Middle East, Antioch is now a backwater—seedy and tumbledown, with relatively few tourists. I found it altogether charming. (123)

6. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS

For a work by two or three authors, name all the authors, either in a signal phrase or in the parentheses.

Carlson and Ventura's stated goal is to introduce Julio Cortézar, Marjorie Agosín, and other Latin American writers to an audience of English-speaking adolescents (v).

For a work with four or more authors, you have the option of mentioning all their names or just the name of the first author followed by et al., which means "and others."

One popular survey of American literature breaks the contents into sixteen thematic groupings (Anderson, Brinnin, Leggett, Arpin, and Toth A19–24).

One popular survey of American literature breaks the contents into sixteen thematic groupings (Anderson et al. A19–24).

7. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

If the author is an organization, cite the organization either in a signal phrase or in parentheses. It's acceptable to shorten long names.

The U.S. government can be direct when it wants to be. For example, it sternly warns, "If you are overpaid, we will recover any payments not due you" (Social Security Administration 12).

8. AUTHOR UNKNOWN

If you don't know the author of a work, as you won't with many reference books and with most newspaper editorials, use the work's title or a shortened version of the title in the parentheses.

The explanatory notes at the front of the literature encyclopedia point out that writers known by pseudonyms are listed alphabetically under those pseudonyms (Merriam-Webster's vii).

A powerful editorial in last week's paper asserts that healthy liver donor Mike Hurewitz died because of "frightening" faulty postoperative care ("Every Patient's Nightmare").

9. LITERARY WORKS

When referring to literary works that are available in many different editions, cite the page numbers from the edition you are using, followed by information that will let readers of any edition locate the text you are citing.



NOVELS

Give the page and chapter number.

In Pride and Prejudice, Mrs. Bennett shows no warmth toward Jane and Elizabeth when they return from Netherfield (105; ch. 12).

VERSE PLAYS

Give the act, scene, and line numbers; separate them with periods.

Macbeth continues the vision theme when he addresses the Ghost with "Thou hast no speculation in those eyes/Which thou dost glare with" (3.3.96–97).

POEMS

Give the part and the line numbers (separated by periods). If a poem has only line numbers, use the word line(s) in the first reference.

Whitman sets up not only opposing adjectives but also opposing nouns in "Song of Myself" when he says, "I am of old and young, of the foolish as much as the wise, / ... a child as well as a man" (16.330–32).

One description of the mere in Beowulf is "not a pleasant place!" (line 1372). Later, the label is "the awful place" (1378).

10. WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY

If you're citing a work that is included in an anthology, name the author(s) of the work, not the editor of the anthology—either in a signal phrase or in parentheses.

"It is the teapots that truly shock," according to Cynthia Ozick in her essay on teapots as metaphor (70).

In In Short: A Collection of Creative Nonfiction, readers will find both an essay on Scottish tea (Hiestand) and a piece on teapots as metaphors (Ozick).

11. SACRED TEXT

When citing sacred texts such as the Bible or the Qur'an, give the title of the edition used, and in parentheses give the book, chapter, and verse (or their equivalent), separated by periods. MLA style recommends that you abbreviate the names of the books of the Bible in parenthetical references.

The wording from The New English Bible follows: "In the beginning of creation, when God made heaven and earth, the earth was without form and void, with darkness over the face of the abyss, and a mighty wind that swept over the surface of the waters" (Gen. 1.1–2).

12. MULTIVOLUME WORK

If you cite more than one volume of a multivolume work, each time you cite one of the volumes, give the volume and the page numbers in parentheses, separated by a colon.

Sandburg concludes with the following sentence about those paying last respects to Lincoln: "All day long and through the night the unbroken line moved, the home town having its farewell" (4: 413).

If your works-cited list includes only a single volume of a multivolume work, the only number you need to give in your parenthetical reference is the page number.

13. TWO OR MORE WORKS CITED TOGETHER

If you're citing two or more works closely together, you will sometimes need to provide a parenthetical citation for each one.

Tanner (7) and Smith (viii) have looked at works from a cultural perspective.

If the citation allows you to include both in the same parentheses, separate the references with a semicolon.

Critics have looked at both Pride and Prejudice and Frankenstein from a cultural perspective (Tanner 7; Smith viii).

14. SOURCE QUOTED IN ANOTHER SOURCE

When you are quoting text that you found quoted in another source, use the abbreviation qtd. in in the parenthetical reference.

Charlotte Brontë wrote to G. H. Lewes: "Why do you like Miss Austen so very much? I am puzzled on that point" (qtd. in Tanner 7).

15. WORK WITHOUT PAGE NUMBERS

For works without page numbers, give paragraph or section numbers, if they appear in the source text; use the abbreviation par. or sec. If you are including the author's name in the parenthetical reference, add a comma.

Russell's dismissals from Trinity College at Cambridge and from City College in New York City are seen as examples of the controversy that marked the philosopher's life (Irvine, par. 2).

16. AN ENTIRE WORK OR ONE-PAGE ARTICLE

If your text is referring to an entire work rather than a part of it or a one-page-long article, identify the author in a signal phrase or in parentheses. There's no need to include page numbers.

Kaplan considers Turkey and Central Asia explosive.

At least one observer considers Turkey and Central Asia explosive (Kaplan).



NOTES

NOTES


Sometimes you may need to give information that doesn't fit into the text itself—to thank people who helped you, provide additional details, or refer readers to other sources not cited in your text. Such information can be given in a footnote (at the bottom of the page) or an endnote (on a separate page with the heading Notes just before your works-cited list). Put a superscript number at the appropriate point in your text, signaling to readers to look for the note with the corresponding number. If you have multiple notes, number them consecutively throughout your paper.

TEXT

This essay will argue that small liberal arts colleges should not recruit athletes and, more specifically, that giving student athletes preferential treatment undermines the larger educational goals.1



NOTE

1I want to thank all those who have contributed to my thinking on this topic, especially my classmates and my teachers Marian Johnson and Diane O'Connor.

MLA LIST OF WORKS CITED

A works-cited list provides full bibliographic information for every source cited in your text. The list should be alphabetized by authors' last names (or sometimes by editors' or translators' names). Works that do not have an identifiable author or editor are alphabetized by title, disregarding A, An, and The. See the student essay at the end of this chapter for a sample works-cited list.



Books

BASIC FORMAT FOR A BOOK

For most books, you'll need to provide information about the author; the title and any subtitle; and the place of publication, publisher, and date. (You'll find this information on the book's title page and copy-right page.) At the end of the citation provide the medium—Print.

Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare. New York: Norton, 2004. Print.

A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE


  • AUTHORS: Include the author's middle name or initials, if any.

  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles, subtitles, and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle.

  • PLACE OF PUBLICATION: If more than one city is given, use only the first.

  • PUBLISHER: Use a shortened form of the publisher's name (Norton for W. W. Norton & Company, Princeton UP for Princeton University Press).

  • DATES: If more than one year is given, use the most recent one.

1. ONE AUTHOR

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Anderson, Curtis. The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More. New York: Hyperion, 2006. Print.

When the title of a book itself contains the title of another book (or other long work), do not italicize that title.

Walker, Roy. Time Is Free: A Study of Macbeth. London: Dakers, 1949. Print.

When the title of a book contains the title of a short work, the title of the short work should be enclosed in quotation marks, and the entire title should be italicized.

Thompson, Lawrance Roger. "Fire and Ice": The Art and Thought of Robert Frost. New York: Holt, 1942. Print.

2. TWO OR MORE WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR(S)

Give the author's name in the first entry, and then use three hyphens in the author slot for each of the subsequent works, listing them alphabetically by the first important word of each title.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title That Comes First Alphabetically. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

---. Title That Comes Next Alphabetically. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Kaplan, Robert D. The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War. New York: Random, 2000. Print.

---. Eastward to Tartary: Travels in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. New York: Random, 2000. Print.



3. TWO AUTHORS

First Author's Last Name, First Name, and Second Author's First and Last Names. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Malless, Stanley, and Jeffrey McQuain. Coined by God: Words and Phrases That First Appear in the English Translations of the Bible. New York: Norton, 2003. Print.

4. THREE AUTHORS

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First and Last Names, and Third Author's First and Last Names. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Sebranek, Patrick, Verne Meyer, and Dave Kemper. Writers INC: A Guide to Writing, Thinking, and Learning. Burlington: Write Source, 1990. Print.

5. FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

You may give each author's name or the name of the first author only, followed by et al., Latin for "and others."

First Author's Last Name, First Name, Second Author's First and Last Names, Third Author's First and Last Names, and Final Author's First and Last Names. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Anderson, Robert, John Malcolm Brinnin, John Leggett, Gary Q. Arpin, and Susan Allen Toth. Elements of Literature: Literature of the United States. Austin: Holt, 1993. Print.

First Author's Last Name, First Name, et al. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Anderson, Robert, et al. Elements of Literature: Literature of the United States. Austin: Holt, 1993. Print.



6. ORGANIZATION OR GOVERNMENT AS AUTHOR

Sometimes the author is a corporation or government organization.

Organization Name. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Diagram Group. The Macmillan Visual Desk Reference. New York: Macmillan, 1993. Print.

National Assessment of Educational Progress. The Civics Report Card. Princeton: ETS, 1990. Print.

7. ANTHOLOGY

Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of Children's Verse in America. New York: Oxford UP, 1985. Print.

If there is more than one editor, list the first editor last-name-first and the others first-name-first.

Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. In Short: A Collection of Brief Creative Nonfiction. New York: Norton, 1996. Print.

8. WORK(S) IN AN ANTHOLOGY

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Work." Title of Anthology. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Pages. Medium.

Achebe, Chinua. "Uncle Ben's Choice." The Seagull Reader: Literature. Ed. Joseph Kelly. New York: Norton, 2005. 23–27. Print.

To document two or more selections from one anthology, list each selection by author and title, followed by the anthology editor(s)' names and the pages of the selection. Then include an entry for the anthology itself (see no. 7).

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Work." Anthology Editor's Last Name Pages.

Hiestand, Emily. "Afternoon Tea." Kitchen and Jones 65–67.

Ozick, Cynthia. "The Shock of Teapots." Kitchen and Jones 68–71.

Do not list the anthology separately if you're citing only one selection.



9. AUTHOR AND EDITOR

Start with the author if you've cited the text itself.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Austen, Jane. Emma. Ed. Stephen M. Parrish. New York: Norton, 2000. Print.

Start with the editor if you've cited his or her work.

Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title. By Author's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Parrish, Stephen M., ed. Emma. By Jane Austen. New York: Norton, 2000. Print.

10. NO AUTHOR OR EDITOR

Title. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

2008 New York City Restaurants. New York: Zagat, 2008. Print.



11. TRANSLATION

Start with the author to emphasize the work itself.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Trans. Translator's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage, 1993. Print.

Start with the translator to emphasize the translation.

Translator's Last Name, First Name, trans. Title. By Author's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Pevear, Richard, and Larissa Volokhonsky, trans. Crime and Punishment. By Fyodor Dostoevsky. New York: Vintage, 1993. Print.

12. GRAPHIC NARRATIVE

Start with the name of the person whose contribution is most relevant to your research, and include labels to indicate each collaborator's role.

Author's Last Name, First Name, writer. Title. Illus. Artist's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Pekar, Harvey, writer. American Splendor: Bob and Harv's Comics. Illus. R. Crumb. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996. Print.

Crumb, R., illus. American Splendor: Bob and Harv's Comics. By Harvey Pekar. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996. Print.

If the work is entirely written and illustrated by the same person, format the entry like that of any other book.



13. FOREWORD, INTRODUCTION, PREFACE, OR AFTERWORD

Part Author's Last Name, First Name. Name of Part. Title of Book. By Author's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Pages. Medium.

Tanner, Tony. Introduction. Pride and Prejudice. By Jane Austen. London: Penguin, 1972. 7–46. Print.

14. MULTIVOLUME WORK

If you cite all the volumes of a multivolume work, give the number of volumes after the title.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Complete Work. Number of vols. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. 4 vols. New York: Harcourt, 1939. Print.

If you cite only one volume, give the volume number after the title.

Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. Vol. 2. New York: Harcourt, 1939. Print.



15. ARTICLE IN A REFERENCE BOOK

Provide the author's name if the article is signed. If the reference work is well known, give only the edition and year of publication.

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Reference Book. Edition number. Year of publication. Medium.

"Histrionics." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. 2003. Print.

If the reference work is less familiar or more specialized, give full publication information. If it has only one volume or is in its first edition, omit that information.

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Reference Book. Ed. Editor's First and Last Name. Edition number. Number of vols. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Campbell, James. "The Harlem Renaissance." The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Poetry. Ed. Ian Hamilton. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

16. BOOK IN A SERIES

Editor's Last Name, First Name, ed. Title of Book. By Author's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium. Series Title abbreviated.

Wall, Cynthia, ed. The Pilgrim's Progress. By John Bunyan. New York: Norton, 2007. Print. Norton Critical Ed.

17. SACRED TEXT

If you have cited a specific edition of a religious text, you need to include it in your works-cited list.

Title. Editor's First and Last Names, ed. (if any) Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

The New English Bible with the Apocrypha. New York: Oxford UP, 1971. Print.

The Torah: A Modern Commentary. W. Gunther Plaut, ed. New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1981. Print.

18. EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Name or number of ed. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003. Print.

Hirsch, E. D., Jr., ed. What Your Second Grader Needs to Know: Fundamentals of a Good Second-Grade Education. Rev. ed. New York: Doubleday, 1998. Print.

19. REPUBLISHED WORK

Give the original publication date after the title, followed by the publication information of the republished edition.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Year of original edition. Publication City: Current Publisher, Year of republication. Medium.

Bierce, Ambrose. Civil War Stories. 1909. New York: Dover, 1994. Print.

Periodicals



BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ARTICLE

For most articles, you'll need to provide information about the author, the article title and any subtitle, the periodical title, any volume or issue number, the date, inclusive page numbers, and the medium—Print.

Weinberger, Jerry. "Pious Princes and Red-Hot Lovers: The Politics of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet." Journal of Politics 65.2 (2003): 350–75. Print.


A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE

  • AUTHORS: If there is more than one author, list the first author last-name-first and the others first-name-first.

  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles and subtitles and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle. For periodical titles, omit any initial A, An, or The.

  • DATES: Abbreviate the names of months except for May, June, or July: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. Journals paginated by volume or issue call only for the year (in parentheses).

  • PAGES: If an article does not fall on consecutive pages, give the first page with a plus sign (55+).
20. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Medium.

Cooney, Brian C. "Considering Robinson Crusoe's 'Liberty of Conscience'" in an Age of Terror." College English 69.3 (2007): 197–215. Print.


21. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL NUMBERED BY ISSUE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Issue (Year): Pages. Medium.

Flynn, Kevin. "The Railway in Canadian Poetry." Canadian Literature 174 (2002): 70–95. Print.


22. ARTICLE IN A MONTHLY MAGAZINE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Month Year: Pages. Medium.

Fellman, Bruce. "Leading the Libraries." Yale Alumni Magazine Feb. 2002: 26–31. Print.


23. ARTICLE IN A WEEKLY MAGAZINE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Day Month Year: Pages. Medium.

Walsh, Bryan. "Not a Watt to Be Wasted." Time 17 Mar. 2008: 46–47. Print.


24. ARTICLE IN A DAILY NEWSPAPER

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper Day Month Year: Pages. Medium.

Springer, Shira. "Celtics Reserves Are Whizzes vs. Wizards." Boston Globe 14 Mar. 2005: D4+. Print.

If you are documenting a particular edition of a newspaper (indicated on the front page), specify the edition (late ed., natl. ed., etc.) between the date and the section and page reference.

Svoboda, Elizabeth. "Faces, Faces Everywhere." New York Times 13 Feb. 2007, natl. ed.: D1+. Print.


25. UNSIGNED ARTICLE

"Title of Article." Name of Publication Day Month Year: Page(s). Medium.

"Being Invisible Closer to Reality." Atlanta Journal-Constitution 11 Aug. 2008: A3. Print.


26. EDITORIAL

"Title." Editorial. Name of Publication Day Month Year: Page. Medium.

"Gas, Cigarettes Are Safe to Tax." Editorial. Lakeville Journal 17 Feb. 2005: A10. Print.


27. LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title (if any)." Letter. Name of Publication Day Month Year: Page. Medium.

Festa, Roger. "Social Security: Another Phony Crisis." Letter. Lakeville Journal 17 Feb. 2005: A10. Print.


28. REVIEW

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title (if any) of Review." Rev. of Title of Work, by Author's First and Last Names. Title of Periodical Day Month Year: Pages. Medium.

Frank, Jeffrey. "Body Count." Rev. of The Exception, by Christian Jungersen. New Yorker 30 July 2007: 86–87. Print.


Electronic Sources



BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ELECTRONIC SOURCE

Not every electronic source gives you all the data that MLA would like to see in a works-cited entry. Ideally, you will be able to list the author's name, the title, any information about print publication, information about electronic publication (title of site, editor, date of first electronic publication and/or most recent revision, name of the publisher or sponsoring institution), date of access, the publication medium and, if necessary, a URL. Of those ten pieces of information, you will find seven in the following example.

Johnson, Charles W. "How Our Laws Are Made." Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet. Lib. of Congress, 30 June 2003. Web. 21 June 2008.


A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE

  • AUTHORS OR EDITORS: If there is more than one author or editor, list the first one last-name-first and the others first-name-first.

  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles and subtitles, and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle. For periodical titles, omit any initial A, An, or The.

  • PUBLISHER: If the name of the publisher or sponsoring institution is unavailable, use N.p.

  • DATES: Abbreviate the months except for May, June, or July: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. Although MLA asks for the date when materials were first posted or most recently updated, you won't always be able to find that information; if it's unavailable, use n.d. You'll also find that it will vary—you may find only the year, not the day and month. The date you must include is the date on which you accessed the electronic source.

  • MEDIUM: Indicate the medium—Web, Email, CD-ROM, and so on.

  • URL: MLA assumes that readers can locate most sources on the Web by searching for the author, title, or other identifying information, so they don't require a Web address for most online sources. When users can't locate the source without a URL, give the address of the website in angle brackets. When a URL won't fit on one line, break it only after a slash (and do not add a hyphen). If a URL is very long, consider giving the URL of the site's home page or search page instead.
29. ENTIRE WEBSITE

For websites with an editor, compiler, director, narrator, or translator, follow the first name with the appropriate abbreviation (ed., comp., dir., narr., trans.).

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Website. Publisher or Sponsoring Institution, Date posted or last updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Zalta, Edward N., ed. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford U, 2007. Web. 25 July 2008.

PERSONAL WEBSITE

Author's Last Name, First Name. Home page. Publisher or Sponsoring Institution, Date posted or last updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Nunberg, Geoffrey. Home page. School of Information, U of California, Berkeley, 2009. Web. 13 Apr. 2009.

30. WORK FROM A WEBSITE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Work." Title of Website. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Sponsoring Institution, Date posted or last updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Buff, Rachel Ida. "Becoming American." Immigration History Research Center. U of Minnesota, 24 Mar. 2008. Web. 4 Apr. 2008.


31. HOME PAGE FOR AN ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT

Academic Department. Dept. home page. School. Date posted or last updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

English Language and Literatures. Dept. home page. Wright State U College of Liberal Arts. 8 Mar. 2009. Web. 31 Mar. 2009.


32. HOME PAGE FOR AN ACADEMIC COURSE

Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Course." Course home page. Dates of course. Dept. name. School. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Woolf, Linda M. "Social Psychology." Course home page. Spring 2009. Dept. of Psychology. Webster U. Web. 15 Mar. 2009.


33. ONLINE BOOK OR PART OF a BOOK

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Short Work." Title of Long Work. Original city of publication: Original publisher, Original year of publication. Original pages. Title of Website or Database. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Anderson, Sherwood. "The Philosopher." Winesburg, Ohio. New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1919. N. pag. Bartleby.com. Web. 7 Apr. 2008.


34. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE SCHOLARLY JOURNAL

If a journal does not number pages, or if it numbers each article separately, use n. pag. in place of page numbers.

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Gleckman, Jason. "Shakespeare as Poet or Playwright? The Player's Speech in Hamlet." Early Modern Literary Studies 11.3 (2006): n. pag. Web. 24 June 2008.

35. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE NEWSPAPER

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper. Publisher, Day Month Year. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Banerjee, Neela. "Proposed Religion-Based Program for Federal Inmates Is Canceled." New York Times. New York Times, 28 Oct. 2006. Web. 24 June 2008.


36. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE MAGAZINE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine. Publisher, Date of publication. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Landsburg, Steven E. "Putting All Your Potatoes in One Basket: The Economic Lessons of the Great Famine." Slate.com. Washington Post-Newsweek Interactive, 13 Mar. 2001. Web. 15 Mar. 2006.


37. BLOG ENTRY

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Blog Entry." Title of Blog. Publisher or Sponsoring Institution, Day Month Year posted. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Gladwell, Malcolm. "Enron and Newspapers." Gladwell.com. N.p., 4 Jan. 2007. Web. 26 Aug. 2008.

If the entry has no title, use "Blog entry" without quotation marks.

38. ARTICLE ACCESSED THROUGH AN ONLINE DATABASE OR SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE

Many library subscription services, such as InfoTrac and EBSCO, and personal subscription services, such as America Online, provide access to texts for a fee.

FROM A LIBRARY DATABASE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Database. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Ott, Brian L. "'I'm Bart Simpson, Who the Hell Are You?': A Study in Postmodern Identity (Re)Construction." Journal of Popular Culture 37.1 (2003): 56–82. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Mar. 2008.

FROM A PERSONAL SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Document." Title of Longer Work Date of work. Service. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Stewart, Garrett. "Bloomsbury." World Book Online 2003. America Online. Web. 13 Mar. 2007.

39. ONLINE EDITORIAL

"Title of Editorial." Editorial. Title of Site. Publisher, Day Month Year of publication. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

"Keep Drinking Age at 21." Editorial. ChicagoTribune.com. Chicago Tribune, 25 Aug. 2008. Web. 28 Aug. 2008.


40. ONLINE LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title (if any) of Letter." Letter. Title of Site. Publisher, Day Month Year posted. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Hartman, Berl. "Find Real Solutions for Rising Gas Prices." Letter. Boston.com. Boston Globe, 26 Aug. 2008. Web. 29 Aug. 2008.


41. ONLINE REVIEW

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Review." Rev. of Title of Work, by Author's First and Last Names. Title of Website. Publisher, Day Month Year posted. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Foundas, Scott. "Heath Ledger Peers into the Abyss in The Dark Knight." Rev. of The Dark Knight, dir. Christopher Nolan. VillageVoice.com. Village Voice, 16 July 2008. Web. 26 Aug. 2008.


42. EMAIL

Writer's Last Name, First Name. "Subject Line." Message to the author. Day Month Year of message. Medium.

Smith, William. "Teaching Grammar—Some Thoughts." Message to the author. 19 Nov. 2007. Email.


43. POSTING TO AN ELECTRONIC FORUM

Writer's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Posting." Name of Forum. Sponsoring Institution, Day Month Year of posting. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Mintz, Stephen H. "Manumission During the Revolution." H-Net List on Slavery. Michigan State U, 14 Sept. 2006. Web. 18 Apr. 2009.


44. ARTICLE IN AN ONLINE REFERENCE WORK

"Title of Article." Title of Reference Work. Sponsor of work, Date of work. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

"Dubai." MSN Encarta. Microsoft Corporation, 2008. Web. 20 June 2008.


45. ENTRY IN A WIKI

"Title of Entry." Title of Wiki. Sponsoring Institution, Day Month Year updated. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

"Planet." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 28 Aug. 2008. Web. 2 Sept. 2008.


46. CD-ROM OR DVD-ROM

FOR A SINGLE-ISSUE CD-ROM

Title. Any pertinent information about the edition, release, or version. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Othello. Princeton: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1998. CD-ROM.

If you are citing only part of the CD-ROM or DVD-ROM, name the part as you would a part of a book.

"Snow Leopard." Encarta Encyclopedia 2007. Seattle: Microsoft, 2007. CD-ROM.

FOR A PERIODICAL ON A CD-ROM OR DVD-ROM

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Page. Medium. Database. Database provider. Month Year of CD-ROM.

Hwang, Suein L. "While Many Competitors See Sales Melt, Ben & Jerry's Scoops Out Solid Growth." Wall Street Journal 25 May 1993: B1. CD-ROM. ABI-INFORM. ProQuest. June 1993.

47. PODCAST

Performer or Host's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Podcast." Host Host's First and Last Name. Title of Program. Sponsoring Institution, Day Month Year posted. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

Blumberg, Alex, and Adam Davidson. "The Giant Pool of Money." Host Ira Glass. This American Life. Chicago Public Radio, 9 May 2008. Web. 18 Sept. 2008.


Other Kinds of Sources (Including Online Versions)


Many of the sources in this section can be found online, and you'll find examples here for how to cite them. If there is no Web model here, start with the guidelines most appropriate for the source you need to cite, omit the original medium, and end your citation with the title of the website, italicized; the medium (Web); and the day, month, and year of access.
A FEW DETAILS TO NOTE

  • AUTHORS: If there is more than one author, list the first author last-name-first and the others first-name-first. Do likewise if you begin an entry with performers, speakers, and so on.

  • TITLES: Capitalize the first and last words of titles and subtitles, and all principal words. Do not capitalize a, an, the, to, or any prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they begin a title or subtitle. For periodical titles, omit any initial A, An, or The.

  • DATES: Abbreviate the names of months except for May, June, or July: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec. Journals paginated by volume or issue need only the year (in parentheses).

  • MEDIUM: Indicate the medium—Web, Lecture, Television, Microsoft Word file, MP3 file, PDF file, and so on.
48. ADVERTISEMENT

Product or Company. Advertisement. Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Page. Medium.

Empire BlueCross BlueShield. Advertisement. Fortune 8 Dec. 2003: 208. Print.



ADVERTISEMENT ON THE WEB

Rolex. Advertisement. Newsweek. Newsweek, n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2009.


49. ART

Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Art. Medium. Year. Institution, City.

Van Gogh, Vincent. The Potato Eaters. Oil on canvas. 1885. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam.



ART ON THE WEB

Warhol, Andy. Self-Portrait. 1979. J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. The Getty. Web. 29 Mar. 2007.


50. CARTOON

Artist's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Cartoon (if titled)." Cartoon. Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Page. Medium.

Chast, Roz. "The Three Wise Men of Thanksgiving." Cartoon. New Yorker 1 Dec. 2003: 174. Print.



CARTOON ON THE WEB

Horsey, David. Cartoon. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 20 Apr. 2008. Web. 21 Apr. 2008.


51. DISSERTATION

Treat a published dissertation as you would a book, but after its title, add the abbreviation Diss., the institution, and the date of the dissertation.

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title. Diss. Institution, Year. Publication City: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Goggin, Peter N. A New Literacy Map of Research and Scholarship in Computers and Writing. Diss. Indiana U of Pennsylvania, 2000. Ann Arbor: UMI, 2001. Print.

For unpublished dissertations, put the title in quotation marks and end with the degree-granting institution and the year.

Kim, Loel. "Students Respond to Teacher Comments: A Comparison of Online Written and Voice Modalities." Diss. Carnegie Mellon U, 1998. Print.

52. FILM, VIDEO, OR DVD

Title. Dir. Director's First and Last Names. Perf. Lead Actors' First and Last Names. Distributor, Year of release. Medium.

Casablanca. Dir. Michael Curtiz. Perf. Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, and Claude Rains. Warner, 1942. Film.

To cite a particular person's work, start with that name.

Cody, Diablo, scr. Juno. Dir. Jason Reitman. Perf. Ellen Page, Michael Cera, Jennifer Garner, Jason Bateman. Fox Searchlight, 2007. DVD.

FILM ON THE WEB

The Man Who Knew Too Much. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Perf. James Stewart and Doris Day. Universal Studios, 1956. Internet Archive. Web. 12 Mar. 2009.

Cite a video clip on YouTube or a similar site as you would a short work from a website.

Director's Last Name, First Name, dir. "Title of Video." Name of Website. Sponsor of site, Day Month Year of release. Medium. Day Month Year of access.

PivotMasterDX, dir. "Bounce!" YouTube. YouTube, 14 June 2008. Web. 21 June 2008.


53. INTERVIEW

BROADCAST INTERVIEW

Subject's Last Name, First Name. Interview. Title of Program. Network. Station, City. Day Month Year. Medium.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Interview. Fresh Air. NPR. WNYC, New York. 9 Apr. 2002. Radio.

PUBLISHED INTERVIEW

Subject's Last Name, First Name. Interview. or "Title of Interview." Title of Periodical Date or Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Medium.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew. "Against the Neocons." American Prospect Mar. 2005: 26–27. Print.

Stone, Oliver. Interview. Esquire Nov. 2004: 170. Print.



PERSONAL INTERVIEW

Subject's Last Name, First Name. Personal interview. Day Month Year.

Roddick, Andy. Personal interview. 17 August 2008.

INTERVIEW ON THE WEB

Singer, Peter. Interview with Jill Owens. Powell's Books. Powell's Books, 25 Feb. 2009. Web. 20 Mar. 2009.


54. LETTER

UNPUBLISHED LETTER

Author's Last Name, First Name. Letter to the author. Day Month Year. Medium.

Quindlen, Anna. Letter to the author. 11 Apr. 2002. MS.

For the medium, use MS for a handwritten letter and TS for a typed letter.



PUBLISHED LETTER

Letter Writer's Last Name, First Name. Letter to First and Last Names. Day Month Year of letter. Title of Book. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Pages. Medium.

White, E. B. Letter to Carol Angell. 28 May 1970. Letters of E. B. White. Ed. Dorothy Lobarno Guth. New York: Harper, 1976. 600. Print.

55. MAP

Title of Map. Map. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium.

Toscana. Map. Milan: Touring Club Italiano, 1987. Print.

MAP ON THE WEB

"Portland, Oregon." Map. Google Maps. Google, 25 Apr. 2009. Web. 25 Apr. 2009.


56. MUSICAL SCORE

Composer's Last Name, First Name. Title of Composition. Year of composition. Publication City: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium. Series information (if any).

Ellington, Duke. "Mood Indigo." 1931.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. String Quartet No. 13 in B Flat, Op. 130. 1825. New York: Dover, 1970. Print.

57. SOUND RECORDING

Artist's Last Name, First Name. Title of Long Work. Other pertinent details about the artists. Manufacturer, Year of release. Medium.

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Missa Solemnis. Perf. Westminster Choir and New York Philharmonic. Cond. Leonard Bernstein. Sony, 1992. CD.

Whether you list the composer, conductor, or performer first depends on where you want to place the emphasis. If you are citing a specific song, put it in quotation marks before the name of the recording.

Brown, Greg. "Canned Goods." The Live One. Red House, 1995. MP3 file.

For a spoken-word recording, you may begin with the writer, speaker, or producer, depending on your emphasis.

Dale, Jim, narr. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. By J.K. Rowling. Random House Audio, 2007. CD.



SOUND RECORDING ON THE WEB

Davis, Miles. "So What." Birth of the Cool. Columbia, 1959. Miles Davis. Web. 14 Feb. 2009.

If the sound recording was first published on the Web, include the date it was posted or last updated and the sponsor or publisher of the website.

58. ORAL PRESENTATION

Speaker's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Lecture." Sponsoring Institution. Site, City. Day Month Year. Medium.

Cassin, Michael. "Nature in the Raw—The Art of Landscape Painting." Berkshire Institute for Lifetime Learning. Clark Art Institute, Williamstown. 24 Mar. 2005. Lecture.


59. PAPER FROM PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Paper." Title of Conference Proceedings. Date, City. Ed. Editor's First and Last Names. Publication City: Publisher, Year. Pages. Medium.

Zolotow, Charlotte. "Passion in Publishing." A Sea of Upturned Faces: Proceedings of the Third Pacific Rim Conference on Children's Literature. 1986, Los Angeles. Ed. Winifred Ragsdale. Metuchen: Scarecrow P, 1989. 236–49. Print.


60. PERFORMANCE

Title. By Author's First and Last Names. Other appropriate details about the performance. Site, City. Day Month Year. Medium.

Take Me Out. By Richard Greenberg. Dir. Scott Plate. Perf. Caleb Sekeres. Dobama Theatre, Cleveland. 17 Aug. 2007. Performance.
61. TELEVISION OR RADIO PROGRAM

"Title of Episode." Title of Program. Other appropriate information about the writer, director, actors, etc. Network. Station, City, Day Month Year of broadcast. Medium.

"Tabula Rasa." Criminal Minds. Writ. Dan Dworkin. Dir. Steve Boyum. NBC. WCNC, Charlotte, 14 May 2008. Television.



TELEVISION OR RADIO ON THE WEB

"Bush's War." Frontline. Writ and Dir. Michael Kirk. PBS.org. PBS, 24 Mar. 2008. Web. 10 Apr. 2009.


62. PAMPHLET, BROCHURE, OR PRESS RELEASE

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Publication. Publication City: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Bowers, Catherine. Can We Find a Home Here? Answering Questions of Interfaith Couples. Boston: UUA Publications, n.d. Print.

Cite a press release as you would a pamphlet, but include the day and month in addition to the year.

63. LEGAL SOURCE

The name of a legal case is italicized in the text, but not in a works-cited entry.

Names of the first plaintiff and the first defendant. Volume Name Reference or page numbers of law report. Name of court. Year of decision. Source information for medium consulted.

District of Columbia v. Heller. 540 US 290. Supreme Court of the US. 2008. Supreme Court Collection. Legal Information Inst., Cornell U Law School, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2009.

For acts of law, include both the Public Law number and the Statutes at Large volume and page numbers.

Name of law. Public law number. Statutes at Large Volume Stat. Pages. Day Month Year enacted. Medium.

Military Commissions Act. Pub. L. 109–366. 120 Stat. 2803–2521. 17 Oct. 2006. Print.


64. MP3 FILE, JPEG FILE, OR OTHER DIGITAL FILE

For scanned photos, downloaded songs, Microsoft Word documents, and other files stored on your computer, iPod, or other digital device, follow the guidelines for the type of work you are citing (art, sound recording, and so on) and give the file type as the medium. If you're not sure of the file type, call it a Digital file.

Conell, Lee. "Our Ancestors." 2009. Microsoft Word file.



Evans, Walker. General Store, Moundville, Alabama. 1936. Lib. of Congress, Washington. JPEG file.

Talking Heads. "Burning Down the House." Speaking in Tongues. Sire, 1983. Digital file.

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