Lesson Formal Greetings, Introductions and Farewell

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Lesson 1. Formal Greetings, Introductions and Farewell

(Introduction of a visiting relative from abroad to a group of friends)

Characters: Rashmi


Rajeev Kaka


Krishna: Rashmi, meet my uncle, Rajeev kaka. He has been living in India for the last 7 years.

Rashmi: Namaste Kaka, I am Rashmi, Krishna’s best friend.

Rajeev kaka: Namaste, nice to meet you Rashmi, how are you?

Rashmi: I am fine, thank you.


Rashmi: Which part of India do you live in, Kaka?

Rajeev kaka: I live in a city called Kolkata, which is in West Bengal.

Rashmi: Do a lot of Nepalis live there? What language do people speak?

Rajeev kaka: No, there aren’t too many Nepalis that I know of.

In Kolkata, they basically speak Bengali but, a lot of people use Hindi too.


Rashmi: What is your profession?

Rajeev kaka: I build roads. I am a civil engineer.

Rashmi: Wow, do you build bridges too?

Kaka: Yes, I do. I am involved in a lot of construction work.

Krishna: What else do civil engineers build?

Kaka: Civil engineers design and build bridges, roads, railways, and tunnels, just to name a few.

We also design and build tall structures and large buildings.


Kaka: Hey, wait, I have brought something interesting for you all.

Rashmi & Krishna: Lets see.

Kaka: It’s a different kind of building blocks. These are not those simple ones that you put one on top of the other, we can actually build huge and interesting things with these.

It would be easier and fun too, if you all sit together and first draw the design.

Rashmi: So, does that mean we have to first draw the design before we start building?

Kaka: Yes. Are you all good in drawing?

Rashmi: Oh yes, we are. Krishna is exceptionally good at sketching.

Krishna: Come on, lets show all our friends. We should try this soon.

Rashmi: It was a pleasure meeting you Kaka. Thank you so much.

Good bye, see you later.

Kaka: It was great to meet you too, Rashmi. Have fun.

Lesson 2. Identifying people, places and objects.

(Introduction of a new student in the playground)

Characters: Radha


Gyanu – with the jump rope

Rohit – with the blue ball (there should be more and different colored balls in the picture with more children in the background)

Radha: Come Pasang, I will introduce you to my friends.

Hi, everybody, may I introduce you to Pasang? She is new in our class.

Her family moved to our village recently.

That’s Gyanu – the one who is playing jump rope - she is the best skipper of our class.

Rohit is the one with the blue ball – he is a great football player.

Samira: I am Samira.

Pasang: Hello Gyanu. Hello Rohit.

Nice to meet you Samira.

Samira: Hello Pasang. Come, let’s go and play.

Pasang: It is so humid here.

Rohit: What is your favorite game? What do you like to play the most?

Pasang: I like all kinds of games, but, you know what?

I am finding it really hot here.

Gyanu: Pasang, where were you all living before you moved to our village?

Pasang: We lived up in the mountains, and it is so much cooler there.

Rohit: Did you live close to the mountains? Did it snow there?

Radha: I have never seen snow, you know. I’d love to. How does it feel?

Pasang: Oh, it’s soft and melts, and of course, it’s freezing cold.

Samira: Does it get really cold there?

Pasang: Yes, some days, it becomes unbearable and we stay inside our homes.


Rohit: It does not snow here. I have never left Chitwan till now. But, my father works in Kathmandu and I am going to Kathmandu next week.

Pasang: Really?

Rohit: Yes, the city on the southern part of Kathmandu valley is called Patan, and that’s where my father lives.

I am so excited about the trip.

Samira: We would love to hear all about your trip once you get back.

Gyanu: Will you keep a journal of your trip?

Rohit: Well, I’ll try and write everyday.

  1. Asking for Information and Seeking Confirmation

(A visit to a new city)

Characters: Rohit:



Rohit: Wow, what are those enormous wheels? What are they building?

Prakash: They are building a rath; a chariot for Rato Machhendranath, the God of Rain.

You do have something like this in your village, don’t you?

Rohit: No, we don’t. The rath looks pretty tall.

Prakash: And, look at those eyes, aren’t they beautiful?

Rohit: Yes, they are, but who paints them on the wheels?

Prakash: The idol painters belong to a certain family from Bungamati village in Lalitpur and every year they repaint Rato Machhendranath’s features.


Prakash: Every year, in April or early May, people from Bungamati village start assembling these materials, and start building the chariot.

Do you know you are not supposed to use any metal while building the chariot?

Rohit: Really? How do they build the chariot then?

Prakash: They tie with ropes, and do not use any nails to connect the joints of such a tall chariot.

Rohit: It won’t topple off, will it?

Prakash: Well, actually, it has a couple of times, and people take it as a bad omen.

Rohit: What about the wheels? How do they fix them?

Prakash: Well, the only part that they use iron to hold are the four wheels. The wheels help keep the chariot steady.

Prakash: The festival of Rato Machhendranath is celebrated in Lalitpur by Buddhists and Hindus of the Newar community. More than 200 people pull the chariot inside the lanes of Patan, and the last stop is in Jawalakhel where the Bhoto Jatra takes place as a concluding ceremony to the month long Machhendranath festival.

Rohit: You mentioned that it is also known as the God of Rain, do you know why?

Prakash: According to legend, the valley had once suffered from a prolonged spell of drought, and when Machhendranath was brought from Assam, it finally started raining.

The festival which takes place on the onset of monsoon is a plea for plentiful harvest so, it is also considered as the God of Rain and Prosperity.

Rohit: It’s interesting that there are so many legends connected to the story of Machhendranath.


Prakash: How long are you here in Kathmandu?

Rohit: I am here for the next 15 days.

Prakash: Great, on Tuesday, they start pulling the rath, and I will take you inside Patan.

You will come, won’t you?

Rohit: Sorry, I won’t be able to come on Tuesday because I am not free.

I have to go visit a social worker.

But, I can come on Wednesday.

Prakash: Ok, lets meet on Wednesday then. It will be fun. You know for most of the local people here, pulling the chariot is the best part of the festival. Imagine so many people in collective revelry, hundreds of onlookers cheering and encouraging the chariot pullers, accompanied with the beating of traditional drums and cymbals. It is an experience of a lifetime, you should not miss it.

  1. Expressing ability/ inability with reasons

There is talk about a football match, Nepali football players and Pele.

Characters: 2 boys


A: Do you know there is a football match between Grade 7 and Grade 8 next Friday?

B: No, I don’t because I have been absent for the last two weeks.

A: Why were you absent?

B: I had flu but, I am alright now.

A: Great, aren’t you going to participate in the match?

B: Of course, I will.

Last year, I could not perform well because I had not practiced long enough.

A: I love football and I have been playing everyday after school.

I am really looking forward to this match, you know.

B: Same here, we still have more than a week, so there is enough time to prepare.


A: Who is your favorite international football player?

B: My favorite football player is Messi.

A: Mine is Ronaldo. Where is Messi from?

B: He is from Argentina .

A: My father tells me Pele is the most talented player of all time.

B: Oh yes, I have heard that he used to be a nightmare for the defenders because he could glide past them effortlessly.

A: Pele’s family could not afford a proper football so, he used to practice football with a rolled up sock with rags inside. He used to earn extra money by working in tea shops in Sao Paulo, Brazil. His father used to teach him how to play.

Pele “…I first got my chance to play with adults. I was about fourteen, and I can remember that there was a tournament for which I was told I was too young to take part. In the end, I was allowed to play. I ended up top scorer, with fourteen or fifteen goals. That gave me a lot of confidence. I knew then not to be afraid of whatever might come."

The inspiration to fight against all odds, and remain undeterred by what people around might term as impossible. Pele, then, went on to become one of the greatest players and a member of three Brazilian World Cup champion teams.


A: My favorite Nepali football player is Sagar Thapa, how about you?

He is the captain of the national team.

B: I like both Bharat Khawas and Rohit Chand.

Do you know Rohit Chand was born in Surkhet?

A: I did not know that.

B: Generally, people think that players from the Mid West and Far West lack football skills like those from Pokhara and Eastern Nepal so the football officials rarely go to the West to look for young football players.

A: So, Rohit Chand from Mid West, Surkhet was lucky to be selected, right?

B: Yes, he was selected at the age of 13. But, he was nearly sent back at 14. But, later at 16, he became one of the youngest players to ever play for Nepal at international matches.

A: Wow, that’s amazing.


A: The game was so exciting today. Grade 7 scored 3 goals and Grade 8 could manage only 1.

B: Did you see Harke’s goal?

A: Yes, I did. Shanta passed the ball to Harke so beautifully and the goalkeeper did not even get to touch the ball.

B: The winning team will now play with the other school.

A: That should be fun. We must go and watch the match.

B: I don’t think I will be able to come for the match because I have to go my uncle’s house the same day.

A: Ok, I will give you the details of the match when we meet next.

B: Bye, see you soon.

A: Bye.

Lesson 5: Expressing wants and needs
Eye camp and Dr. Sanduk Ruit.

2 children – 1 boy, 1 girl.



Girl: I heard it in the radio this morning; I want to go to the eye camp.
Boy: I had no idea. Where will the eye camp be? Have you been to one before?
Girl: Yes, I had been to an eye camp two years back in my uncle’s village. But, this time, it is taking place in our village.
Boy: But, what do they do in an eye camp?
Girl: Well, there will be doctors, medical officers and health assistants.

They first examine the patients and if some of them need eye surgeries, they do that too.

Boy: Really? Do they actually operate? I should tell my mother. My grandmother’s eyesight has become really bad. She definitely needs to see a doctor.
Girl: Yes, you should definitely take her.
Boy: Where is the camp taking place?
Girl: It’s in the school building.

Slide 2:
Boy: I had not imagined there would be so many people here. Everybody wants to get his eyes checked, I am sure.

Girl: Yes, some of them have been standing in line since early morning.
Boy: See, Gyanu’s family has walked for 2 days to come for this camp.
Girl: Do you know they have changed Grade 9 classroom into an operation theatre? They do cataract surgeries in that room.
Boy: How do you know so much about all this?
Girl: Actually, during the last eye camp, the doctors had come to my uncle’s house for dinner, and I heard them talking.

There is also a book written about the Nepali eye surgeon who made all this possible.

Boy: Which Nepali eye surgeon?
Girl: Let me get that book tomorrow to school and I will share it with you.
Slide 3:
(The child reading excerpts from the book, and also retelling in her own words.)
Girl: Ok, let me read some excerpts about the eye surgeon.

“His name is Dr. Sanduk Ruit. There is a small village called Olangchungola in the north east of Nepal on the foothills of Mt. Kanchenjunga. His village, located at an altitude of 11,000 feet, was not developed and had no electricity. While he received informal education till the age of 7, after that he was sent to Darjeeling, India for his schooling. They had to walk 15 days to reach Darjeeling. When he was small, the nearest school was 11 days walk away from where he lived. There was no health posts in his village. But, luckily for him, his parents understood the need for a good education and he was sent to India to study.” (Darjeeling map)

Boy: Oh, that sounds so much more remote than our village. Our school is not that far away.

Girl: “When he was 17, his sister died of tuberculosis. This experience affected him deeply and he wanted to become a doctor.

Dr. Ruit and an American eye surgeon wanted to bring affordable and quality eye care to people living in remote places without any access to proper health care.

So, the two of them started promoting an extremely cheap, efficient, low-tech, assembly-line form of surgery that restores eyesight to hundreds of thousands of blind people in developing countries living in rudimentary conditions.”

Boy: Wow, imagine, a Nepali from one of the remotest villages of Nepal made the sufferings of so many other Nepali go away. The surgeries must be so transformative for those people who had been living with poor eyesight.
Girl: Isn’t that amazing?
I want to be an eye surgeon too. And, I will make sure that nobody in our village goes or stays blind. They won’t need to go to the city for eye check ups.
Slide 4:
(Last day of the eye camp)
Boy: Lets go up there, I want to listen to what the doctor has to say.
Doctor: Namaste Aama, Baa, now you do not need to worry about your cataract anymore. We can assure you that your eyesight will certainly improve. Please be careful and do not touch your eyes or, let any dust or dirt go inside your eyes. You need to keep your hands clean all the time. Thank you for trusting us.

Boy: Hajurama, can you see now? How is it? Is it better?

Grandmother: Wait, let me focus on something.

Oh, yes, this is so much better.

Girl: Oh, look at Hajurama, she looks so happy.
Grandmother: Excuse me, Doctor saab, I want to speak to you.

I always used to love looking at the different colours of the sky. And, I missed watching, especially the sunset. I can finally do that after eighteen years now. Thank you so much Doctor saab to you and your entire team.

(The grandchild and the grandparent walking back)
Boy: Hajurma, what colour is that roof? Can you see?
Grandmother: Of course, I can see, it’s purple. But, why would anybody paint his roofs purple.
Boy: I know. But, isn’t it great that you can see now?
Grandmother: Of course. The first thing I want to do after reaching our village is to meet all my friends.
Boy: What colour is the junar Hajurma?
Grandmother: Why? Do you think junar comes in different colors? This is great, I feel like I’m finally awake after a long, deep sleep.

Lesson 6: Asking for and giving permission and expressing obligation.

Gaura Festival

Slide 1:
A: Do you know today is Krishna Asthami –Krishna Bhagwan’s birthday?

The beautiful Krishna Mandir inside Patan Durbar Square will be full of devotees today.
B: Do you think we will be able to go there today?
A: No, of course not, it will be too crowded for us to go alone. The President also visits the temple today and along with the hundreds of devotees, there will be traffic jam.
B: Oh that reminds me, it is during this same month of Bhadra Krishna Asthami that we celebrate Gaura Parva in my village.
A: Will you please tell me again where you come from? I keep forgetting the name of your village.
B: I come from Dadeldhura and for us, Gaura Parva is a bigger festival than Dashain and Tihar. We all look forward to Gaura Parva because it is so much fun.

Slide 2:
A: What exactly is Gaura Parva?

B: People believe that it is the day Shiva got married to Parvati. Gaura is another name for Parvati, and Gaura Parva is the celebration of the divine wedding between the two of them.
A: So, what do you all do during the festival?
B: Oh, the Parva actually takes place across a number of days. And it is not only celebrated in Dadeldhura, but also in other villages in Mid–Western and Far – Western regions of Nepal.
A: Do children also get to participate?
B: Well, it’s mainly the adults with the women fasting with the belief that their lives will be fulfilled. The men too join the women in the celebration. And, the whole village is in a festive mood and there are fairs in the village centres. We get to play and yes, the best part is we get to watch the Deuda dance.
Slide 3:
B: Deuda dance? What sort of a dance is that?
A: It is a special dance performed on the occasion of Gaura Parva.

There will be two separate groups of men and women. They sing songs of love and friendship.

It is almost like the kind of “dohari” that is more prevalent in other parts of Nepal.
B: Dohori? I have heard people singing Dohoris.
A: ‘Dohari’ actually means two ways, and it is a kind of repertoire of songs between the men and women.
Slide 4:
A: During the Deuda dance, the two groups of men and women dance together holding hands and forming a circle.
B: That sounds like fun. Can you please show me how the steps go?
A: Oh, it’s fairly easy. You put one step forward, half-step backward and move in circles along with the rhythm of the music.
B: How about the songs? Do you also remember some of the songs?
A: While performing the rituals, both men and women sing about the life of Gauri and Shiva. The songs also reflect their own trials and tribulations. They also describe the heroic deeds of the main characters mentioned in the two Hindu epics: Ramayan and Mahabharat.
B: So, it is almost like a retelling of the epics through songs.
A: I suppose so.
B: Could you please sing some of the songs?
A: Well, the Deuda songs are sung slowly and in an unhurried way just like how a hymn from the Vedas is recited.
I don’t remember the songs all that well, but let me try.

(sings a song)

8. Requesting and replying politely.

Visit to the Hospital
Characters: Mother, daughter, male receptionist, female doctor.
Child: Aama, I am not feeling well at all, can I please stay home today?
Mother: Of course, Geeta, you were shivering all night. It’s a good idea to rest.
Child: Could you please get the thermometer?
Mother: Yes, of course.
(pause) Oh, your fever has really gone up. Lets go to the hospital today.
Child: Sure, Aama.
(A girl lying in bed, with her mother hovering around her)
(At the hospital)
Mother: Let me ask the receptionist.

Excuse me, do you know which pediatrician will be coming today?

Receptionist (Male): Sorry, I don’t have the information.

Could you please go to the OPD and inquire?

Mother: Sure, but, could you tell me where the OPD is located?
Receptionist: If you turn right from the Emergency Room, you will find the OPD.
Mother: Thank you.
(Labels with Reception, Emergency, other hospital signs, furniture shown in the slide)
Slide 3:

(Inside the doctor’ room)

Female Doctor: When did she fall sick?
Mother: She’s had fever since Wednesday.
Doctor: Does she complain of anything else?
Mother: Yes, Doctor, she has been complaining of severe body aches as well.

Doctor: Don’t worry, it’s nothing complicated. She needs to rest for a couple of days. I will start her on these simple medications. She will be fine soon.

Mother: But the fever has not reduced all these days. Should we do blood test as well?
Doctor: Alright, just to rule out, please go to the Pathology Lab and give her blood sample.
Mother: Thank you so much Doctor.
Doctor (to the child): But, you will have to be on complete rest and eat only homemade food, will you do that?
Child: Certainly Doctor. I can’t wait to get better and start playing with my friends.

Slide 4:
( The child is sitting and reading a book)

Child: Aama, did you collect the blood report?
Mother: Yes, I did. I also showed it to the doctor and everything is fine with you.
Child: That’s good to know. I already feel so much better.

Do you think I can go to school tomorrow?

Mother: No, I don’t think you have fully recovered. You should rest for a couple of days more.
Child: Aama, could you possibly make my favorite dessert today? I have been wanting to eat kheer for so many days now.
Mother: Of course, I will gladly prepare some kheer for you. But, meanwhile, would you mind wearing warmer clothes?
Child: Certainly Aama.

Lesson 9: Predicting

Trekking to Namche

Characters: 3 children. 1 FemaleTeacher.

Slide 1:

Girl 1: Do you know our entire class is going for a trekking trip to Namche next month?

Boy: Namche? Near Everest? Are you sure?

Girl 1: Yes, that’s what the teachers were saying last week.

Boy: But, how will we go there?

Girl 1: We will have to fly till Lukla, and then walk from there.

Boy: How long is the trip going to be?

Girl 1: It might take 8-10 days depending on how fast we can walk. Actually, it’s not even about the speed, but we need to acclimatize and trek gradually. Otherwise, we could get altitude sickness.

Girl 1: Do you know the Lukla airport is supposed to be one of the most dangerous airports in the world? The pilot has to be really skilled.

Boy: I think I will probably be scared during the flight.

Girl 1: Well, actually it will be pretty exciting.

Boy: We need to get few things ready.

We will definitely need warm clothes and good shoes.

Girl 1: I can’t wait. I am so excited.
Slide 2:

Girl 2: That was quite an exciting flight, I must say. It was like a roller coaster ride.

Girl 1: Everything looked so beautiful from up there. I could also see another aeroplane flying below us.

Boy: The best part was when the aeroplane went inside the clouds.

Girl 2: The runway looked so small.

Teacher: This is the Khumbu Valley, the home for the Sherpas. Lukla, situated at the altitude of 2866m, is our starting point. We should start walking now.

Girl 2: Where is our first stop and how long will it take?

Teacher: We will be staying the night at Phakding today. It will probably take around 3 hours from here.


Girl 2: I can hear the river.

Girl 1: Look, there is a way of going down the river.

Girl 2: Can we please go down Miss?

We would love to collect some pebbles from the riverside.
Next morning:

Girl 2: I could not sleep properly. It was so cold.

Girl 1: Oh, I was so exhausted. I fell asleep as soon as I hit the bed and slept like a log.

Teacher: Our next destination is Monjo and the trail follows the left bank of Dudh Koshi River. We are going to pass through the forest and we will get to the village of Chumow.

Boy: Wow, I did not know there would be so many waterfalls on the trail.

Girl 1: Look at that one, it looks beautiful. I would love to go down there and play for a while.

Girl 2: I know, and so many suspension bridges. It was fun crossing them.
Girl 1: Hey, look at that, Thamserku looks spectacular.

Teacher: Yes, it does, and we will probably see the mountain Kusum Kanguru too.

Girl 1: I remember there is an old monastery in Monjo next to the Monjo school. We might get to visit that.

Next to the monastery, there is a small hill completely covered with white flags with prayers written on them. The sight of all the flags blowing in the wind looks stunning.

Girl 2: I have always been fascinated with the architecture of monastery.

Have you noticed? They always have those round wooden structures stacked on top of the square ones, and the colors too.

Girl 1: Well, this one is really old and seems deserted.
Teacher: Today, we will first enter the Sagarmatha National Park. Later, we will continue upstream along the banks of Bhote Kosi and Dudh Kosi rivers.

We will also get to see the peaks of Everest (8848m), Lhotse (8511m), Nuptse (7879m) and Ama Dablam (6856m) the first time during this trek.

Boy: I had not imagined the climb to be so challenging.

I am glad Sirish decided to go on a horse. I don’t think he would have managed this steep hike.

Girl 2: I am looking forward to Namche bazaar. I wonder how will it be. I have heard so much about it.

Girl 1: Namche Bazaar actually is quite small. It is also considered the Gateway to Everest. It is normally full of tourists. You know it is the capital of Khumbu Valley and is situated on the traditional trading route from Tibet.

Teacher: Yes, Namche is usually full of people coming back or going further up to Tengboche or the Everest base camp.

In fact, even after we reach Namche, people recommend a short hike for better acclimatization. If we climb further up, we will get magnificent views of Mt. Everest, Nuptse and Lhotse.

Girl 2: I am absolutely enjoying this trek. Look at the mountains; they look so serene and beautiful.

Girl 1: I want to climb Mt. Everest when I grow up. I don’t think anybody from Banke has climbed Mt. Everest so, I will probably be the first woman from my village to do so.

Boy: Yes, that will be great. I will join you too.

Girl 1: Who knows? Maybe we will get to see the snow leopard too.

Teacher: The forest will be full of rhododendrons. It will be breathtakingly beautiful.

Girl 1: I can’t wait to grow up.

Lesson 10: Stating intention

The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank

Characters: Boy and his uncle/ father.

2 girls, mother.


  1. If you had only 3 hours to pack and leave your home, what are the things that you would put inside your bag?

There is space for children to drag and drop the objects - 5 objects. After which, “Great choice!!!” will appear and sound. There is no wrong answer.

Then, “Now, let’s see what Suraj chooses.”
Slide 2:

Characters: Suraj and his adult older brother.

Show a boy named Suraj picking up things and keeping inside his bag.
Going around the house too, both indoors and outdoors.
Slide 3: His older brother asks him: “What did you keep inside your bag?”
After going through the objects, his brother remarks,

Did you realize that you gave more importance to memories and special moments than material stuff? I am proud of you, Suraj.”

(They hug each other.)

  1. Pictorial like a comic strip.

The following images show Radha’s mother’s daily schedule.

Slides with background music, and with the clock showing different timings of the day.
5am: Getting up in the morning.

Cleaning the house.

Walking far and fetching water.



Going to the local market to buy things.

Farming in the backyard.

Tending to the animals.

Carrying doko.

Feeding the husband, children.


Calls Radha to read a letter that she receives.

And the cycle goes on – day in day out.

With Radha helping too.

  1. Pictorial: Animated Slides

Characters: Radha and her friend. (2 girls)

Slide 1:

Radha wakes up earlier than her siblings.

She reads and writes quietly.

She helps her mother before going to school.

She is extremely sincere about her studies, participative in the classroom too.
Next Slide:
She shares with her friend.

“I want to do very well in my studies. I will work extra hard.”

“I will apply for the government scholarship. I will go to the city and study.

After I become qualified, I want to take my mother to the city. She has never left our village.”

Friend: “That’s a great plan Radha, and I know you can do it. You have always been so determined.”
Radha: “ You know when we read about Anne Frank, I was so inspired. I too, don’t want to just get married and spend the rest of my life looking after a family. I want to come back and start a really good school for girls here in our village.”
Friend: “ Good luck, Radha, and I will join you too and help you with the school.”
- Discuss what would you like to change in your community when you grow up.

Lesson 11: Suggestions and advice.

Slide 1: 3 children talking about a bicycle accident.

Slide 2: Teacher, 3 children in a classroom setting discussing global warming.

Slide 3: 3 children talking about Chhath Parva, with the mention of Rani Pokhari.

Slide 1.

(3 children talking about a bicycle accident.)

A: I completely lost my balance and fell from my bicycle while coming downhill.

B: You should go visit the doctor.

C: How about you ride more carefully from now on?

B: You should definitely visit the doctor to make sure that your wrist is not fractured.

C: Why don’t you get an X-ray done too?

(Exercise will have the same sentences, with spaces to be filled – the options being – ‘you should’, ‘how about’ and ‘why don’t’)

Slide 2:

(Teacher, 3 children in a classroom setting discussing global warming)

Teacher: In Northern Nepal, there is a lake called Imja that is in serious danger of bursting and destroying many homes of the people who live next to it. Many people think this is due to natural reasons, but it isn’t. What can we do to stop this?

A: How about creating awareness about the dangers of global warming?

T: You should all brainstorm on simple things that we could do to be part of the solution.

C: Why don’t we all sit together and work on this?

B: Yes, you should start using less fuel.

C: How about not wasting things and recycling as much as possible?

A: Why don’t we all actually practise the three R’s?

Reduce, Reuse and Recycle

B: How about planting trees?

Teacher: You should all make a commitment, which is our own small ways of help reduce global warming.

Slide 3.

(3 children talking about Chhath Parva.)

A: We had so much fun this year in Tihar.

B: Yes, me too. How about you Rajendra?

C: I liked the way all the houses and streets were lit up, but for us, Chhath is a more important festival.

B: How about Dashain? Do you all celebrate that too?

A: I have only heard of Chhath, but I don’t know much about it. Why don’t you tell us?

C: Sure, you should come to Rani Pokhari on the third evening of Chhath. They open the gate and we all go there to make offering to the setting sun.

B: How about people in your village? Where do they do the Chhath Puja?

C: It could be any water body, a lake, riverbank. You should see the dances and songs people perform in the evening.

A: Do you all sing Nepali songs?

C: No, the songs are mostly in Maithili and Magadhi.

B: How about Bhojpuri?

C: Yes, Bhojpuri too, since these are the three main languages spoken in Terai and Madhesh region of Nepal.

A: Why don’t you sing one for us?

Lesson 12: Expressing degrees of probability
Endangered animals: Comprehension questions
Two girls conversing
Slide 1:
Do you know I visited the zoo the last time I was in Kathmandu?
You probably saw a lot of animals.
Yes, I saw so many different types of animals.
You did!!! That’s great.
Yes, but, my favourite was the tiger. We were lucky. We reached during the feeding time, and the tiger came out of its den. It looked ferocious.
But, do you know there are probably only 3000 tigers left in the world now and soon there won’t be too many.
Really? That’s terrible.

Slide 2:
How will so many of them die?

Well, they are endangered.
When a species, or a kind of animals is endangered, all the animals of that kind are in danger of dying. (slide of one by one)
Eventually, the numbers start dwindling and when a whole species is gone, that particular species will then definitely become extinct.
You mean to say that all those animals will die.
But, I wonder why tigers are an endangered species.
Well, to start with, people resort to illegal hunting of tigers for their pelts, meat and other body parts that they use for medicinal purposes as well.
I am sure there must be other reasons too.
Oh yes, most certainly!!!

Animals also become endangered when people destroy its habitat or the place where it lives.

When trees are cut down and roads, cities are built where the animals originally live, it becomes less suitable for the animals to continue living there.
Slide 3:
Did you also see a snow leopard?
No, the Kathmandu zoo did not have snow leopards. They are very rare and

native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.

But, I saw the one horned rhino.
You know if people do not become more aware, even these animals will possibly be gone soon.
Is there any way we can help?
We certainly can if each one of us made a conscious effort to help save them.
But, how can we do that?
Now, there are laws made which say people can’t kill animals or destroy the places that they live in. If we can spread the message and make everybody aware, hopefully, in the long run, that will save the animals.
Slide 4:
Have you heard of the Dodo bird?
When I was younger, whenever I was clumsy, my grandmother used to call me Dodo, and I always used to wonder what that meant.
Dodo? Never heard of it!!!
Well, I found out later that the closest relatives to the dodo bird are pigeons and doves, even though dodo birds were much larger in size.
Have you seen them?
Certainly not!!! They no longer exist. They are extinct. They used to be found in Mauritius until the end of the 17th century.
Oh, isn’t it fascinating and well, sad too, that the animals that we see today could no longer exist in the years to come.
I know. I also figured out that dodo is also a slang for someone without common sense.
Haha, oh no, now that’s not a very flattering thing to say. What a nickname.

Lesson 13: Inviting and replying.
Drafting Invitation Letters and Telephone Conversations.
Characters: Exercise 2.

14 years old girl. Middle aged man.



May I please speak to Mr. Maharjan?

May I know who’s calling?

I am Man Shova speaking.

Can you please hold on for a while? I will check if he is available.

Thank you.

(Wait tune)

Hello, this is Kedar Maharjan.

Namaste sir. I am Man Shova. I wanted to inquire about the application for Grade 8 that I had submitted last week.

Oh, yes, we are still going through all the applications. Our office will inform you once it gets finalized.

Any idea how long would that take?

We will probably make the final list by the end of next week. You have given your phone number, right?

Yes, sir, I have.

Great, then, you should expect a call soon.

Thank you sir, I am looking forward to it.

Good bye, Man Shova.

Namaste sir. Have a good day.

Lesson 14: Stating Purpose: Reported Speech
Characters: One character is demonstrating, while the second character states the action.
Lesson 15: Expressing wishes through poetry. (recite poetry)
Characters: A wizened middle aged man with Mongoloid features who looks older than his age.
A long haired boy sitting dejectedly and later, flying across the sky.
Lesson 16: Following instructions

Making photo frames. No characters. Only sketches of the process of making a photo frame.

Lesson 17: Describing positions.

Kite Flying.

(Setting: Hilly region with undulating background. Two children on a smaller hill. There are other kite fliers around too. Kites: red, blue, dragon shaped, colorful)
A: Hi, what took you so long? The breeze is just right at the moment – perfect for kite flying.
B: There are already so many kites in the sky. See, the red one spiraling up – it almost looks like it’s dancing in the wind.
A: Let’s hurry up. Can you please go a little backwards and lift the kite?
B: Sure.
A: Lift it higher and let it go.
B: Hey, you are pretty good at this. Can you make it dance and soar like the red kite?
A: Of course, I can. If the wind gets better, I can even do loops.
B: That’s exciting. Can I fly it too?
A: Yes, sure, let me take it further up, and then I’ll give you the lattai.
B: I want to take it behind that tall tree and challenge the dragon shaped kite.
A: Yes, but, you have to be careful not to take it under the tree. It might get tangled.
B: Look that blue kite is flying right behind ours.
A: Yes, time to take our kite over it. Let me pull the string and fly it across that tower.
B: This is fun. Do you think you’ll be able to cut the blue kite?
A: Let’s see. I can see other kites flying in from the sideways too.
B: The blue kite is chasing ours.
A: Yes, that’s why I want ours to be on top of it.
B: Oh, look they are cutting each other.
A: Ok, let me start releasing the string. This should definitely cut the blue one.
A: Kite flying is the best part about Dashain for me. I love the fact that I can control the movement of the kite.

B: Although I am not as good a kite flier as you are, I still love watching all the kites flying up in the sky. I think it’s really beautiful and it makes me want to fly too.

A: Can you see the blue one falling down?
B: Yay!!! Changa Chait!!!!
Lesson 18: Measuring height, weight and distance. (voice over)

The Mahakali bridge

Slide 1:
Please first show Nepal’s map with the major rivers.
Slide 2:
(with the picture of the bridge, the statements come on screen – one after another, not the whole paragraphs together.)
The Dodhara Chandani Bridge commonly known as Mahakali Bridge is the second longest suspension bridge in Asia. It is about 1496.5m long over Mahakali, Sharda River in the far west of Nepal. It is located in Kanchanpur District of the Mahakali zone.
Dodhara is completely cut off by the river Mahakali from the actual territory of Nepal, the bridge is the only way Dodhara gets connected to the other areas of Nepal.

The bridge is located about 12 km south-west of Mahendranagar, Mahakali city.

Although the bridge is basically built for pedestrians, bicycles and light motorcycles are also allowed to pass through the bridge.
Slide 3:
(More details about the two VDCs)
The two VDCs of Dodhara and Chandani were connected to the mainland Nepal only after the bridge was completed in 2005. Before the bridge was constructed, villagers had to travel at least for a couple of hours through the bridge located in the bordering town of Banbasa in India. In fact, the Indian currency was more prevalent in these VDCs than the Nepali currency, which has now changed due to the newfound proximity to Nepal via the suspension bridge.
The VDCs collectively consists of approximately 65 thousand of population.

The island has the area of about 5003 hectares in which Dodhara shares the area of about 2511 hectares and Chandani expands in the area of 2492 hectares.

These VDCs share 22 of the pillars along the India and Nepal border separating these two nations.

Slide 4:

Construction of the bridge:
The Dodhara Chandani Bridge is a sequence of four suspension bridges with eight pylons, which are anchored to large anchor blocks on both banks as well as three common anchor blocks in the riverbed.

The lands between the 32,72 m high pylons have a wingspan of 225.40 m, the webs between the anchors and the pylons have a wingspan of almost 70 meters. The bridge segments are curved slightly upwards. The result is a series of arches of spans of 70 + 225.40 + 70 + 70 + 70 + 70 + 225.40 + 225.40 + 70 + 70 + 70 + 225.40 with a total length of 1452.96 m plus of approximately 20 m long anchor blocks on the banks.

The bridge consists of the steel pylons and essentially of wire ropes. The hangers are thin metal rods, which are connected to each other with eyes. The 1.60 m wide bridge deck is a sturdy metal grille. On both sides serve ropes as handrails, which are connected by wire mesh with the bridge deck. Diagonal cables between the railings and the underlying longitudinal cables are used for stiffening, as well as some stay cables of the pylons for the bridge deck. Side, anchored in the riverbed ropes dampen fluctuations.

Lesson 19: Expressing preference.

A visit to a Thakali restaurant

Characters: A Nepali woman with an American man who is trying Thakali food for the first time.
Slide 1
Pratima: Namaste Jack, how do you do?
Jack: Namaste Pratima, how do you do?
So, where are we going for lunch?
Pratima: Would you like to go to a fast food restaurant or try some Thakali food?
Jack: What is Thakali food?

Pratima: The Thakalis are originally from the Thak Khola region of the Mustang District of Nepal and their cuisine is one of the most delicious in Nepal.

Jack: I am not particularly fond of fast food, I’d rather try Thakali food, if it’s alright with you.
Slide 2:
Pratima: Let’s look at the menu.
Jack: This buckwheat roti sounds really good. Should I try that?
Pratima: Of course, it’s one of my favourites. It’s called ‘Phapar ko roti’. You could even try the millet or ‘Kodo ko dhido’.
Jack: No, thank you, I will stick with the buckwheat roti.
Pratima: Excuse me, we are ready to order.
Waiter: Yes, please.
Pratima: We would like to have one buckwheat roti set and one dhido set please.
Waiter: Would you like to have chicken or mutton with it?
Jack: Neither please, I am a vegetarian.
Pratima: I’d like to have fish please.
Waiter: How about tea, coffee?
Pratima: No, thank you, I don’t drink either of them. I’d prefer a glass of water, thanks.
Waiter: How about you, sir?
Jack: I would like to have tea, thank you.
Slide 3:
Jack: The food is delicious. Where do they get these millet and buckwheat?
Pratima: They grow them in their villages.
Jack: You all are so lucky that you get to eat organic food.
Pratima: Well, organic food is not easily available in the cities. But, in our villages, we still get to eat better and wholesome food.

Jack: I absolutely loved both the radish pickle and the potatoes. I am definitely coming back to this restaurant.

Pratima: I am so glad you liked it.
Waiter: Would you like to order some dessert?
Pratima: They have only two options. Kheer and haluwa.
Jack: Can you explain what it is?
Pratima: Kheer is rice pudding and this particular haluwa is made with grated carrots cooked in milk.
Jack: Let’s see, both of them sound really tempting, but I think I’ll go for the carrot pudding.
Pratima: Good choice.
Two haluwas please.
Waiter: Hope you enjoyed your meal.
Jack: Yes, we did, thank you.
Waiter: Have a good day madam and sir.
Pratima and Jack: Thank you, you too.

Lesson 20: Narrating past events.

A Flower in the midst of thorns.

Excerpts from autographical essays by Jhamak Ghimire.

1. Silhouette like illustration of Jhamak as a child with her grandmother.

2. Scribbling on the dust with a twig held on one of her toes.

3. A huge “ka” written on the floor.

4. Photo of Jhamak receiving the MPP award.

5. Photos of other milestones

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