The development of this course has been funded by the Curriculum Resource Center (“CRC”) at the Central European University (“CEU”), whose programs are partially funded by the Higher Education Support Program (“HESP”). The opinions expressed herein are the author’s own and do not necessarily express the views of CEU.
In the past decades, the role of religion in world affairs attracts the increasing attention of political scientists and international relations theorists. It seems that the state-centered approach to international relations is being gradually replaced by a broader vision, which takes into account the emerging non-state actors, such as intrastate ethnic groups, global social movements, terrorist and criminal organizations, and religious communities. Traditional international conflicts are giving way to armed confrontations of ethnic and/or religious groups within national borders. The fact that the loyalty of citizens now often belongs to entities smaller or larger than nation states, urges international relations theorists to focus on religion and culture and to use the term “world affairs” rather than the convenient concept of “international relations”. Some scholars call for the change of the whole paradigm of international relations theory.
The course “Religion in World Affairs” is designed for the second-year students of the Diplomatic Academy (MA level), being one of the options presented by the Department of Foreign Policy and International Relations. The course will be given every other semester; it is not mandatory but, nevertheless, represents an integral part of the curriculum. It is suggested that the students already have some basic knowledge of modern approaches to international relations and they wish to focus on a specific problem. Students should be highly motivated and interested in exploring the role of religion in world affairs because the course involves a significant amount of independent work and reading. Students are also expected to have a good knowledge of English that allows them to read academic texts. It is assumed that participating students may be going to write an MA or PhD dissertation in this field, however, this is not a requirement.
Objectives of the course
The academic aims of the course are:
to give students some knowledge of the contemporary theoretical approaches to the role of religion in world affairs and to interrelations between religion and politics;
to teach students how to put their theoretical knowledge to use while analyzing the role of the major world religions in world affairs;
to involve students in exploring the causes of the ongoing ethno-confessional conflicts in Eurasia and in finding ways for a peaceful resolution (including reconciliation with the help of religion);
to develop students’ ability to discuss the controversial issues of religion and politics in a tolerant and impartial manner;
to demonstrate interactive teaching methods, which could be used by students in their own future work.
The learning outcomes of the course are:
Students should be acquainted with the existing theoretical approaches to political religion, to the role of religion in world affairs, to religiously motivated violence and to be able to describe the differences and similarities;
Students should be able to analyze the causes of the ongoing ethno-confessional conflicts in Eurasia and to formulate ways of peaceful resolution, with the focus on using religion as a reconciliation tool
Students should be able to discuss the issues of religion and politics in a free, tolerant, non-partisan manner
Students should acquire basic research skills needed for undertaking a concise independent research
Students should improve their ability to work in groups
III Course Details Week 1. Religion and Politics. Introduction. (Lecture)
The aim of the lecture is to acquaint students with contemporary Russian and foreign theoretical approaches to religion and politics. This lecture lays the ground for the whole course introducing the concept of political, or politicized, religion (which is the key concept for understanding the role of religion in world affairs) and describing differences and similarities between political religion and other forms of interrelations between politics and religion. The other concepts to be introduced are “public religion” (by Jose Casanova), civil religion and “fundamentalism” or “traditionalism”. The lecture questions the popular opinion that political religion is a synonym for fundamentalism. Political religion is considered as a rather modern phenomenon emerging primarily in highly westernized and relatively modernized societies, not in the archaic ones.
Week 2. Modernization Failure and the Return of Religion (Lecture)
The lecture, being a logical continuation of the previous one, aims at discussing the “religious resurgence” of the 1970s along with its explanations provided by different schools of political thought. The lecture is focused on interrelations between the failure of modernization and the emergence of political religions in the developing countries of the Middle East and Latin America. Three development crises (economic, political and identity) are understood as the main causes for religious politicization. The lecture demonstrates why re-emergence of theocratic and ideocratic states (Iran, Sudan, Afghanistan under Taliban) on the international arena became possible. “Religious resurgence” is approached as a modern phenomenon, having little to do with the traditions of the past.
Week 3. Contemporary Approaches to the Role of Religion in World Affairs. (Lecture)
The lecture aims at giving a general overview of the existing theories concerning the role of religion in world affairs. Firstly, modernization and secularization theories and their shortcomings are discussed. On the basis of the previously discussed cases of religious resurgence, the lecture questions the idea that in the course of “progressive development” religion must necessarily differentiate from other spheres of social life. Secondly, the “clash of civilizations” theory is critically reviewed. The central topic of the lecture is the relationship between global political religions and state sovereignty; it is to demonstrate that state-centered approach towards world affairs is no longer relevant and that such actors as supranational religio-political organizations and movements, or substate groups increase their impact on world events.
Week 4. Ethno-confessional Conflicts and Religion. (Lecture and Discussion)
The lecture seeks to provide empirical evidence to the above-stated idea of the increasing impact of religion on world affairs. The role of religion in building ethnic identity is discussed and the concept of ethno-confessional conflict introduced. The central idea of the lecture is that the role of religion in violent conflicts should be neither overestimated, nor underestimated; the point is not that economic and political interests play no role in conflicts any more, but that nowadays these interests are manifested nearly everywhere in the form of religious confrontation. The lecture will also focus on using religion as a tool of reconciliation. During the lecture, students are encouraged to express their opinions about the role of religion in violent conflicts; after the lecture about 30 minutes are left for discussion.
Week 5. International Terrorism and Religion. (Lecture and Discussion)
The lecture aims at discussing the religious motivations of terrorism, especially in the cases of suicide bombings. The very concept of terrorism and its multiple definitions is explored. It is demonstrated that nowadays more and more terrorist organizations claim to be religiously driven and that, due to this fact, they become more destructive and less sensitive to the number and characteristics of their victims. Contemporary trends in terrorism are explained; the concept of “amateur terrorism” is introduced. The lecture is less focused on the well-known Islamic terrorism and more - on the terrorism of millenarian groups (Aum Synrikyo and others), or right wing para-religious terrorism (Oklahoma-City bombing). The lecture is followed by a discussion.
Week 6. No classes. Group and individual work. Consultations.
In the course of this week students are supposed to work on their group and individual essays to be presented orally to the class during seminars.
Week 7. Islam in World Affairs. (Seminar)
The seminar is based on oral presentations (2-3) in relation to various aspects of the influence of Islam on world affairs. Each presentation is discussed by the whole class. Presentations and discussions should help students to answer the following questions: Is there an integrated Islamic World or one can only talk about an Islamic factor in world affairs? How does the idea of Pan-Islamism correlate with the nationalism of Muslim nation-states? What is the global role of supranational Islamic organizations and movements? Can one talk about “Islamic terrorism” or “terrorism has no religion”? How realistic is the alternative world order concept offered by political Islam? What is the difference between Islam and Islamism?
Week 8. Orthodox Christianity in World Affairs. (Seminar)
The seminar is devoted to oral presentations and subsequent discussions. One of the presentations should be a historic overview of the “Orthodox factor” in world politics (Russia’s foreign policy in the 18th and 19th centuries and the “Eastern Question”). The following questions are supposed to be discussed: Is there any prospect for the “Orthodox world” to emerge in the near future? Which ideology can serve the basis of Orthodox political integration (Pan-Slavism, Eurasianism, or something else)? Is the political integration of the “Orthodox countries” a myth, or reality? In what extent Orthodoxy influences contemporary Russian foreign and domestic policy? May religion become a “National Idea” substitute? What will be the reaction of the other “Orthodox countries”?
Week 9. Other Religions in World Affairs. (Seminar)
The seminar is based on presentations and discussions. Students are encouraged to choose topics of presentations according to their professional (diplomatic) experience and language skills. Presentations can be dedicated to both global (proselytizing) and ethnicity-based religions. The following themes are to be discussed: To what extent is American foreign policy guided by Protestantism? How influential is liberation theology in contemporary Latin America? Does official Catholicism play any role in world affairs? How significant is political Judaism for the Israeli-Palestine conflict? Can one talk about political religions in China and North Korea? Why Buddhism engenders no political alliances? How important are the new cults and anti-cultism?
Week 10. Diplomacy and Religion. (Seminar)
This seminar aims at discussing an idea gaining increasing popularity in Russian diplomatic and clerical circles – the idea that in Russia diplomacy has always been tightly connected with and even guided by religion and that modern Russian diplomacy should restore this tradition. Students work in small groups. Group 1 should find arguments in support of the above-stated position; Group 2 - against it; Group 3 is the arbiter. It is suggested that to ground their argumentation students will attract international experience of interrelations between religion and diplomacy, as well as their own professional experience. For 30 minutes Groups 1 and 2 discuss their positions, Group 3 discusses both sets of arguments. Then each group has 10 minutes for presenting its findings; the arbiter group evaluates them; general discussion follows.
Week 11. Chechnya. A Case Study.
Case studies are held in a think-tank format. The instructor acts as a moderator, writing down the suggestions and preventing discussion from becoming intolerant. Students are expected to recall the history of the conflict and its evolution from secular nationalism to the idea of the Islamic state. They should formulate the causes of the conflict and to place religion among these causes; to explain why Russian policy in Chechnya failed many times and to find ways for peaceful resolution of the conflict (probably, with the help of religion). Their findings are formulated (with the help of the instructor) as policy recommendations for Russian government.
Week 12. Bosnia and Kosovo. A Case Study.
The format of discussion is the same. Students should try to understand the origins of the Yugoslavian breakdown: was it economic difficulties or long-lasting ethnic and religious hatred? They analyze the politicization of religion in the course of the Bosnian conflict, the dubious role of religious leaders in this confrontation, and try to find ways for successful peace-building there (in the form of recommendations for the UN and the EU). They are also expected to compare the cases of Bosnia and Kosovo in terms of the political use of religion. Did the positions of Russia, Greece and Cyprus demonstrate Orthodox solidarity?
Week 13. Post-Soviet Central Asia. A Case Study. The format is the same. Students are expected to find similarities and differences between the post-soviet Central Asian countries with regard to political religion. They should answer why political Islam became so influential in Tajikistan while being practically unknown in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Did it happen due to domestic or external factors? How significant was the Afghani influence on the region during and before the Taliban regime? What is the role of Turkey and Iran? If possible, recommendations about preventing future ethno-confessional conflicts in the region are formulated.
IV Assessment The evaluation is based on the credit passed or not passed system. 60% of the evaluation depends on attending all the classes and participating in class discussions and group work (active participation in group discussions, being a group speaker, etc.). Students unable to attend classes for appropriate reasons should make a separate course paper on a topic discussed with and to be graded by the instructor. 30% of the evaluation depends on writing a group or individual research essay. Students may choose one of the following opportunities: 1) to prepare an essay for oral presentation during seminars; 2) to write an essay for publication; 3) to do both (upon a consultation with the instructor); 4) to submit an essay for the instructor’s evaluation. For oral presentations essays of more general character are preferred not dealing with a separate country or region, but with the global role of a specific religion. An essay for publication may be narrower in its scope; it should not necessarily be equal to a good academic article although it must be a complete and well-grounded work. Essays submitted to the instructor should be 1) original, 2) consistent (should be dedicated to one specific problem), 3) based on contemporary sources, 4) demonstrating interest to the problem in question. 10% of the evaluation depends on meeting reading requirements. Students should demonstrate (during discussions or in their essays) that they are acquainted with the mandatory literature. Those students, who attended no classes for unknown reasons or/and prepared no essay, may not be graded.
V. Reading list Week 1. Religion and Politics. Introduction. (Lecture) Mandatory literature:
Lawrence B. Defenders of God: the Fundamentalist Revolt against the Modern Age. S.F.: Harper and Row, 1989. P. 23-104 (Part 1)
Legoida V.R. Grazhdanskaya Religia SshA: Nekotorie Simvoli i Rituali [Civil Religion in the US: Specific Symbols and Rituals] \ Politia, No.4, 1999
Maksimenko V.I. Fundamentalizm i Extremizm v Islame. Predislovie [Fundamentalism and Extremism in Islam. An Introduction] \ Islam i Islamism. M., 1999. P. 5-16
Questioning the Secular State. The worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics. Ed.by D.Westerlund. L.: Hurst, 1996. Introduction.
The Desecularization of the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics. Ed.by P.L.Berger. Washington, D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1999. Esp. P.1-18
Keddie N.P. Roots of Revolution. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1993
Piscatory J. Islam in a World of Nation States. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. press, 1986
Render into Caesar: The religious Sphere in World Politics. Ed.by S.Ramet. Lanham, MD: The American Univ. Press, 1995
Week 3. Contemporary Approaches to the Role of Religion in World Affairs. (Lecture) Mandatory literature:
Huntington, S. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. N.Y.: A Touchstone Book, 1997. Part 1.
Husain M.Z. Global Islamic Politics. N.Y.: Longman, 2003. Chapter 12
Lawrence B. Defenders of God: the Fundamentalist Revolt against the Modern Age. S.F.: Harper and Row, 1989. Part 2.
Mitrofanova A.V. K probleme Vozrastaniya Roli Religii v Sovremennykh Mezhdunarodnykh Otnosheniyakh [To the Problem of the Growing Role of Religion in Contemporary International Relations] \ Sayasat. Politika. Politics. No. 1. 2003. P.46-49
Transnational Religion and Fading States. Ed.by Rudolf S., Piskatori J. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1997. Introduction. P. 1-26
Jenkins Ph. The Next Christianity \ The Atlantic Monthly. October 2002. Vol. 290. No. 3. P. 53-68
Martin D. A General Theory of Secularization. N.Y.: Harper and Row, 1978
Religion and the Political Order. Vol.III. Secularization and Fundamentalism Reconsidered. Ed.by A.Shupe and J.K.Hadden. N.Y.: Paragon House, 1989
Tibi B. Kreuzzug und Djihad. Der Islam und die christliche Welt. Muenchen: Goldmann, 1999. Esp. Kapitel VIII
Toynbee A. Tsivilizatsii Pered Sudom Istorii [Civilization on Trial] M., 2002. P. 265-434
Weber M. Sotsiologia Religii [Sociology of Religion] \ Weber M. Isbrannoe. Obraz Obshestva. Moscow, 1994
Week 4. Ethnoconfessional Conflicts and Religion. (Lecture and Discussion) Mandatory Literature:
Etnos i Politika. Khrestomatiya [Ethnos and Politics. A Readier]. M., 2001
Juergensmeyer M. The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. Berkeley, etc.: Univ. of California Press, 1993. Introduction.
Kurth J. Religion and Ethnic Conflict - In Theory \ Orbis. Spring 2001. Vol.45. Is.2. P. 281-295
Ranstorp, Magnus. Terrorism in the name of religion \ Journal of International Affairs, Summer 1996. Vol. 50. No. 1. P.41-62
Alianak, Sonia L. The Mentality of Messianic Assassins \ Orbis. Spring 2000. Vol. 44. No. 2.
Hoffman B. American Right-wing Terrorism \ Jane’s Intelligence Review. July 1995. No. 7
Millennialism and Violence. Ed.by M.Barkun. London: Frank Cass, 1996
Rapopport D. Why Does Religious Messianism Produce Terror? \ Contemporary Research on Terrorism. Ed.by Wilkinson P., Stewart A.M. Aberdeen: Aberdeen Univ.Press, 1987. P. 72-88
Week 6. No classes. Week 7. Islam in World Affairs. (Seminar) Mandatory Literature:
Abrahamian E. Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic. Berkeley: Univ.of California Press, 1993. Part on «Fundamentalism or Populism?»
Borisov Ya. Sovermennie Islamistskie Techeniya: Tseli, Strategia, Taktika [Contemporary Islamist Movements: Goals, Strategies, Tactics] / Azia i Afrika Segodnya. 1997. No. 10
Malysheva D. Islamsko-Fundamentalistskii Proekt v Realiyakh Sovremennogo Mira [Islamic Fundamentalist Project and the Modern World] \ Mirovaya Ekonomika i Mezhdunarodnie Otnoshenia. 1999, No.7
Musulmanskie Strani U Graniz SNG [Muslim countries at the CIS borders] M., 2001. P. 96-115
Pipes D. Islam and Islamism: Faith and Ideology \ The National Interest. Spring 2000.P. 87-93
Tibi B. The Challenge of Fundamentalism. Political Islam and the New World Disorder. Berkeley, etc.: University of California Press, 1998
Does Islam Have an Alternative to Globalizaton? \ New Perspectives Quarterly. Spring 1998. Vol. 15, Issue 2
Fuller G.E. The Future of Political Islam \ Foreign Affairs. March\April 2002. P. 48-60
Husain M.Z. Global Islamic Politics. N.Y.: Longman, 2003.
Rotar I. Pod Zelenim Znamenem Islama. Islamskie Radkali v Rossii i SNG. [Under the Green Banner of Islam] Moscow: AIRO XX, 2001
Tibi B. Kreuzzug und Djihad. Der Islam und die christliche Welt. Muenchen: Goldmann, 1999
Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights, adopted 19 September 1981 http://www.alhewar.com/ISLAMDECL.html Week 8. Orthodox Christianity in World Affairs. (Seminar) Mandatory Literature:
Evraziiskaya Ideya i Sovremennost [Eurasian Idea and Modernity]. M.: RUDN, 2002. P.174-244
Gvozdev N.K. The New Party Card? Orthodoxy and the Search for Post-Soviet Russian Identity \ Problems of Post-Communism, Vol. 40. No. 6. November-December 2000
Mitrofanova A.V. Sushchesvuet li Pravoslavnii Mir? [Does the Orthodox World Exist?] \ Chelovek, Kultura, Obshchestvo. Moscow, 2002
Panarin A.S. Pravoslavnaya Tsivilizatsiya. [ The Orthodox Civilization]. M., 2001. Chapter 9.
Radu M. The Burden of Eastern Orthodoxy \ Orbis. Spring 1998
Clark V. Why Angels Fall. L.: McMillan, 2000
Dougin A. Osnovi Geopolitiki. [The Foundations of Geopolitics] Moscow: Arctogaia, 1997. The part on «Geopolitics of Orthodoxy»
Eastern Christianity and Politics in the 20th century. Ed.by P.Ramet. Durham & London: Duke Univ.Press, 1988. Esp.P.3-19
Joann, Metropolitan. Samderzhavie Dukha. Ocherki Russkogo Samosoznania. [Monarchy of the Spirit] S.-Petersburg, 1995
Mitrofanova A.V. "The Turkish Threat" as a Domestic Policy Factor in Contemporary Russia and its Foreign Policy Implications / Geopolitics of Central Asia in the Post - Cold War era: A Systemic Analysis. Ed. by Ertan Efegil. Haarlem: Research Centre for Turkestan and Azerbaijan, 2002
Narochnitskaya N. Borba za Postvizantiiskoe Prostranstvo [The Fight for Post-Byzantine Area] / Nash Sovremennik, 1997. No.4
Shargunov A. Pravoslavnaya Monarkhiya i Novii Mirovoi Poriadok [Orthodox Monarchy and the New World Order]. M., 2000
Troitskii E. Pravoslavie i Slavianskoe edinenie [Orthodoxy and Slavic Unity] \ Mir Bozhii. 1999 No.2
Vorobievskii Yu. Prikrovennaya Imperiya [The Hidden Empire]. M., 2001
Week 9. Other Religions in World Affairs. (Seminar) Mandatory Literature:
Haynes J. Religion in Global Politics. L., N.Y.: Longman, 1998. Chapters on various religions.
Lynch E.A. Reform and Religion in Latin America \ Orbis. Spring 1998, Vol.42, No.2
Questioning the Secular State. The Worldwide Resurgence of Religion in Politics. Ed.by D.Westerlund. L.: Hurst, 1996. Introduction. Chapters on various religions.
Sicherman H. Judaism and the World: the Holy and the Profane \ Orbis. Spring 1998, Vol.42, No.2
Transnational Religion and Fading States. Ed.by Rudolf S., Piskatori J. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1997. Chapters on various religions.
Kurth J. The Protestant Deformation and American Foreign Policy / Orbis. Spring 1998, Vol. 42, No. 2
Rissman M. Hitler’s Gott. Zuerich: Pendo, 2001, esp. S.173-206
Smart N. The World Religions. Camb.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998
Volkov A.B. Religioznii Fundamentalism v Izraile i Palestinskaya Problema. [Religious Fundamentalism in Israel and Palestinian Problem] Moscow, 1999
Yugo-Vostochnaya Asia: Ideologiya i Religiya. [South-East Asia: Ideology and Religion] M., 2001
Week 10. Diplomacy and Religion. (Seminar) Mandatory Literature:
Karo I., Fedyakova A. Religioznii Faktor v Mezhdunarodnykh Otnosheniyakh [Religious Factor in International Relations] \ Latinskaya Amerika. 2001. No. 7. P. 39-47
Karppi D. Pope, Patriarch, and Politics: The Politics of Papal Visits to Orthodox Countries http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/5357/karppi.html.
Religiya i Diplomatiya. M.: Diplomatic Academy, 2002. Esp. The articles by Igor Ivanov, Patriarch Alexii II, Mitropolitan Kirill.
Rubin B. Religion and International Affairs \ Religion: The Missing Dimension of Statecraft. Ed.by D.Johnston, C.Sampson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. P. 20-36
Zonova T.V. Diplomatiya Vatikana v Kontekste Evolutsii Evropeiskoi Politicheskoi Sistemy [Vatican Diplomacy and the Evolution of the European Political System]. M., 2000
Week 11. Chechnya. A Case Study. Mandatory Literature:
Akaev V. Religiozno-politicheskii Konflikt v Checheskoi Respublike Ichkeria [Religious and political conflict in the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria] \ Tsentralnaya Asia i Kavkaz. 1999. No.4. P. 101-108 (see the reader)
Malashenko A. Islamskie Orientiri Severnogo Kavkaza. [Islamic Orientations of the Northern Caucasus] Moscow: Carnegie Endowment, 2001. P. 145-151, 165-169 (see the reader)
Nukhaev Kh.-A. Vedeno ili Vashington? M., 2001. P. 8-20 (see the reader)
Savvateev A.D. Islam i Politika v Chechenskoi Respublike [Islam and Politics in the Chechen Republic] \ Obshestvennie Nauki i Sovremennost. № 2. 2000. P. 84-95 (see the reader)
Tishkov V. Obshestvo v Vooruzhennom Konflikte. Etnografia Chechenskoi Voini. [Nation in an Armed Conflict. The Chechen War Ethnography] Moscow, 2002. P. 330-349 (see the reader)
Akaev V. Chechnya: Vozmozhen li Afganskii Variant? [Chechnya: Is the Afghani Variant Possible?] \ Tsentralnaya Asia i Kavkaz. 1999, No.1(available in the library)
Akaev V. Sufiiskie Bratstva i Vahhabiti [Sufi Orders and Wahhabits] \ Azia i Afrika Segodnya. 1998. No.6 (available in the library)
Chechnya i Rossia: Obshchestva i Gosudarstva. [Chechnya and Russia: Societies and States] Moscow, 1999 (available in the library)
Myalo K.G. Rossiya i Poslednie Voini XX veka. [Russia and the last Wars of the XXth Century]. M., 2002. Chapter V. (available in the library)
Week 12. Bosnia and Kosovo. A Case Study. Mandatory Literature:
Guskova E.Yu. Istoria Yugoslavskogo Krizisa. 1990-2000. [The History of Yugoslavian Crisis] Moscow, 2001. Fragments (see the reader)
Mojzes P. The Camouflaged Role of Religion in the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina \ Religion and the War in Bosnia. Ed.by Paul Mojzes. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1998. P. 74-98 (see the reader)
Romanenko S. Raspad Yugoslavii: mezhetnicheskii konflikt ili Religioznaya Vrazhda? 1991-1995 [The Dissolution of Yugoslavia: an Ethnic Conflict or Religious War?] \ Evropeiskii Almanakh - 1999. М., 2000. P. 67-82 (see the reader)
Smith C. In Cyprus Eeven Pizza is Pro-Serb. New Statesman. London. 31 May 1999 (see the reader)
Ramet S. Nihil Obstat: Religion, Politics, and Social Change in East-Central Europe and Russia. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 1999. P. 145-226 (available in the library)
Sviataya Serbia i Antikhristova Rat’. Zaveshchanie Tsarya Lazarya [Saint Serbia and the Army of Antichrist. The Last Will of Tsar Lazar] Mir Bozhii. № 2. 1999. P. 2-3, 6-7 (see the reader)
Yuzzell L. Serbia: Terror Protiv Pravoslaviya [Serbia: Terror Against Orthodoxy] \ Obshchina. May 2002. No. 5. Internet-version. (see the reader)
Recommended Literature: Anzulovic B. Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide. N.Y., L.: New York Univ. Press, 1999 (available in the library)
Duijzings G. Religion and the Politics of Identity in Kosovo. N.Y.: Columbia Univ.Press, 2000
Mojzes P. The Religiosity of Radovan Karadizic \ Religion in Eastern Europe. August 1995. 15. No.4 (available in the library and on the Internet)
Mojez P. Yugoslavian Inferno. Ethnoreligious Warfare in the Balkans. N.Y.: Continuum, 1994 (available in the library)
Myalo K.G. Rossiya i Poslednie Voini XX veka. [Russia and the last Wars of the XXth Century]. M., 2002. Chapter IV. (available in the library)
Sells M.A. The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia. Berkeley: Univ.of California Press, 1996
Zadokhin A.G., Nizovskii A.Yu. Balkani: Porokhovoi Pogreb Evropi. Balkanskie Voini XX Veka. [Balkans: the Gunpowder Cellar of Europe] Moscow, 1998 (available in the library)
Week 13. Post-Soviet Central Asia. A Case Study. Mandatory Literature:
Babajanov B. Ferganskaya Dolina: Istochnik ili Zhertva Islamskogo Fundamentalizma? [Fergana Valley: a Source or a Victim of Islamic Extremism?] \ Tsentralnaya Asia i Kavkaz. 1999. No.4. P. 125-132 (see the reader)
Matveeva A. Ugroza Islamizma v Postsovetskoi Evrazii [The Threat of Islamism in Post-Soviet Eurasia] \ Tsentralnaya Asia i Kavkaz. 1999. No.4 P. 96-101(see the reader)
Malachenko A. Islam i Politika v gosudarstvakh Tsentralnoi Azii [Islam and Politics in the Central Asian States] \ Tsentralnaya Asia i Kavkaz. 1999. No.4. P. 59-65 (see the reader)
Olimova S. Politichskii Islam i Konflikt v Tajikistane [Political Islam and the Conflict in Tajikistan] \ Tsentralnaya Asia i Kavkaz. 1999. No.4. С. 133-141 (see the reader)
Rotar I. Pod Zelenim Znamenem Islama. Islamskie Radkali v Rossii i SNG. [Under the Green Banner of Islam] Moscow: AIRO XX, 2001 (available in the library)
Sikoev R.R. Ot Emirata do Khalifata [From Emirate to Khaliphate] \ Musulmanskie Strany u Granitz SNG. M., 2001. P. 141-147 (see the reader)
Sultangalieva A. Evolutsia Islama v Kazakhstane [Evolution of Islam in Kazakhstan] \ Tsentralnaya Asia i Kavkaz. 1999. No.4. С. 23-36 (see the reader)
Barylsky R. The Russian Federation and the Eurasia’s Islamic Crescent \ Europe-Asia Studies. 1994. Vol. 46. No. 3
Husain M.Z. Global Islamic Politics. N.Y.: Longman, 2003. Chapter 10
Musulmanskie Strani U Graniz SNG [Muslim countries at the CIS borders] M., 2001. Esp. P. 5-22, 298-306
Rotar I. Pod Zelenim Znamenem Islama. Islamskie Radkali v Rossii i SNG. [Under the Green Banner of Islam] Moscow: AIRO XX, 2001
VI. Teaching Methodology The course begins with 5 lectures, 90 minutes each, aimed at giving theoretical knowledge. This method is justified by the fact that students have no general knowledge about political religion and its role in world affairs to start with. Lectures are interactive; students’ interventions are encouraged. The last two lectures are followed by discussions. The lectures will be, when needed, accompanied by handouts provided by the instructor (figures, statistic data, tables and schemes). To expand their theoretical knowledge, students will also be able to explore books and articles available in the library.
Apart from lectures, students are expected to do a significant amount of independent research, for what they are given one lecture-free week. Students either work independently, or are divided into small groups (3-5 people) according to their personal wishes to work together on a short research essay reflecting one of the seminar topics or dedicated to a more specific problem (most probably, a country-related one; where students are encouraged to use their diplomatic and linguistic experience). The instructor will be available during the lecture-free week for consultations during the scheduled class hours. After research essays (short, about 10-15 pages) are complete, students may orally present them at a seminar, each presentation to be followed by a discussion; or submitting it for publication; or simply submitting it to the instructor. This method allows students to develop their analytical skills and the ability to put theoretical knowledge into practice. The seminar on “Religion and Diplomacy” is based on work in small groups to promote conversations between participating students. Since groups 1, 2 and 3 have different tasks, this seminar implies some elements of a role game.
Afterwards, the course continues as a series of case studies, where students some particular issues related to the major ethno-confessional conflicts in Eurasia (Chechnya, Yugoslavia, post-Soviet Central Asia) discuss in detail. The literature necessary for discussions will be included into the reader to be given to each student (for the course period only). Case studies discussions are to be held in a think-tank-like format and result, when possible, in policy recommendations. This method is justified by the fact that the students of the Diplomatic Academy are professionals intending to serve or already serving as diplomats and governmental officials (this does not, however, imply that these recommendations will be carried out in practice). This part of the course aims at involving students in finding both the causes and ways of peaceful resolution of ethno-confessional conflicts and developing their ability to discuss controversial issues in a tolerant and non-partisan manner.