Originally from Germany, Albert Einstein was visiting the US in 1933 when Adolf Hitler came in to power. Being Jewish and due to new laws that prohibited Jews from holding teaching positions, he chose to remain in the US rather than return to Germany. He became an American citizen in 1940. He published over 300 scientific papers and 150 non-scientific essays. He was a famous pacifist and the use of against nuclear weapons. He was known worldwide as a genius.
A Scottish immigrant, Carnegie came to the US with his family when he was 13 years old. He is called a “self-made” man because even though he started working very young and had little schooling, he was a voracious reader and was given the freedom to borrow books from a private library. He was rarely without a book after that. He credits that experience to his dedication to use his wealth later in life to help create numerous libraries and schools. He gained his wealth through investments in the railroad industry and steel production. He sold his Carnegie Steel Company in 1901 for $480 million and then devoted the remainder of his life to widespread philanthropy. He wrote an article called “The Gospel of Wealth” that encouraged other rich people to use their wealth to help society.