Inner growth in post-wwii american fiction: a multicultural view

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AN 33000-BA-01

North American Department, IEAS, University of Debrecen, Fall 2011

American Literature 4:


Fall 2011 Dr. Zoltán Abádi-Nagy, main bldg 120/2

M 14:00-15:40 Phone: (52) 512-900/22507 (no voice mail)

Main bldg 119 E-Mail:

Office hours: M 13:00-14:00,

and by appointment.

Make-up classes, when needed:

The focus will be on one genre (the novel), and our work will be tailored to the (straightforward or ironic) theme of inner growth, examined in its multicultural manifestations, and, in turn, as it reflects on multicultural experience in America. If we are going for the panoramic view, it is in this latter (multicultural) aspect. General historical and intellectual features, as well as technical and theoretical aspects will also be studied beside the thematic concern. Novels authored in the post-WWII period by eminent representatives of the five American pan-ethnicities will be discussed, one from each ethnic group, in this order: Jewish American E. L. Doctorow, Native American N. Scott Momaday, Hispanic American (Chicano) Rudolfo A. Anaya, Asian (Chinese) American Maxine Hong Kingston, and African American Toni Morrison.

Class Format: seminar, 2 hrs, graded (discussion; historical and theoretical background information provided by your teacher in class; combined with quizzes, presentation, and a writing workshop).

General Requirements

The reading assignments are kept as reasonable as possible. Students will be expected to attend class faithfully, to keep up with the readings, and to come to class prepared with questions and comments for discus­sion. The classes will be conducted in an atmosphere in which the instructor and the students take the time to discuss readings and share their insights. We can set aside part of any class meeting for informal discussion of our work if needed.

Course Requirements
Reader’s journal, informed attendance and participation, written response to our readings (quizzes), one presentation, one in-class essay and one out-of-class analytic paper (peer review, the possibility of revision), as well as final test.
The oral presentation is based on a critical or theoretical essay or book chapter related to one of the novels on the agenda. It should introduce the presenter’s position and should use the interrogative method, generating a good debate. Sign-up deadline: September 24. (Maximum two presentations per class session. It is possible for two students to team up for a presentation.)
Writing Assignments


JOURNAL—Each student will keep a reader's journal in a separate notebook, making an entry of at least one page per class, raising at least one pertinent issue for classroom discussion. You are free to choose your own topics. (More about this in class.) The journal entries may be hand-written or typed, as you prefer. Journals will be collected at least twice during the term, beginning the fourth week of class.

QUIZZES—The quizzes will be in-class responses to the texts covered up to a given point, inclusive of identification questions, multiple-choice comprehension questions, as well as other content questions designed to check if you have actually read the assigned text(s).

ANALYTIC ESSAY—It is an eight-page out-of-class analytic paper that studies texts on our syllabus; the notion of an analytic essay will be discussed, and topics will be assigned in class. It is going to be a research paper with at least two printed sources. Each paper will be discussed in a peer workshop before it is submitted. The writing workshop is fundamental to the course. Students who do not participate in it because they are absent without good cause or because their paper is not drafted will lose 5 points on the grade of the paper once it is handed in. The essay will be graded for substance, structure, scholarship, and style. For due dates see "Schedule" below.

FINAL TEST—It will be cumulative, a combination of various kinds of identification questions. It will be described more fully near the end of the term.


  1. Documentation, format—When you consult or quote a source, document it according to the usual academic principles. In all matters of form, use the MLA format. If you have questions about how to do so, ask me, or ask a librarian for the 4th or 5th edition of the MLA Handbook.

  2. Editing—Take pride in your work, edit it carefully, root out mechanical errors. Expect your in-class and out-of-class paper to lose one point per every five mechanical errors.

  3. Font, margins—Out-of-class papers must be typed, double-spaced, in an ordinary font. Those with abnormally wide margins or typeface, will be returned unmarked, and must be resubmitted as directed.

  4. Late paper policy—The essay may be handed in one week late without penalty, provided it has been presented on time in the peer-review workshop. Papers more than one class late cannot be accepted for credit.

  5. Academic misconduct—Plagiarism will not be tolerated. It is my practice to levy the

maximum penalty against plagiarism. You can be assigned a grade of F for it. The Institute

of English and American Studies expects its students to adhere to the university’s policies

regarding student academic conduct. This statement must be typed

on the title page of your essay and signed in hand: “This paper has been prepared in

full awareness of the international norms of academic conduct.”

Participation in discussion (inclusive of occasional quizzes—unannounced, and evaluated on an S/F basis, F meaning a loss of one point in each case) will count 15%,

journal: 15%,

in-class essay: 10%,

presentation: 10%,

take-home essay 25%,

final test 25%.

A/5=91-100; B/4=81-90; C/3=71-80; D/2=61-70; F/1 is 60% or below.


  1. Course requirements The in-class essay, the out-of-class paper and the final test are course requirements; i.e., a student must complete all of these assignments in order to pass the course.

  1. IncompletesIncompletes will be granted only if you must miss classes or the final test because of verified illness or for scheduled activities of official university organizations if I am notified in advance of your absence.

  1. Absence policy— Regular attendance and participation are required. Faithful and alert attendance is extremely important to what you learn in the course, as well as to the success of the course as a whole. If circumstances exist that cause you to be absent more than once in the semester, make an appointment to speak to me about your progress in the course. I reserve the right to lower your final grade by 5 points for each unofficial absence when, in my judgment, absences have been unwarranted. However, four unexcused absences will automatically fail the course. It is possible to fail the course by absences alone.

  2. Tardy policy—Tardiness and early departures are not allowable. They are offensive to your fellow students and to the instructor because they disrupt class work. If you have a compelling reason for arriving late or leaving early, speak with me about the problem. If you regularly cut the beginning and/or the end of class sessions, it can add up to unexcused full-class-time absences.

  3. Extra credit—No extra credit policy.

  4. Borderline grades—If your grade is borderline, it depends on attendance and the general pattern of your work (performance improvements) if you can get a break.

  5. Discussing grades—If you have questions about how I evaluated your work, please stop by to see me. It is my policy to discuss grades in person only, and not over the telephone.


                1. Month

                1. Day

Assignment (author)

Assignment (text)



Orientation: course introduction and requirements


              1. E. L.

              2. DOCTOROW

World’s Fair,



World’s Fair,


(presentation sign-up deadline)



                1. N. SCOTT


House Made of Dawn,

“Prologue,” Parts 1 and 2 (“The Longhair,” “The Priest of the Sun”)



              1. Assignment (author)

Assignment (text)



  1. SCOTT


House Made of Dawn,

Part 3 and 4 (“The Night Chanter,” “The Dawn Runner”)




Bless Me, Ultima,



Bless Me, Ultima,






In-class essay

The Woman Warrior

“No Name Woman,” “White Tigers,” “Shaman”


The Woman Warrior

“At the Western Palace,” “A Song for a Barbarian Reed Pipe”


                1. TONI
            1. MORRISON
  1. Beloved

Part One


  1. Beloved

Part Two



  

                  1. Writing Workshop

(draft copies due—preceding class)

  



Assignment (author)

Assignment (text)





  1. Beloved

Part Three

Out-of-class essays due

Summing up
Inner growth:

a multicultural view


The novels in various editions.

Baker, Houston A., Jr. Afro-American Poetics: Revisions of Harlem and the Black Aesthetic.

Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1988.

Barkan, Elliott Robert, ed. A Nation of Peoples: A Sourcebook on America’s Multicultural

Heritage. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999.

Bhabha, Homi. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.

Buenker, John D., and Lorman A. Ratner, eds. Multiculturalism in the United States: A

Comparative Guide to Acculturation and Ethnicity. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.

Bloom, Allan. The Closing of the American Mind.. New York: Simon, 1987.

Del Sarto, Ana, Alicia Ríos, Abril Trigo, eds. The Latin American Cultural Studies Reader.

Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2004.

Eyerman, Ron. Cultural Trauma: Slavery and the formation of African American identity (sic).

Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001.

Galens, Judy, Anna Sheets, and Robyn V. Young, eds. Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural

America. Vols. 1 and 2. Detroit, MI: Gale, 1995.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism.

New York: Oxford UP, 1988.

Hogue, W. Lawrence. Race, Modernity, Postmodernity. Albany: State U of New York P, 1996.

Juan, E. San, Jr. Racism and Cultural Studies: Critiques of Multiculturalist Ideology and the

Politics of Difference. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2002.

Kanellos, Nicolas, ed. Hispanic American Literature. New York: Harper, 1995.

Knippling, Alpana Sharma, ed. New Immigrant Literatures in the United States: A Sourcebook

to Our Multicultural Heritage. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

Lee. A. Robert. Designs of Blackness: Mappings in the Literature and Culture of Afro-America.

London: Pluto, 1998.

---. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/s and

Asian American Fictions. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2003.

Levine, Lawrence W. The Opening of the American Mind: Canons, Culture and History.

Boston, MA: Beacon, 1996.

Miller, John J. The Unmaking of Americans: How Multiculturalism has Undermined the

Assimilationist Ethic. New York: Free, 1998.

Muller, Gilbert H. New Strangers in Paradise:The Immigrant Experience and Contemporary

American Fiction. Lexington KY: UP of Kentucky, 1999.

Olney, James, ed. Afro-American Writing Today. Anniversary issue of Southern Review.

Baton Rouge. LA: U of Louisiana P, 1989.

Palumbo-Liu, David, ed. The Ethnic Canon: Histories, Institutions, and Interventions.

Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1995.

Reed, Ishmael, ed. MultiAmerica: Essays on Cultural Wars and Cultural Peace. New York:

Viking, 1997.

Ruiz, Vicki L., and Ellen Carol DuBois, eds. Unequal Sisters: A Multi-Cultural Reader in U.S.

Women’s History. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Russell, Cheryl. Racial and Ethnic Diversity: Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans and

Whites. Ithaca, NY: New Strategist, 1998.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Random/Vintage, 1978.

Saldívar, Ramón. Chicano Narrative: The Dialectics of Difference. Madison, WI: U of

Wisconsin P, 1990.

San Juan, E., Jr. Racism and Cultural Studies: Critiques of Multiculturalist Ideology and the

Politics of Difference. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2002.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society.

New York: Norton, 1992.

Schmidt Alvin J. The Menace of Multiculturalism: Trojan Horse in America. Westport, CT:

Praeger, 1997.

Singh, Armritjit, Joseph T. Skerrett, Jr., and Robert E. Hogan, eds. Memory, Narrative, and

Identity: New Essays in Ethnic American Literatures. Boston: North Eastern UP, 1994.

---, and Peter Schmidt, eds. Postcolonial Theory and the United States: Race, Ethnicity, and

Literature. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2000.

Sollors, Werner, ed. The Invention of Ethnicity. New York, Oxford UP, 1989.

---, ed. Theories of Ethnicity: A Classical Reader. New York: New York UP, 1996.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics. New York:

Thernston, Stephen, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge, MA:

Harvard UP, 1980.

Vizenor, Gerald. Fugitive Poses: Native American Indian Scenes of Absence and Presence.


Williams, Patrick, and Laura Chrisman, ed. Colonial Discourse and Postcolonial Theory: A

Reader. New York: Columbia, 1994.

Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia. Reading Asian-American Literature: From Necessity to Extravagance.

Princteon, NJ: Princeton UP, 1993.

(items indicated “CP” are available in the Course Packet)
Anaya, Rudolfo A. “The Light Green Perspective: An Essay Concerning Multi-Cultural

American Literature.” MELUS 11.1 (1984): 27-32.

---. “An American Chicano in King Arthur’s Court.” The Frontier Experience and the American

Dream: Essays on American Literature. Ed. David Mogen., Mark Busby, and Pavel

Bryant. College Station: TX: Texas A & M UP, 1989.

---. “Aztlán: A Homeland Without Boundaries.” Aztlán: Essays on the Chicano Homeland.

Albuquerque: Academia, 1989. 230-41. CP

Bauder, Thomas A. “The Triumph of White Magic in Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima.

Mester (Los Angeles, CA) 14.1 (1985): 41-54. CP

Bruce-Novoa, Juan. “Learning to Read (and/in) Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima.Teaching

American Ethnic Literatures: Nineteen Essays. Ed. John R. Maitino and David R. Peck.

Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1996.

Clements, William M. “The Way to Individuation in Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima.The Midwest

Quarterly 23.2 (1982): 131-43. CP

Holton., Frederick S. “Chicano as Bricoleur: Christianity and Mythmaking in Rudolfo Anaya’s

Bless Me, Ultima.Confluencia: Revista Hispánia de Cultura Y Literatura (11.1 (1995):


Kanoza, Theresa M. “The Golden Carp and Moby Dick: Rudolfo Anaya’s Multiculturalism.”

MELUS 24.4 (1999): 159-71. CP

Klein, Dianne. “Coming of Age min Novels by Rudolfo Anaya and Sandra Cisneros.”English

Journal 81.4 (1992): 21-26. CP

Lattin, Vernon A. “The Quest for Mythic Vision in Contemporary Native American and

Chicano Fiction.” American Literature 50.4 (1979): 625-40.

Leal, Luis. “In Search of Aztlán.” Trans. Gladys Leal. Aztlán: Essays on a Chicano Homeland.

Albuquerque: Academia, 1989. 6-13. CP

Mitchell, Carol. “Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima: Folk Culture in Literature.” Critique:

Studies in Modern Fiction 223.1 (1980): 55-64.

Salgado, Maria A. “Trends of Spanish American Fiction since 1950.” South Atlantic Bulletin

43.1 (1978): 19-29.

Taylor, Paul Beekman. “Native Americans Translating Culture: Momaday and Anaya.” Writing

Culture. Ed. Balz Engler. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1992. 133-50.

Testa, Daniel. “Extensive/Intensive Dimensionality in Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima.Latin

American Literary Review 10 (1977): 70-78. CP

Vallejos, Thomas. “Ritual Process and the Family in the Chicano Novel.” MELUS 10.4 (1983):


Abádi-Nagy, Zoltán. “E. L. Doctorow.” (Interview) Világregény—regényvilág: Amerikai

Íróinterjúk. Debrecen: Kossuth Egyetemi, 1997. 161-78.

Claridge, Henry. “Writing on the Margin.” The New American Writing: Essays on American

Literature Since 1970. Ed. Graham Clarke. London: Vision, 1990. 9-28. CP

Clayton, John. “Radical Jewish Humanism: The Vision of E. L. Doctorow.” E. L. Doctorow:

Essays and Conversations. Ed. Richard Trenner. Princeton, NJ: Ontario Review, 1983.

109-19. CP

Fowler, Douglas. “World’s Fair.Understanding E. L. Doctorow. Columbia SC: U of

South Carolina P, 1992.127-43. CP

Harter, Carol C., and James R. Thompson. “’A Mind Looking for Its Own Geography’:

Drinks Before Dinner, Lives of the Poets, and World’s Fair.E. L. Doctorow.

Boston: Twayne, 106-19. CP

Morris, Christopher D. “Models of Misrepresentation in World’s Fair.” Models of

Misrepresentation: On the Fiction of E. L. Doctorow. Jackson: UP of Mississippi,

1991. 157-75. CP

---. “’Fiction is a System of Knowledge’: An Interview with E. L. Doctorow.” Michigan

Quarterly Review 30.3 (1991): 439-56. CP

Parks John E. “World’s Fair.E. L. Doctorow. New York: Ungar, 1991. 95-105. CP

Robertson, Michael. “Cultural Hegemony Goes to the Fair: The Case of E. L. Doctorow’s

World’s Fair.American Studies 33.1 (1992): 31-44. CP

Chua, Cheng Lok. “Mythopoesis East and West in The Woman Warrior.” Lim, Approaches

146-50. CP

Feng, Pin-chia. “Stories to Grow up on: Talking Story in The Woman Warrior.The Female

Bildungsroman by Toni Morrison and Maxine Hong Kingston. New York: Lang, 1998.


Ferraro, Thomas J. “Changing the Rituals: Courageous Daughtering and the Mystique of The

Woman Warrior.Ethnic Passages: Literary Immigrants in Twentieth-Century America.

Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1993. 154-90. CP

Goldman, Marlene. “Naming the Unspeakable: The Mapping of Female Identity in Maxine

Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.International Women’s Writing: New

Landscapes of Identity. Ed. Anne E. Brown and Marianne E. Goozé. Westport, CT:

Greenwood, 1995. 223-32. CP

Harrell, Steven. “The Concept of Soul in Chinese Tradition.” Journal of Asian Studies 1979.


Hattori, Tomo. “Psycholinguistic Orientalism in Criticism of The Woman Warrior and Obasan.

Other Sisterhoods: Literary Theory and U.S. Women of Color. Ed. Sandra Kumamoto

Stanley. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1998. 119-38. CP

Hogue, W. Lawrence. “Problematizing the Historical Past: Maxine Hong Kingston’s The

Woman Warrior and David Bradley’s The Chaneysville Incident.Race, Modernity,

Postmodernity. 111-50.

Huntley, E. D. Maxine Hong Kingston: A Critical Companion. Westport: Greenwood, 2000.

Juhasz, Suzanne. “Narrative Technique and Female Identity.” Contemporary American Women

Writers: Narrative Strategies. Ed. Catherine Rainwater and William J. Scheick.

Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1985.

Lee, Robert G. “The Woman Warrior as an Intervention in Asian American Historiography.”

Lim, Approaches 52-63. CP

Lim, Shirley Geok-Lin. Approaches to Teaching Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” New York:

MLA, 1991.

---. “’Growing with Stories: Chinese American Identites, Textual Identities

(Maxine Hong Kingston).” Teaching American Ethnic Literatures: Nineteen Essays. Ed.

John R. Maitino and David R. Peck. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1996. 273-91.

Myers, Victoria. “Speech-Act Theory and the Search for Identity in The Woman Warrior.” Lim,

Approaches 131-45. CP

Mylan, Sheryl A. “The Mother as Other: Orientalism in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman

Warrior.Women of Color: Mother-Daughter Relationships in 20th-Century Literature.

Ed. Elizabeth Brown-Guillory. Austin: U of Texas P, 1996. 132-52. CP

Rubinstein, Roberta. “Bridging Two Cultures: Maxine Hong Kingston.” Boundaries of the Self:

Gender, Culture, Fiction.” Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1987. 164-89. CP

Sato, Gayle K. Fujita. “Ghosts as Chinese-American Constructs in Maxine Hong Kingston’s

The Woman Warrior.Haunting the House of Fiction: Perspectives on Ghost Stories by

American Women. Ed. Lynette Carpenter and Wendy Kolmar. Knoxville: U of

Tennessee P, 1991.

---. “The Woman Warrior as a Search for Ghosts.” Lim 138-45.

Smith, Sidonie. “Filiality and Woman’s Autobiographical Storytelling.” Maxine Hong

Kingston’s The Woman Warrior: A Casebook.” Ed. Sau-Ling Cynthia Wong. New

York: Oxford UP, 1999. 57-83. CP

VanSpanckeren, Kathryn. “The Asian Literary Background of The Woman Warrior.” Lim,

Approaches 44-51. CP

Wogowitsch, Margit. Narrative Strategies and Multicultural Identity: Maxine Hong Kingston in

Context. Vienna: Braumuller, 1995.

Wong, San-Ling Cynthia. “Necessity and Extravagance in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The

Woman Warrior. Art and Ethnic Experience.” MELUS 1988.

Domina, Lynn. “Liturgies, Rituals, Ceremonies: The Conjunction of Roman Catholic and

Native American Religious Traditions in N. Scott Momaday’s Hose Made of Down.

Paintbrush: A Journal of Poetry, Translations, and Letters. 21 (1994): 7-27.

Donovan, Kathleen M. “’A Menace among the Words’: Women in the Novels of N. Scott

Momaday.” Feminist Readings of Native American Literature. Tucson: U of Arizona P,

1998. 71-98. CP

Evers, Lawrence J. “Words and Place: A Reading of House Made of Dawn.” Fleck 113-33. CP

Fleck, Richard F, ed. Critical Perspectives on Native American Literature. Threee Continents,


Hogan, Linda. Who Puts.“ Fleck 134-42. CP

Isernhagen, Hartwig. Momaday, Vizenor, Armstrong: Conversations on American Indian

Writing. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1999.

Jaskoski, Helen. “Beauty before Me: Notes on House Made of Dawn.Teaching American

Ethnic Literatures: Nineteen Essays. U of New Mexico P, 1996. 37-54.

Landrum, Larry. “The Shattered Modernism of Momaday’s House Made of Dawn.Modern

Fiction Studies 42.4 (1996): 763-86.

Nelson, Robert M. Place and Vision: The Function of Landscape in Native American Fiction.

New York: Lang: 1995.

Momaday, N. Scott: Ancestral Voice: Conversations with N. Scott Momaday. Lincoln: U of

Nebraska P, 1989.

Oleson, Carole. “The Remembered Earth: Momaday’s House Made of Dawn.South Dakota

Review 11.1 (1973): 59-78.

Ruppert, James. Mediation in Contemporary Native American Fiction. Norman: U of Oklahoma

P, 1995.

Rainwater, Catherine. “Planes, Lines, Shapes, and Shadows: N. Scott Momaday’s Iconological

Imagination.” Texas Studies in Literature and Language 37 (1995): 376-93.

Scarberry-Garcia, Susan. Landmarks of Healing: A Study of House Made of Dawn.

Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1990.

Schubnell, Matthias. “The Crisis of Identity: House Made of Dawn.N. Scott Momaday: The

Cultural and Literary Background. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1985. CP

---, ed. Conversations with N. Scott Momaday. Jackson: U of Mississippi P, 1997.

Taylor, Paul Beekman. “Native Americans Translating Culture: Momaday and Anaya.” Writing

Culture. Ed. Balz Engler. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1992. 133-50. CP

Trimble, Martha Scott. N. Scott Momaday. Boise: Boise State College, 1973.

Velie, Alan. Four American Indian Literary Masters: N. Scotrt Momaday, James Welch, Leslie

Marmon Silko, and Gerald Viznor. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1982.

--- “The Return of the Native: The Renaissance of Tribal Religions as Reflected in the

Fiction of N. Scott Momaday.” Religion & Literature 26.1 (1994): 135-45.

Andrews, William L., and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. Toni Morrison’s Beloved: A Casebook.

New York: OUP, 1999.

Ayer (Sitter), Deborah. “The Making of a Man: Dialogic Meaning in Beloved.” Solomon

189-204. CP

Bjork, Patrick Bryce. The Novels of Toni Morrison: The Search for Self and Place within

the Community.

Bloom, Harold. Toni Morrison. Modern Critical Views S.

Bouson, J. Brooks. Quiet As It’s Kept: Shame, Trauma, and Race in the Novels of Toni

Morrison. Albany: State U of New York P, 2000.

Cadman, Deborah. “When the Back Door Is Closed and the Front Yard Is Dangerous.” The

Girl: Constructions of the Girl in Contemporary Fiction by Women. Ed. Ruth O. Saxton.

New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. 57-78. CP

Carl, Plasa. Toni Morrison, Beloved.

Christian, Barbara, Deborah McDowell, Nellie Y. McKay. “A Conversation on Toni Morrison’s

Beloved.” Andrews and McKay 203-20.

Conner, Marc. C., ed. The Aesthetics of Toni Morrison: Speaking the Unspeakable. Jackson:

P of Mississippi, 2000.

Elliott, Mary Jane Suero. “Postcolonial Experience in a Domestic Context: Commodified

Subjectivity in Toni Morrison’s Beloved..MELUS 25.3-4 (2000): 181-202. CP

Furman, Jan. “Sethe’s Re-memories: The Covert Return of What Is Best Forgotten.” Solomon

261-71. CP

---. Toni Morrison’s Fiction. Understanding Contemporary American Literature.

1996.Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1999.

Gates, Henry Louis, and K. A. Appiah, eds.Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and


Graham, Maryemma, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the African American Novel.

Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004.

Gray, Paul. “Paradise Found.” Time 19 Jan. 1998: 63-68.

Hall, Cherry. “Beyond the ‘Literary Habit’: Oral Tradition and Jazz in Beloved.” MELUS

19.1 (1994): 89-95.

Harding, Wendy, and Jacky Martin. A World of Difference: An Inter-Cultural Study of

Toni Morrison’s Novels.

Harris, Trudier. Fiction and Folklore: The Novels of Toni Morrison. Knoxville: U of Tennessee

P, 1991.

Holland, Sharon P. The Language of the Margin in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.Literature

Interpretation Theory 6.1-2 (1995): 89-100.

King, Lovalerie. “The Disruption of Formulaic Discourse: Writing Resistance and Truth in

Beloved.” Solomon 273-83. CP

Matus, Jill L. Toni Morrison. Contemporary World Writers. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1998.

May, Samuel J. “Margaret Garner and seven others.” Andrews and McKay 25-36. CP

McKay, Nellie Y., ed. Critical Essays on Toni Morrison.

---, and Kathryn Earle, eds. Approaches to Teaching Toni Morrison.

Middleton, David L., ed. Toni Morrison’s Fiction: Contemporary Criticism.

Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. New York:

Vintage, 1993.

Ochoa, Peggy. “Morrison’s Beloved: Allegorically Othering ‘White’ Christianity.” MELUS 24.2

(1999): 107-23. CP

Page, Philip. Dangerous Freedom: Fusion and Fragmentation in Toni Morrison’s Novels.

Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1995.

Peach, Linden. Toni Morrison. Macmillan Modern Novelists. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1995.

---, ed. Toni Morrison. New Casebooks S. New York: St. Martin’s, 1998.

Peterson, Nancy J., ed. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Baltimore:

Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

Pérez-Torres, Rafael. “Knitting and Knotting the Narrative Thread: Beloved as

Postmodern Novel.” Modern Fiction Studies 39.3-4 (1993): 689-707.

Rice, Herbert William. Toni Morrison and the American Tradition: A Rhetorical Reading.

Rigney, Barbara Hill. The Voices of Toni Morrison.

Rushdy, Ashraf. H. “Daughters Signifyin(g) History: The Example of Toni Morrison’s

Beloved.” Andrews and McKay 37-66. CP

Sale, Maggie. “Call and Response as Critical Method: African-American Oral Traditions and

Beloved.” Solomon 177-88. CP

Samuels, Wilfred D., and Clenora Hudson-Weems. Toni Morrison.

Solomon, Barbara H. Critical Essays on Toni Morrison’s Beloved. New York: Hall, 1998.

Essays by Morrison, Horvitz, House, Harris, Rigney, Rodrigues, Bell, Sale, Ayer,

Heinze, Wyatt, Harding and Martin, Atkinson, Furman, King, Otten.

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Terzieva-Artemis, Rossitsa. “Toni Morrison’s Beloved: Feminine Mystiques.” The AnaChronisT

10 (2004): 125-42.

Wyatt, Jean. “Giving Body to the Word: The Maternal Symbolic in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.

Solomon 211-32. CP

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