Organizational Pattern: My organizational pattern is topical.
Specific Purpose: My specific purpose is to inform the audience of sleep deprivation.
Primary Audience Outcome: My primary audience outcome is that the audience will understand the causes of sleep deprivation, notice the symptoms, and know the treatments.
Thesis Statement: Sleep deprivation is very common, and in order to understand sleep deprivation you need to know the causes, symptoms, and treatments.
Attention Getter: I was in my Political Science class last week and during my professor’s lecture I had the overwhelming urge to take a nap. My eyes started to cross, I stopped writing, and my eyelids felt too heavy to keep open. I had only slept a few hours the night before, and after five hour energy shot, I was still sleepy.
Psychological Orientation: This situation happens to a lot of college students. Whether we’re cramming for a midterm, having late night Jack in the Box, or surfing Facebook until one, sleep deprivation has negative effects on everyone.
Logical orientation: Sleep deprivation is very common, and in order to understand sleep deprivation you need to know the causes, symptoms, and treatments.
The causes of sleep deprivation are found in different parts of the human anatomy.
The causes of sleep deprivation are very active in the brain.
The loss of neurons in the brain cause shifts in sleep cycles.
The 24 hour clock that keeps humans up to pace with night and day is disrupted.
“Communication technologies are often light-emitting, which can suppress the sleep promoting hormone melatonin and make it harder to go to sleep at night.” (Richardson, 1899).
The body reacts in harmful ways to sleep deprivation.
Dr. Daniel Cohen, a neurology professor at Harvard Medical School said chronic sleep loss has the same effects as pulling an all-nighter.
Dr. Cohen says, “After sleeping fewer than six hours per night for two to three weeks, people may drive as poorly as someone who has stayed up for 24 hours straight.” (Newsweek, 75).
Age is a factor that contributes greatly to the loss of sleep in an average human being.
As a person gets older they go into the early stages of sleep cycles, causing them to lose more sleep or not sleep at all during the night.
Males over 40 are more common to have SDB (sleep-disordered breathing), caused by inspiratory flow limitation, without any symptoms or health consequences. (Richardson, 1889).
Skin lesions occur when too much sleep is lost.
In 1989, a seminal study demonstrated that rats that were subjected to total sleep deprivation developed skin lesions, experienced weight loss in spite of increased food intake, developed bacterial infections, and died within 2 to 3 weeks (Rechtschaffen et al., 1989).
Thermoregulation controls our body temperature while we sleep.
Sleep deprivation disrupts our body’s attempts at lowering our temperature during the night so we can sleep comfortably.
“At night there is a gradual decline in body temperature rhythm, and an increase in heat loss, all which promote sleep onset and maintenance, as well as EEG slow-wave activity.” (Lawrence, 3).
Aches and pains begin with the loss of sleep and persist if a person does not improve their sleep schedule to accommodate his or her body’s needs.
Diseases cause and are a repercussion of sleep deprivation.
Sleep apnea is a common cause and effect of sleep deprivation.
Sleep apnea often goes undiagnosed because doctors don’t notice it during routine visits since it only happens during sleep.
Insomnia is common in many Americans, contributing to sleep deprivation.
“Insomnia may be primary or secondary to other sleep problems and may be associated with a number of co-morbidities”. (Klasson).
It is suggested that 40 to 70 million Americans, which reflect on 20% of the population, are affected by insomnia or other chronic sleep problems. (Klasson).
Connective Sentence: All the causes of sleep deprivation lead to noticeable symptoms.
There are several health and behavioral symptoms of sleep deprivation.
Many health issues arise with the loss of necessary hours of sleep.
Obesity is one of the leading consequences of sleep deprivation.
Sleep helps the human body separate the good fat from the bad fat that was consumed throughout the day.
The body’s metabolism slows when sleep time is cut short than the hours it’s supposed to be, leading to obesity in most people. (Williamson, Fever,).
A study by Columbia University found that sleep-deprived people consumed almost 300 calories more a day than the average well-rested person (USA Today).
“Ice cream is one of their favorite foods when they’re tired, a study shows.” (USA Today).
Adult onset diabetes, commonly known as type 2 diabetes, can come from sleep deprivation.
Impaired glucose tolerance comes from sleep deprivation because if the body does not rest it cannot make out the bad sugar from the good sugar and cannot tolerate it after a span of a few months to years. (Williamson, Fever, 5).
Cardiovascular Morbidity, commonly known as stroke, is caused by diabetes and obesity and is a common effect of sleep apnea and sleep deprivation (Lawrence, 2).
The body’s immune system is down, causing bacterial infections throughout the weakened immune system, making the victim sick.
The neurobiological effects of sleep deprivation are noticeable without the use of clinical studies.
Attention span is shortened considerably when a person does not get enough sleep.
Reaction time is delayed significantly, resulting in motor vehicle accidents throughout the country.
“Drowsiness contributes to an estimated 100,000 motor vehicle crashes and about 1,500 deaths a year.” (CBC).
Blood alcohol level rises after seventeen hours of sleep deprivation. (Williamson, Fever, 6.)
“After 17-19 hours without sleep performance on some tests was equivalent or worse than that at a BAC of 0.05%.” (Williamson, Fever, 6).
If a person does not sleep for 20 hours straight, they have the impairment equality of someone who is considered legally impaired with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08%. (CBC).
Involuntary micro sleeps occur to people who are sleep deprived.
Late afternoon naps are an example of an involuntary micro sleep.
Students tend to fall asleep in class at this point.
The thinking process in the brain deteriorates.
Learning in children is reduced causing them to be less alert and pay noticeably less attention in the classroom.
Emotional effects are the most noticeable caused by sleep deprivation.
Many victims of sleep deprivation notice a change in mood for the worse.
The victims develop feelings of anxiety and depression that drive them to extreme measures, suicide being one of them.
Victims begin to use alcohol to cope with their change of mood.
“Several studies of adolescents, including one with more than 3,000 high school students, found that inadequate sleep is associated with higher levels of depressed mood, anxiety, behavior problems, alcohol use, and attempted suicide.” (Lawrence, 1).
Connective: Once these symptoms are noticed there are different treatments to address them.
There are different ways to treat sleep deprivation.
Someone who is sleep-deprived should have a fixed bedtime and a fixed time to wake up every morning.
Catching up on weekends with sleep does not work.
Expose yourself to bright light in the morning instead of night, this will help your brain recognize when it’s time for bed and help you sleep better.
If someone sleeps longer they can avoid the negative effects of sleep deprivation.
Naps are helpful as long as they are not too late in the afternoon.
People who exercise regularly are more likely to be tired at night and fall asleep faster. (Williamson, Fever, 7).
Exercising regularly can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity by keeping the blood vessels pumping even at night.
Create a good environment for you to sleep in.
Keep wherever you’re sleeping clean, so going to bed will seem like relief instead of a hassle.
Doing homework on your bed can have negative effects on your brain.
Your brain associates your bed with sleep and if you do homework on your bed, you’re more likely to fall asleep while doing your homework.
Lastly, avoid large meals before bed.
Your body’s metabolism will work faster if your meals are not close to bed time.
Large meals before bed will keep you awake because your stomach is too full to shut down.
Logical Closure: Sleep deprivation is very common, and in order to understand sleep deprivation you need to know the causes, symptoms, and treatments.
Psychological Closure: We all may think we are simply too busy to have fixed bedtimes and more hours of sleep at night, but our body needs rest in order to function properly.
Closure/Clincher: So next time you navigate to Facebook’s login page after midnight, you better think twice.
Epstein, L. J. (2010, July 5). Book: The surprising toll of sleep deprivation. 75. Retrieved: March 30, 2011, from Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context database.
Williamson A., Feyer A. (2000, October). Journal: Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Retrieved:
March 20, 2011, from Academic Search Premier database. Occupational and Environmental Medicine Vol. 57, No. 10
Mahowald, M. W. (2007) Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. New England Journal of Medicine,356.2, 199-200.
Richardson, G. S. (2007) Sleep Apnea: Current Diagnosis and Treatment.
New England Journal of Medicine, 356.18, 1899-900.
People who need sleep grab food. (2011). USA Today
Lack of sleep called 'global epidemic'. (2011). Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context
Informative Speech: Extra Information
Types of Supporting Materials
Definitions: Authority: Dr. Daniel Cohen, a neurology professor at Harvard Medical School said chronic sleep loss has the same effects as pulling an all-nighter.
Examples: Illustrate: Late afternoon naps are an example of an involuntary micro sleep.
Statistics: Numbers: It is suggested that 40 to 70 million Americans, which reflect on 20% of the population, are affected by insomnia or other chronic sleep problems. (Klasson).
Types of Attention Interest Techniques
Humor: “Ice cream is one of their favorite foods when they’re tired, a study shows.” (USA Today).
“The vital”: Expose yourself to bright light in the morning instead of night, this will help your brain recognize when it’s time for bed and help you sleep better.
Familiarity: “Drowsiness contributes to an estimated 100,000 motor vehicle crashes and about 1,500 deaths a year.” (CBC).