Independent and Subordinate Clauses/Types of Sentences

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Independent and Subordinate Clauses/Types of Sentences


  • Clean sheet of paper, head page “Clauses/Types of Sentences, Notes, and Examples”.
  • Take notes from each slide by writing:(can use pens, highlighters, etc.)
  • Rule Number and Rule in title of that slide for #1-#22
  • 1 example sentence from each slide.
  • Sticky Note Checks: one check per sticky note (4 checks)
  • Test will be next week using these rules in context.
  • Notes will be taken up tomorrow for a grade.
  • **This powerpoint is posted on my webpage so that you can go back and add parts that you didn’t have a chance to finish in class.

1. Clauses

  • A clause is a phrase of words that has a subject and a verb.
      • Marco Polo lived in China and learned about the culture.
      • (Subject, Verb)
      • When I went swimming,
      • (Signal Word, subject, verb)
      • There are two types of clauses: independent and subordinate.

2. Independent Clauses:

  • a subject and verb
  • be able to stand alone
  • can be called a simple sentence
  • All sentences have at least one independent clause
  • Ex. The swimming hole was dark and muddy, and we sometimes saw snakes.
  • (When I Was Young in the Mountains)

3. Subordinate Clauses

  • signal word, subject, verb
  • Can’t stand alone
  • used to give more detail to the independent clause that it modifies.
  • Not a sentence
  • Starts with an AAAWWUBBIS Signal word/Subordinate Conjunction such as that, because, or while.
    • Ex. I went swimming because I was wanting to cool off.
      • In this example, the subordinate gives the reason why the subject, I, went swimming.

4. Subordinate Clause to Independent Clause

  • Take off the subordinate conjunction signal word
  • Ex. subordinate clause=When I was little, Ex. Independent clause=I was little.

5. Independent Clause to Subordinate Clause

  • Add a subordinate conjunction to the independent clause to make it subordinate.
  • Ex. Independent clause=I wish….
  • Ex. Subordinate Clause=If I wish,

6. Subordinate Clause signal words:

  • Begin each subordinate clause
  • Comma Causers
  • Causes the clause to not stand alone or be independent.
  • Subordinate Conjunctions (see handout and Writer’s Fix list))
  • AAAWWUBBIS signal words (extra credit)

7. Most Commonly used Subordinating Conjunctions

  • AAAWWUBBIS Signal Words(Acronym)
  • After If
  • Although Since
  • As
  • When
  • While
  • Until
  • Before
  • Because

8.Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinate Clause Signal Words:

  • After because that wherever
  • Although before though whether
  • As how unless which
  • As if if until while
  • As long as since when who
  • As much as so that whenever whom
  • As though than where whose
  • Analyze: Which of these words are also prepositions?

9. Prepositions:(copy the 5 that can be preps and subordinating conjunctions)

  • aboard Between Past
  • About Beyond Since
  • Above By Through
  • Across Down Throughout
  • After During Till
  • Against Except To
  • Along For Toward
  • Among From Under
  • Around In Underneath
  • At Into Until
  • Before Like Up
  • Behind Of Upon
  • Below Off With
  • Beneath On Within
  • Beside Over Without

10. Venn Diagram: Prepositional Phrase or Subordinate Clause?:

  • Draw a Venn Diagram:
  • Starts with a preposition
  • Ends with an object
  • Has no subject and verb combination
  • has a noun=object of preposition
  • Can NOT stand alone
  • Is not a sentence
  • Signal word, subject, and verb
  • Can not stand alone
  • Is not a sentence

11. Introductory Subordinate Clauses:

  • Use a comma for every introductory subordinate clause.
  • What other introductory element do you need a comma after it?
  • Ex. After it rains, it is usually wise to wear mud boots.
  • Ex. When we camp, we love to fix a big breakfast first thing in the morning.

Sticky Note Check #1 1. Phrase or 2.Clause?

  • 1.Before the game
  • 2.Before I finish
  • 3.After Christmas
  • 4.After I open presents
  • 5.Since I ran
  • 6.Since the game
  • 7.Until I walk
  • 8.Until dinner

Sticky Note Check #2 Phrase or Clause?

  • 1.After the game, I will go home and finish my homework.
  • 2.Before I finish my homework, I will eat dinner with my family.
  • 3. Since I am going home now, I will need to call my dad so that he can pick me up.
  • 4. Before you leave the house, you should make sure you’ve eaten a healthy breakfast.
  • 5.When she arrived, the ferry had already left for the island.
  • 6. After the game, the winning team shook hands with the losing team.

12. Rude Subordinate Clauses:

  • Sometimes a subordinate clause will interrupt an independent clause:
  • Always use a comma before the signal word in the subordinate clause
  • Always use a comma after the last word in the subordinate clause.
    • Ex. Dr. Ash, who is our school principal, always want his students to do their best.

13. Simple Sentences:

  • One independent clause
  • No subordinate clauses
  • May have a compound subject
  • May have a compound verb
  • May have a compound subject and compound verb
  • Ex. My mother loves to visit the library.
  • Ex. Washington and Oregon are two states in the United States.
  • Ex. Mrs. Tipton read The Giver and told her class about it.

14. Compound Sentence:

  • 2 related independent clauses usually joined by :
  • 1. a comma and coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS)
  • 2. a semicolon with no conjunction.
  • Ex. I had worked hard all evening; I still had not finished by bedtime.

15. Coordinating Conjunctions &Compound Sentences:

  • Coordinating conjunctions usually connect 2 independent clauses
  • Coordinating conjunctions:
  • For And Nor But Or Yet So = FANBOYS
  • Ex. I forgot my backpack at home, but Dad brought it to school for me.

16. “Finger Block” to check for compound sentence:

  • A good way to see if the sentence you’re reading is a compound sentence is to finger block the comma and coordinating conjunction.
  • Example: The hairy dog was very dirty, so I gave him a bath.
  • Finger block the coordinating conjunction , so and read the independent clauses,

17.Complex Sentences:

  • Only one independent clause and
  • at least one subordinate clause. (Can have several subordinate clauses).
  • Ex. When you are looking at a work by Monet, stand back at least fifteen or twenty feet.
  • Ex. Bring an extra shirt with you if you have one.

18. Complex Sentences:

  • While I was washing the laundry, Jill found her lost green striped sock.
  • Bill’s favorite TV host is Mike Rowe, who stars in the Discovery Channel show Dirty Jobs.

19. Compound-Complex Sentences

  • 2 or more independent clauses and
  • at least one subordinate clause.
  • Ex. Laura picked up the branches that had fallen during the storm, and Ronnie mowed the grass.
  • Ex. The men escaped the ice in small boats, and they landed on Elephant Island, where they lived in a makeshift camp.

Sticky Note Check #3: Real Literature:

  • 1.During the afternoon, Timothy was busy, and we didn’t talk much.
  • 2.I stayed by him the rest of the long afternoon while he slept.
  • 3. When he awakened, it was early evening and had turned cool again.
  • 4.He was breathing easily now, and I knew the fever had broken because his forehead was no longer hot.
  • The Cay by: Theodore Taylor

20. Relative Pronouns

  • Signal a subordinate clause
  • Can be BOTH the signal word and subject of subordinate clause
  • Relative Pronouns:
  • That
  • Which
  • Who
  • Whom
  • Whose
  • whoever
  • Marie, who is an excellent cook, fixed the food for the party.

21.Subordinate Clause “that”

  • If “that” begins the sentence, it is not going to be signaling a subordinate clause; it is going to be used as a relative pronoun (subject of sentence or an adjective).
  • Ex. That is a beautiful sweater.= (subject of independent clause)
  • Ex. That sweater is beautiful. (adjective)

22.Subordinate Clause “that”:

  • When “that” comes later in the sentence, it is usually going to signal a subordinate clause.
  • “That” never needs a comma when used as a subordinate clause. Why?
  • “That” is not a “Comma Causers”.
  • Ex. The art paper that you are using really soaks up ink.

Sticky Note Check #4: “Name that Sentence”

  • Slides 33-42 are the “Sticky Note Check Slides”.
  • Number 1-10. Write a, b, c, or d for the correct answer.
  • No notes are needed….just write the correct answer on the sticky note.

“Name that Sentence”

  • 1. Which sentence is a complex sentence?
  • a. I ate a lot of pancakes, so I was too full to eat my lunch.
  • c. The phone rang , so I had to quickly answer it before it was too late.
  • d. He likes bowling, but he wasn’t available that weekend to go with us.
  • b. When Kim forcefully threw the baseball, it crashed through the neighbor’s window.

“Name that Sentence”

  • 2. Choose the complex sentence.
  • a. Lucy had a soccer game Wednesday, but it was cancelled because of rain.
  • b. Because the computers were going crazy, I wrote my questions on a piece of paper.
  • c. Jamie was feeling sick, so she had to go home.
  • d. Robert wanted to buy a cherry Coke, but he couldn’t find a vending machine.

“Name that Sentence”

  • 3. Choose the compound sentence.
  • a. While Rose was at the store, David got the house ready for the surprise party.
  • b. A boy was running and bumped into me, so I dropped my books.
  • c. After I go to Target, I have to drive to Wal-mart to buy milk and eggs.
  • d. When my mom made brownies, she put too many eggs in the mix.

“Name that Sentence”

  • 4. Choose the complex sentence.
  • a. You can stay home and write your essay, or you can come with me to McDonalds.
  • b. I had to run back to my locker when I forgot a book for class.
  • c. The cat was under my bed, but she eventually crept out.
  • d. I has a cheeseburger and a Coke for lunch, so I’m full and happy.

“Name that Sentence”

  • 5. Choose the complex sentence.
  • a. I went to the party after I had gotten ready.
  • b. The car swerved toward the curb, and it almost knocked over a street post!
  • c. Lisa, tie your shoe, or you’ll trip and hurt yourself.
  • d. I brought a grocery list to the store, but I forgot the potato chips.
  • 6. Which coordinating conjunction makes this sentence correct?
  • I can have a juicy apple, ___ I can choose a tangy orange.
  • a. or
  • b. so
  • c. but
  • d. nor
  • 7. Which subordinating conjunction signal word makes the sentence correct?
  • __ you go to the store, please get me some delicious candy bars.
  • a. since
  • b. when
  • c. as
  • d. while
  • 8. Which coordinating conjunction makes this sentence correct?
  • I was going to take the dog for a walk,___ it started to rain so I couldn’t go.
  • a. so
  • b. and
  • c. but
  • d. for
  • 9. Which coordinating conjunction makes the sentence correct?
  • Billy is going on vacation tomorrow, ___ he won’t be able to come.
  • a. but
  • b. for
  • c. and
  • d. so
  • 10. Which signal word makes the sentence correct?
  • I read a very interesting book ___ was about the historical woman Rosa Parks.
  • a. who
  • b. when
  • c. that
  • d. if

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