In memory of



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In memory of

Michael J. Kraus


educator, scholar, and friend

Contents

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

Introducing the Compact Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

Thematic Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

Introduction



Reading (and Writing about) Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Part One: Fiction

Chapter One: Reading Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Chapter Two: Types of Short Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Chapter Three: Elements of Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Chapter Four: Writing About Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Chapter Five: Two Fiction Writers in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Chapter Six: A Collection of Short Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


Part Two: Poetry

Chapter Seven: Reading Poems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Chapter Eight: Types of Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

Chapter Nine: Elements of Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Chapter Ten: Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

Chapter Eleven: Writing About Poetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Chapter Twelve: Three Poets in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

Chapter Thirteen: A Collection of Poems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192


Part Three: Drama

Chapter Fourteen: Reading Plays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

Chapter Fifteen: Types of Drama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

Chapter Sixteen: Elements of Drama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

Chapter Seventeen: Writing About Drama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

Chapter Eighteen: The Greek Theater: Sophocles …. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

Chapter Nineteen: The Elizabethan Theater: Shakespeare . . . . . . . . . . 255

Chapter Twenty: The Modern Realistic Theater: Ibsen . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

Chapter Twenty-One: A Collection of Modern Plays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

Part Four: Research and Critical Perspectives

Chapter Twenty-Two: Writing With Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

Chapter Twenty-Three: Critical Theory: Approaches to the Analysis and

Interpretation of Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

Appendix A

Video Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

Appendix B

Student Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Acknowledgments
In the preparation of this manual I have had the pleasure of working with Professor Robert DiYanni, whose comments and suggestions were always first rate, Alexis Walker of McGraw-Hill, whose support and encouragement were greatly appreciated, and Anne Stameshkin, also of McGraw-Hill, whose timely responses to all kinds of things were very helpful. My colleagues at St. John's University were, as usual, very generous with their support and suggestions.

I am also grateful for the loving support of my wife Cynthia and children, Dylan and Holly, whose patience and understanding made the writing of this manual not only possible, but also enjoyable.




Preface
For students, Robert DiYanni's Literature is about the least intimidating literature text in the forever-widening world of college literature anthologies. Throughout the text, DiYanni encourages students to draw on their own emotional reactions and previous life experiences, as they interpret and evaluate literature. This approach informs students that their opinions matter, challenges them to read closely, and emphasizes that literary works are alive when individuals bring their own lives to them. This approach is underscored by the number of student essays included in the text. Such essays demonstrate to students the meaningfulness of student commentary and furnish writing goals and possibilities to which students can aspire. In short, the text promises an enjoyable and significant experience for the beginning college literature student.

In the following pages, I offer responses to texts, approaches for presentation, and possible writing assignments. I am sure some of my ideas will be more helpful than others, and some will be different from yours and your students’. Please remember to consider all that follows suggestive rather than prescriptive.

Certainly Professor DiYanni and I would appreciate any comments or suggestions you have on either the text or the manual.

Introducing the Second Compact Edition

The second compact edition of Literature is derived from the fifth edition. This new edition remains flexible and offers instructors and students a broad selection of readings in three genres — fiction, poetry, and drama. The compact edition includes the following especially noteworthy features:


New! Sections entitled Literature in the News. These sections feature timely newspaper and magazine articles concerning topics such as the classroom and the canon, Shakespeare and sexuality, the events of September 11, Oprah’s book club, and more.
New! Sections entitled New Voices. Each genre features two New Voices, authors never before anthologized. Students can participate in evaluating these authors.
New! Sections called Writers Inspired by … These sections consider authors who are inspired by Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, Langston Hughes, Edgar Allan Poe, and Flannery O’Connor.
New! In-text icons point to an expanded Online Learning Center (website) for the book, offering featured author casebooks with biographies, quizzes, hyperlinked stories, discussion of film versions of stories and plays, writing assignments, and more.
New! Ariel (A Resource for the Interactive Exploration of Literature). This CD-ROM introduces students to the pleasures of studying literature.
New! Online Learning Center (www.mhhe.com/diyanni2). This website offers author casebooks, complete texts of classic works, a timeline, glossary, quizzes, Web exercises, and more.
Exciting Supplements! To cut down on the bulk of Literature and to give instructors greater flexibility, a number of modern and classic works of fiction, nonfiction, and drama are available at a substantial discount when packaged with Literature. Works like Achebe’s The Monkey Wrench Gang, Cisneros’s House on Mango Street, Kahn’s Boys of Summer, Essays of E. B. White, and more. See page xxviii in the text for others.
Videos and DVD Supplements for Instructors. The following supplemental videos and DVDs will be available to instructors: Orson Welles’s Othello, O (starring Julia Stiles), Kenneth Branagh’s Hamlet, and Hamlet (starring Ethan Hawke).
The Essay. This supplement serves those introduction to literature courses that cover this genre in addition to poetry, fiction, and drama.

And Literature still offers the following:


• Four chapters on writing instruction (“Writing About Fiction,” “Writing About Poetry,” “Writing About Drama,” “Writing with Sources”).
• Writers in each genre for in-depth study: Edgar Allan Poe and Flannery O'Connor (fiction); Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, and Langston Hughes (poetry); and Shakespeare (drama).
• A chapter on critical theory (Chapter Twenty-Three), which informs students of various approaches to the analysis and interpretation of literature.
• A broad spectrum of plays ranging from the ancient Greek theater to the contemporary stage.
• Included with the works are dates of publication, performance, or composition.
• Brief biographies of most of the represented writers.
• Color plates of paintings and corresponding poems, as well as annotated notes, rough drafts, and other forms not ordinarily included in literature anthologies.
• And much more!
As with previous editions of Literature, this text brings together classic and contemporary works in a clear and inviting presentation with rich supplemental and innovative materials. By responding to his users, Professor DiYanni once again delivers the most exciting and refreshing introductory literature text on the market.

Thematic Table of Contents

The follow thematic organization classifies the works in Parts One through Three of the text. It is intended to help you arrange your reading schedule, and suggest possibilities of teaching thematically similar works side-by-side. I have limited the categories to sixteen rather broad topics. Why not browse through the list? Perhaps it will suggest some intriguing combinations, or new contexts for works you have taught often. In an effort to keep the list to a reasonable length, I listed works only once. This led to some choices you might find debatable. In most cases, I listed the work under what I considered to be the more dominant theme. But as Samuel Beckett once said, “The danger is in the neatness of identifications.”




Categories


Childhood and Adolescence Individual and Community

The Creative Process Individual and the Natural World

Cultural Identification and Struggle Internal Struggle, Investigation, and Meditation Death and Aging Love and Marriage

Faith and Doubt Myth, Magic, and Unexplained Phenomena

Family Life Relationships

Fauna, Flora, and Insecta War and Violence

Gender Identity Works Inspired by Other Works

Childhood and Adolescence

Fiction


Toni Cade Bambara “The Lesson”

James Joyce “Araby”

Jamaica Kincaid “Girl”

Alistair MacLeod “There Is a Season”

Frank O’Connor “My Oedipus Complex”

Poetry


William Blake “London”

Elizabeth Bishop “Sestina”

Gwendolyn Brooks “A Song in the Front Yard”

Judith Ortiz Cofer “The Game”

Rita Dove “Testimonial”

Louise Erdrich “Indian Boarding School: The Runaways”

Nikki Giovanni “Nikki Rosa”

Audre Lorde “Hanging Fire”

Sharon Olds “Rite of Passage”

Gary Soto “Behind Grandma's House”



The Creative Process and Literature about Literature

Fiction


Margaret Atwood “Happy Endings”

Poetry


Matsuo Bashō “Three Haiku”

Lewis Carroll “Jabberwocky”

Helen Chasin “The Word Plum”

Billy Collins “Introduction to Poetry”

Emily Dickinson “I cannot dance upon my Toes”

Emily Dickinson “I died for Beauty – but was scarce”

Emily Dickinson “Tell all the Truth but tell it slant”

Seamus Heaney “Digging”

Robert Herrick “Delight in Disorder”

Langston Hughes “Trumpet Player”

John Keats “Ode on a Grecian Urn”

Archibald MacLeish “Ars Poetica”

Bob McKenty “Adam's Song”

Marianne Moore “Poetry”

Sylvia Plath “Metaphors”

Alexander Pope “Sound and Sense”

Kay Ryan “All Shall Be Restored”

William Shakespeare “My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun”

Robert Wallace “The Double-Play”

William Carlos Williams “The Red Wheelbarrow”

William Carlos Williams “This Is Just to Say”

Cultural Identification and Struggle

Fiction


Sherman Alexie “Indian Education”

Ralph Ellison “Battle Royal”

Leslie Marmon Silko “Yellow Woman”

Amy Tan “Rules of the Game”

Alice Walker “Everyday Use”

Poetry


Jimmy Santiago Baca from “Meditations on the South Valley”

Countee Cullen “Incident”

Bei Dao “Declaration”

Paul Laurence Dunbar “We wear the mask”

Nikki Giovanni “Ego Tripping”

Langston Hughes “Aunt Sue’s Stories”

Langston Hughes “Dream Deferred”

Langston Hughes “I, Too”

Langston Hughes “Let America Be America Again”

Langston Hughes “Madam and the Rent Man”

Langston Hughes “My People”

Langston Hughes “Same in Blues”

Jean Toomer “Reapers”

Drama


Lady Gregory The Rising of the Moon

David Henry Hwang M. Butterfly

Eugene Ionesco The Gap

Terence McNally Andre's Mother

August Wilson Fences

Death and Aging

Fiction


Katherine Anne Porter “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall”

Poetry


Simon Armitage “Zoom”

W. H. Auden “In Memory of W. B. Yeats”

Elizabeth Bishop “First Death in Nova Scotia”

Billy Collins “My Number”

E. E. Cummings “[Buffalo Bill's]”

Emily Dickinson “Because I could not stop for Death”

Emily Dickinson “The Bustle in a House”

Emily Dickinson “The Heart asks Pleasure – first”

Emily Dickinson “I felt a Funeral in my Brain”

Emily Dickinson “I heard a Fly buzz – when I died”

Emily Dickinson “The last Night that She lived”

Emily Dickinson “My life closed twice before its close”

John Donne “Death, be not proud”

Robert Frost “Provide, Provide”

Robert Frost “The Span of Life”

Donald Hall “My son, my executioner”

Thomas Hardy “Afterwards”

Thomas Hardy “During Wind and Rain”

Seamus Heaney “Mid-Term Break”

George Herbert “Virtue”

Robert Herrick “To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time”

Gerard Manley Hopkins “Spring and Fall: To a Young Child”

A. E. Housman “To an Athlete Dying Young”

Ben Jonson “On My First Son”

John Keats “When I have fears”

Jane Kenyon “Notes from the Other Side”

Czeslaw Milosz “A Song on the End of the World”

Theodore Roethke “Elegy for Jane”

William Shakespeare “That time of year that may'st in me behold”

Percy Bysshe Shelley “Ozymandias”

Dylan Thomas “Do not go gentle into that good night”

William Butler Yeats “A Dream of Death”

William Butler Yeats “The Wild Swans at Coole”

William Butler Yeats “Sailing to Byzantium”



Faith and Doubt

Fiction


Raymond Carver “Cathedral”

Flannery O'Connor “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”

Timothy Westmoreland “Darkening of the World”

Poetry


Chairil Anwar “At the Mosque”

Simon Armitage “On an Owd Piktcha”

William Blake “The Garden of Love”

George Gordon, Lord Byron “The Destruction of Sennacherib”

E. E. Cummings “i thank You God for most this amazing”

Emily Dickinson “My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun”

Emily Dickinson “Some keep the Sabbath going to Church”

Emily Dickinson “There's a certain slant of light”

John Donne “Batter my heart, three-personed God”

John Donne “Hymn to God the Father”

Robert Frost “Design”

Robert Frost “Fire and Ice”

George Herbert “The Altar”

Gerard Manley Hopkins “In the Valley of the Elwy”

Gerard Manley Hopkins “Thou art indeed just, Lord”

Jane Kenyon “Let Evening Come”

Denise Levertov “O Taste and See”

John Milton “When I consider how my light is spent”

John Milton “On the Late Massacre in Piedmont”

Tom Molito “Cosmic Simplicities”

Alexander Pope from “An Essay on Man”

Christina Rossetti “Up-Hill”

Kay Ryan “All Shall Be Restored”

Anne Sexton “Two Hands”

Stevie Smith “Mother, Among the Dustbins”

May Swenson “The Universe”

William Wordsworth “It is a beauteous evening”

William Butler Yeats “The Second Coming”



Family Life
Fiction

Franz Kafka “The Metamorphosis”

D. H. Lawrence “The Rocking-Horse Winner”

Luke “The Prodigal Son”

Tillie Olsen “I Stand Here Ironing”

Edgar Allan Poe “The Fall of the House of Usher”

Eudora Welty “Why I Live at the P.O.”

Poetry


Langston Hughes “Mother to Son”

Drama


Mary Gallagher Brother

Arthur Miller Death of a Salesman




Fauna, Flora, and Insecta

Poetry


Diane Ackerman “Spiders”

William Blake “The Lamb”

William Blake “Tyger”

E. E. Cummings “Me up at does”

Emily Dickinson “Further in Summer than the Birds”

Emily Dickinson “I like to see it lap the miles”

Emily Dickinson “A narrow Fellow in the Grass”

Emily Dickinson “A Route of Evanescence”

Mark Doty “Golden Retrievals”

Gerard Manley Hopkins “Pied Beauty”

Gerard Manley Hopkins “The Windhover”

John Keats “Ode to a Nightingale”

Sylvia Plath “Blackberrying”
Wallace Stevens “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird”

Alfred, Lord Tennyson “The Eagle”

Richard Wilbur “The Death of a Toad”

James Wright “A Blessing”



Gender and Identity

Fiction


Kate Chopin “The Story of an Hour”

Charlotte Perkins Gilman “The Yellow Wallpaper”



Poetry


Margaret Atwood “This Is a Photograph of Me”

Lucille Clifton “Homage to My Hips”

Emily Dickinson “I'm 'wife' – I've finished that”

Sylvia Plath “Mirror”

Adrienne Rich “Rape”

Natalie Safir “Matisse's Dance”

Anne Sexton “Her Kind”

May Swenson “Women”

Natasha Trethewey “Bellocq’s Ophelia”

William Carlos Williams “Dans Russe”

Judith Wright “Woman to Child”

Drama


Susan Glaspell Trifles

Individual and Community

Fiction


Aesop “The Wolf and the Mastiff”

Charles Baxter “Gryphon”

William Faulkner “A Rose for Emily”

Langston Hughes “A Toast to Harlem”

Maile Meloy “Ranch Girl”

Lorrie Moore “Community Life”

John Updike “A & P”

Eudora Welty “A Worn Path”



Poetry


Simon Armitage “Poem”

W. H. Auden “Musee des Beaux Arts”

W. H. Auden “The Unknown Citizen”

Lucille Clifton “9/11/01”

E. E. Cummings “anyone lived in a pretty how town”

E. E. Cummings “l (a”

Emily Dickinson “I like a look of Agony”

Emily Dickinson “Much Madness in divinest Sense”

Emily Dickinson “The Soul selects her own Society”

T. S. Eliot The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Robert Frost “Departmental”

Robert Frost “Mending Walls”

Thomas Hardy “The Ruined Maid”

Langston Hughes “The Negro Speaks of Rivers”

A. K. Ramanujan “Pleasure”

Dudley Randall “The Ballad of Birmingham”

William Wordsworth “The world is too much with us”

Individuals in the Natural World

Poetry


Simon Armitage “Drawing the Arctic Circle”

Emily Dickinson “Apparently with no surprise”

Emily Dickinson “I taste a liquor never brewed”

Emily Dickinson “Wild Nights – Wild Nights”

Emily Dickinson “The Wind began to knead the Grass”

Robert Frost “Birches”

Robert Frost “Desert Places”

Robert Frost “Dust of Snow”

Robert Frost “The Most of It”

Robert Frost “Putting in the Seed”

Robert Frost “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”

Robert Frost “The Tuft of Flowers”

H. D. (Hilda Dolittle) “Heat”

Zbigniew Herbert “Pebble”

Gerard Manley Hopkins “God's Grandeur”

Kay Ryan “Blandeur”

Walt Whitman “When I heard the learn'd astronomer”

William Carlos Williams “Spring and All”

William Wordsworth “I wandered lonely as a cloud”

William Wordsworth “The Solitary Reaper”

William Butler Yeats “The Lake Isle of Innisfree”
Internal Struggle, Investigation, and Meditation

Fiction


Anton Chekhov “The Kiss”

Nathaniel Hawthorne “Young Goodman Brown”

Flannery O’Connor “The Life You Save May Be Your Own”

F. Scott Fitzgerald “Winter Dreams”


Edgar Allan Poe “The Black Cat”

Carol Shields “Dressing Up for the Carnival”


Poems


Edward Kamau Brathwaite “Ogun”

C. P. Cavafy “The City”

Emily Dickinson “After a great pain, a formal feeling comes”

Emily Dickinson “Crumbling is not an instant's Act”

Emily Dickinson “I dreaded that first Robin, so”

Emily Dickinson “Pain – has an element of Blank”

Emily Dickinson “Remorse – is Memory – awake”

Emily Dickinson “There is a pain – so utter”

Emily Dickinson “We grow accustomed to the Dark”

Robert Frost “Acquainted with the night”

Robert Frost “The Road Not Taken”

Robert Frost “Tree at my window”

Michael Hogan “Kickoff”

Gerald Manley Hopkins “Carrion Comfort”

Langston Hughes “Theme for English B”

Langston Hughes “Young Gal’s Blues”

Aron Keesbury “To Waist”

Philip Larkin “A Study of Reading Habits”

Pablo Neruda “Ode to My Socks”

Robert F. Panara “On His Deafness”

Linda Pastan “Ethics”

Edward Arlington Robinson “Miniver Cheevy”

Theodore Roethke “The Waking”

Kraft Rompf “Waiting Table”

Kay Ryan “Your Face Will Stick”

Anne Sexton “The Starry Night”

William Shakespeare “Th' expense of spirit in a waste of shame”

William Stafford “Traveling through the dark”

Krishna Tateneni “Blindness”

William Wordsworth “Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802”

James Wright “Lying in a Hammock”

Drama


William Shakespeare Hamlet


Love and Marriage

Fiction


Kay Boyle “The Astronomer's Wife”

Ha Jin “Taking a Husband”

James Joyce “The Boarding House”

Bobbie Ann Mason “Shiloh”

Petronius “The Widow of Ephesus”

Poetry


Sherman Alexie “Indian Boy Love Song #1” & “Love Song #2”

Yehuda Amichai “A Pity. We Were Such a Good Invention”

Anonymous “Barbara Allan”

Anonymous “Western Wind”

William Blake “The Clod & the Pebble”

William Blake “The Sick Rose”

Anne Bradstreet “To My Dear and Loving Husband”

Elizabeth Barrett Browning “How do I love thee”

Robert Browning “My Last Duchess”

Robert Browning “Meeting at Night”

Robert Burns “A Red, Red Rose”

George Gordon, Lord Byron “She walks in beauty”

Rosario Castellanos “Chess”

Gregory Corso “Marriage”

John Donne “The Flea”

John Donne “Song”

John Donne “The Sun Rising”

John Donne “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”

Lawrence Ferlinghetti “Short Story on a Painting of Gustav Klimt”

Robert Frost “Home Burial”

Robert Frost “Two Look at Two”

Robert Graves “Symptoms of Love”

Thomas Hardy “Neutral Tones”

Robert Herrick “Upon Julia's Clothes”

A. E. Housman “When I was one-and-twenty”

Ben Jonson “Song: To Celia”

Andrew Marvell “To His Coy Mistress”

Edgar Allan Poe “Helen”

John Crowe Ransom “Piazza Piece”

Adrienne Rich “Aunt Jennifer's Tigers”

Alberto Rios “A Dream of Husbands”

William Shakespeare “Let me not to the marriage of true minds”

William Shakespeare “Shall I compare thee to a summer's day”

William Shakespeare “When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes”

Edmund Spenser “One day I wrote her name upon the strand”

Thomas Wyatt “They flee from me”


Drama


Anton Chekhov A Marriage Proposal

Henrik Ibsen A Doll House

William Shakespeare Othello

Oscar Wilde The Importance of Being Earnest



Mythology, Magic, and Unexplained Phenomena

Fiction


Katherine Anne Porter “Magic”

Gabriel Garcia Marquez “A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings”



Poetry


Samuel Taylor Coleridge “Kubla Khan”

John Keats “La Belle Dame sans Merci”

Michael Longley “The Butchers”

Edgar Allan Poe “The Raven”

Gertrude Schnackenberg “Signs”

Alfred, Lord Tennyson “Ulysses”

Derek Walcott “Sea Grapes”

William Butler Yeats “Leda and the Swan”



Drama


Sophocles Oedipus Rex
Relationships

Fiction


Ernest Hemingway “Hills Like White Elephants”

Mary Hood “How Far She Went”

Alice Munro “Friend of My Youth”

Flannery O'Connor “Good Country People”

Flannery O'Connor “Everything That Rises Must Converge”

William Carlos Williams “The Use of Force”



Poetry


Anonymous “Edward, Edward”

William Blake “A Poison Tree”

Neal Bowers “Driving Lessons”

Raymond Carver “Photograph of My Father in His Twenty-second Year”

Robert Frost “The Silken Tent”

Robert Hayden “Those Winter Sundays”

D. H. Lawrence “The Piano”

Peter Meinke “Advice to My Son”

Paul Muldoon “Lag”

Sharon Olds “Size and Sheer Will”

Sharon Olds “35/10”

Sylvia Plath “Morning Song”

Theodore Roethke “My Papa's Waltz”

Muriel Stuart “In the Orchard”

Brian Wormser “Friday Night”

Drama


Wendy Wasserstein Tender Offer

War and Peace

Fiction


Jorge Luis Borges “The Garden of Forking Paths”

Tim O’Brien “The Things They Carried”

Frank O'Connor “Guests of the Nation”

Poetry


W. H. Auden “September 1, 1939

Gwendolyn Brooks “First fight. Then fiddle”

Billy Collins “The History Teacher”

Stephen Crane “War Is Kind”

David Gewanter “The Third of May, 1808”

Thomas Hardy “The Man He Killed”

Yusef Komunyakaa “Facing It”

Osip Mandelstam “The Stalin Epigram”

Wilfred Owen “Dulce et Decorum Est”

Jacques Prévert “Family Portrait”

Henry Reed “Naming of Parts”

Siegfried Sassoon “They”

Louis Simpson “The Battle”

William Butler Yeats “An Irish Airman Foresees His Death”



Drama


Warren Leight The Final Interrogation of Ceauşescu’s Dog


Works Inspired by Individuals and Other Works

Fiction


Mary Hood “How Far She Went”

Joyce Carol Oates “The Artist”



Poetry


Billy Collins “Taking Off Emily Dickinson’s Clothes”

Wendy Cope “The Ted Williams Villanelle”

Rita Dove “Canary”

Michael Harper “Martin’s Blues”

Gary Layne Hatch “Terror Torment; or, Mr. Hopkins and His Dog”

Seamus Heaney “The Forge”

Jane Hirshfield “Three Times My Life Has Opened”

Langston Hughes “Ballad of Booker T.”

Langston Hughes “Dream Boogie”

Langston Hughes “Morning After”

Langston Hughes “The Weary Blues”

John Keats “On First Looking into Chapman's Homer”

X. J. Kennedy “Nude Descending a Staircase”

Kenneth Koch “Variations on a Theme by William Carlos Williams”

Joseph Langland “Hunters in the Snow”

D. H. Lawrence “The Piano”

Bob McKenty “Snow on Frost”

W. S. Merwin “Unknown Bird”

Stephen Mitchell “Vermeer”

Howard Moss “Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day”

Linda Pastan “Emily Dickinson”

Boris Pasternak “Hamlet”

Ezra Pound “The River-Merchant's Wife: A Letter”

Kay Ryan “Crash”

Cathy Song “Girl Powdering Her Neck”

Wole Soyinka “Hamlet”

Edward Thomas “When First”

Natasha Trethewey “Bellocq’s Ophelia”

William Carlos Williams “The Dance”

Kevin Young “Langston Hughes”






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