Construct an evolutionary tree hypothesis, using the information in the character matrix, the data table, and other sources. Use 6 or more characters and all 7 hominids in your tree. After you have drawn and labeled your evolutionary tree hypothesis, circle the names of the hominids that are living today (modern).
Using observations and measurements from your completed Hominid Skull Comparison Data Table, Hominid Character Matrix, and your Tree Hypothesis, answer the following questions:
1. How would you respond to someone who claims that:
scientific evidence suggests that humans descended from chimps and gorillas?
scientific evidence suggests that humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees share an evolutionary common ancestor?
2. Essay Question
Discuss (write in complete sentences) at least four kinds of evidence (from the data table, matrix, and tree)
Circle the best answer for each of the following questions: 3. (1 pt.) Humans belong to the group of animals called (a) carnivores, (b) marsupials, (c) primates, (d) apes
4. (1 pt.) Which of the following animals has a body structure most similar to that of a human? (a) chimpanzee
(b) monkey (c) whale (d) seal
5. (1 pt.) In the human skull, where is the opening for the spinal cord located? (a) at the back (b) underneath
(c) in the front (d) none of these locations
6. (1 pt.) The human jaw (a) is Parabolic-shaped, (b) is V-shaped, (c) has more teeth than an ape,
(d) is H-shaped
7. (1 pt.) Fossils of the earliest hominins are found in (a) Australia, (b) Europe, (c) Greece, (d) Africa.
8. (1 pt.) All hominins (a) are bipedal, (b) have very large brains, (c) use tools, (d) use fire
9. (1 pt.) Which of the following was most like the human beings presently alive? (a) Homo erectus, (b) Homo
neanderthalensis, (c) Homo habilis (d) Australopithecus afarensis.
10. Essay Question
You discover a fossil adult skull on the banks of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The brain is 145 mm
wide and 180 mm long. The jaw is parabolic shaped. The foramen magnum is located underneath. The
fossil is about 35,000 years old.
a. (1 pt.) Is this fossil a hominin?
b. (2 pts.) What evidence supports your conclusion?
(1 pt.) To what genus and species might you assign this fossil?
This lesson and assessment revised and updated from the Delaware State Science Curriculum, SEPUP Biology,
Science and Global Issues, and Indiana University ENSI (Evolution and the Nature of Science Institutes) on the web: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/evol.fs.html by Christine M. Anderson for Middletown High School, 2013 and 2014, and Newton Rennie 2015 and by Christine M. Anderson 2015.