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Development of Teaching Materials Creative Writing Short Story Character Based
1Tarman A. Arif, 2Achmad Tolla, 3Ramly.
1tarmanarif@yahoo.com, 2atolkolorado@gmail.com, 3ramly84@gmail.com
1Doctoral Student, Indonesian Languange, Universitas Negeri Makassar, 2Associate Professor, Languages, Universitas Negeri Makassar, 3 Associate Professor, Languages, Universitas Negeri Makassar,


ABSTRACT

This research type is a research & development (Development & Research) with a Plump 1997 development model. The purpose of this study is to develop teaching materials based creative writing short stories in high school characters. Melalui penelitian pengembangan untuk menghasilkan suatu produk. Tambahkan uraian metode umum di sini.

From these research results, it appears that the validity of an average of 3.8 (good), average practicality 0.75 (high), the average effectiveness 0.79 (high) language used in teaching materials mean values ​​were 3.5 (good). The teaching materials validity from the third validator mean value 4.50 (very valid) the instrument validity from a third validator obtained R = 0.81 (high), the test question has the sensitivity value of 0.30 (quite high). Student activity observation sheet from three observers, R = 0.80 (high). Average practicality of 0.75 (high) character that appears in the learning observation, namely; BL (not visible), ML (into sight), MK (start growing) and MB (entrenched). The characters include religious, creative, responsibility, honesty, communicative, tolerance, respect for diversity, confidence, courtesy, curiosity, and discipline. So it was concluded that the characteristics of teaching materials needed for the students are teaching materials that filled with a character value and not limiting the character value of the existing 18-character value.

Recommended to teachers to prepare teaching materials that cost the character value and did not limit the character values of 18 characters.
Keywords; Teaching materials, creative writing short stories, character education


  1. INTRODUCTION

Educational world, especially schooling in Indonesia lately has experienced a fast development regarding quantity, but the increase in quantity was not followed by a development in quality, consequently it is important to realize that student achievement has grown, but concerning about character values have has not been met. Showed from the number of students involved in brawls, drug use, and a motorcycle gang. Based on that basis development is made for teaching materials that facilitate the learning implementation towards the character development in literature which is writing short stories in character-based.

In accordance with the observations preliminary results at SMAN 9 Makassar, the quantity of students that 560 people have been relatively balanced with 8 teachers. However, the students study results in writing short stories has not been achieved. This is because teachers teaching materials preparation must first determine the characters’ values that appear in writing short stories, thus the students are thinking heavily and fear of making mistakes. Consequently, the results of learning to write is not in accordance with the competence that intended achievement.

From year to year, the learning evaluation results have not shown any significant changes; it shows the results of the assessment in 2012, the overall class X which consists of 15 levels, with a total of 560 students, only 108 or 33.21% students who score 76.21. Similarly, the evaluation results in 2013, only 521 students who scored 75.81, or 31.56%, and in 2014 the learning evaluation results to write short stories show the 572 students who got 76.31, or 34.26%, and the 312 students who got 71.45, or 67.76%, the remaining 32.24% of students who scored below 70 or less KKM. (Recapitulation of the principal value). Therefore, it is crucial for the development of teaching materials that contain character values ​​that give character values ​​borders, that should be considered by the student in writing short stories. Because today, so many students need instructional materials that contain about building a character. Students often brawl, motorcycle gangs, and many others, to deal with such matters are not only imposed to the parents alone, but all the elements involved, should be responsible, including the school and including the society. Learning to write will be implemented properly, effectively, and efficiently if the teaching materials are in good use. Teaching materials as one of the tools in the learning activities in compliance must be in align with desired competencies to make learning outcomes achievable.

With that basis, the author wants to develop teaching materials in writing character-based short stories at high school, with a title that will be addressed in this study is "Development of Teaching Materials Creative Writing Short Story Character Based”. Issues addressed in this study are; What are the characteristics of teaching materials needed by teachers and students?.

The goal of this research is to; Defining the characteristics of teaching materials to write a short story based on the characters. The benefits to be achieved from this study are as a reference for teachers to understand how the development and preparation of teaching materials laden with character value.





  1. THEORETICAL REVIEW

This section describes the theory as a reference in reviewing teaching materials of Creative Writing Short Story in SMA Negeri 9 Makassar. The theory used as a reference is Literature Theory, Literature Teaching, Teaching Material, Creative Writing Short Story, and Character Education.
2. 1. Literature Theory

Literature Theory in general, defined by a system of scientific or systematic knowledge that establishes the relationship between the arrangement patterns of symptoms observed. The theory provides a concept or a description of the general laws of an object of knowledge of a particular viewpoint. The notion of world literature significantly affects the idea of comparative literature, particularly in the initial stages. The essence of literature and Literature works etymologically taken from Western languages (European) such as literature (English), Literature (French), literature (in German), and Literature (Dutch). Everything comes from the word literature (Latin) that is created from the translation of the word grammatical (Greek). Literature and grammatical respectively by the words "literal" and "grammar" which means letters (text or letter).


2. 2. Literature Teaching In Schools

Rosenblatt Aminuddin (1997) [1] uggested the primary purpose of teaching literature is translated into several things:



  1. Focuses the student on the selection of ideas and greater attention to the problems of humanity in the form of expression that reflect humanity.

  2. Take students on awareness and strengthening attitude to a more open attitude toward morals, beliefs, possession of guilt and the discovery of some values that need understanding.

  3. Inviting students to question issues that are related to personal behavior

  4. Providing opportunities for students to clarify and deepen understandings of the beliefs, feelings, and behavior of humanity

  5. Help students better knew themselves smarter and consideration.


2. 3. The nature of Instructional Materials

Understanding

  1. Definition of Instructional Materials (MONE, 2010) [2].

  2. Functions Subjects (MONE: 2007)[3]

  3. Forms of Teaching Material (www.dikti.go.id/files/atur/KTSP-SMK/11.ppt

  4. Benefits and Role of Teaching Material

  5. Preparation of Teaching Material

  6. The main components of teaching materials are: a) review the material, b) introduction to each chapter, c) the closing of each chapter, d) bibliography, and e) lists.

  7. Good Subjects Resource

  8. Principles of Electoral Subjects

  9. Step-by-Step Instructional Materials Selection


2. 4. Theory of Writing Short Story

The short story is short essays in prose. In the short story characters separated piece of life, full of conflict, moving or fun events, and contains the impression not easily forgotten Heru Kurniawan Sutardi (2012) [4]() says that the short story is a long story around 5000 words or approximately 17 quarto pages spaced-centered and full of himself Gerard (1996) [5]. To determine the length of the short story is difficult to measure general, short stories read complete within 10 to 20 minutes. If short stories are longer possible up to 1½ or 2 hours. Clearly, there are no short story as long as 100 pages (Surana, 1987). Short story is short essays in prose. In the short story, narrated a piece of character’s life full of conflict, heartwarming or fun events and consisted an impression that is not easily forgotten.

Technique in writing short stories are as follows:


  1. The first paragraph memorable first paragraph is the key to opening. The short story is a short essay; the first paragraph can go straight to the point, and instead of rambling on things that cliché especially if then any impression.

  2. Describing the atmosphere dig a background sometimes require detail rather slick and creative. The depiction of atmosphere ordinary and the well-known public would not be interesting to the reader. If we are to describe the state of the city with high buildings, traffic chaos, and hustle of the city, it is not interesting depiction because this analogy is not a new thing.

  3. Using effective sentence, effective sentence is a sentence that immediately gives the impression to readers. By using the effective sentence, readers should be able to more quickly grasp the meaning of each part of the story to graduate.

  4. Moving the characters (characters) In the story, there is always a character. The characters that are present always moves physically or psychologically in sense painted the same with daily living.

  5. The focus of the story in short stories, all forms should concentrate on the major issues.

  6. Jolt end of the story should cease when the issue is considered finished. The tendency of cutting-edge stories is the final surprise that makes the reader curious gasp and. Apparently, the short story has ended text as the author desired.


2. 5. Character Education

Aristoteles defines good character as life by doing right actions on oneself and others. Something similar was stated by Michael Novak, that the character is a compatible mix of all the good that is identified by a religious tradition, literary story, the wise, and set sensible person in the history. Character education is one simple thing because the word "character" is all self-development of students in learning interactions to the beginning and the end of the teaching process can be achieved construction of student character (Balitbang training for Ministry of Religion) Law Number 20 Year 2003 on National Education System, Article 1, paragraph 1 states that "education is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual power of religion, self-control, personality, intelligence, character, and skills needed him, society, nation, and country ". Therefore, in the world of education it is expected Indonesian men of character to appear.



The final result of this product development is based on a step-by-step model of Special Purpose Education Syllabus Development, it can be argued that: (1) describing the content of the material in the module MKU BI arranged in each topic and subtopic in accordance with the particular purpose defined by the needs of students and the learning analysis, (2) a description of the contents of the material are arranged in the order in a systematic and logical based on the sequence of topics, (3) the presentation order of learning materials contents begins with an understanding of Indonesian language for law that talks about the relationship between language and the law, the topic of rules forming sentences using sentence patterns law, in next material presentation is to develop ideas that are shaping the skills of students to compose structured legal essay, the last presentation is a matter of scientific writings that students required to write a scientific papers, (4) the form of self-assessment in this module in the form of a practical exercise which aims to measure the level of student mastery in achieving the learning objectives, and (5) learning by using this module emphasis on independent learning, which provides a learning experience that is self-contained and self-directed.


    1. Thinking Framework

In the process of simplifying learning, teachers need instructional materials aligned with the learning material, in particular on the matter of character-based writing short stories for high school students class X. The material used must be in accordance with the teaching materials tenth grade students to write short stories which include four standard aspects, the first is the content writing short stories for class X, the second is the presentation in the form of action learning activities, which consists of the initial activities, core, cover, and exercises, the three are aspects of language and legibility adjusted to the standard high school students of class X, and the fourth is the aspect of graphics should be in make it enjoyable and well.

Mindset Chart

Chart Mindset



III. RESEARCH METHODS

This research type is research & development (R & D) by referring to the Plomp development model (1997) this study aims to develop teaching materials to write a short story based on the characters of quality (valid, practical, and efficient). Therefore, this study designed in the form of research and development (developmental and research), which is conducting research on product development. This research has been conducted in SMA Negeri 9 Makassar as targets for pilot implementation at the SBC Curriculum Academic Year 2015-2016 in the city of Makassar.

Focus descriptions in this study are as follows;


  1. Development of teaching materials was carried out to create a product of teaching materials laden character values is valid, practical, effective;

  2. Teaching Materials that mentioned in the development of teaching materials is to write short stories that take into account the value of the character value.

As already mentioned that the development of teaching materials that do this following the Plomp development modification (1997). Consequently, the following successive outlined activities undertaken at each stage of development. 1) Preliminary Investigation Phase-1, 2) Phase-2 Design, 3) Realization Phase-3, 4) Phase-4 Testing, Evaluation, and Revision

All activities MKCBK material development process with tools and appropriate instruments as described above can be described as follows:




Activity
Preparation of draft
Test experts 1
Preparation of the manuscript early
Test experts 2
Small scale test
Wide scale testing
test legibility

Input
Theoritical review
early drafts
The test script expert
Draft
script
Manuscript Subjects

Output
early drafts
Revised draft
initial manuscript
script
Revised manuscript
Teaching materials
legible
dissemination

Figure . Flow Teaching Material Development Activity


Data obtained from the results of validation by experts analyzed to answer the question "what MKCBK teaching materials along with the device are valid or not?". Likewise, to respond to questions about the appropriateness of teaching materials MKCBK, namely "whether theoretically, MKCBK Instructional Materials and learning tools that are developed can be described in a class or not?". Results validation Instructional Materials and devices are interrelated, meaning that the results validate the Instructional Materials MKCBK can directly drive the learning appliance. The reliability is calculated using the formula.

Information:



  • Agreements (A) is the magnitude of the frequency matches between the two data validators / observer.

  • Disagreements (D) is the amount of frequency that does not match between a data validator / observer.

  • R is the coefficient (degrees) reliability of the instrument (Grinnell, 1988)

According to Borich (1990), these instruments meet the criteria of reliability when R ≥ 75%. The reliability of questionnaires and evaluation sheets learning outcomes calculated using formulas Alpha, namely:




with α is the coefficient of reliability tests
Information:

K is a lot of test items

is the amount of variance test items

is the total variance



IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  1. Data Analysis Development Results

Below will be described the results of development as follows;

The results obtained at each stage of development of teaching materials described below.



  1. Phase 1: Preliminary Investigation

Based on the results of earlier investigations that have been carried out as stated in Chapter III, suggests there is a need for teaching materials Indonesian especially in writing short stories that take into consideration the value of the characters in it in detail. The teaching materials are expected to meet the criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness.


  1. Phase 2: Design

The results of the preliminary design at this stage include (1) the results of the preliminary design MKCBK teaching materials, (2) the results of the initial design of the instruments that are relevant to MKCBK teaching materials, and (3) the results of the initial design of the MKCBK teaching materials.

The results of the design of these are described below.



  1. Results of Teaching Material Design MKCBK

Results MKCBK design instructional materials in the form of design textbook format MKCBK whose components include (1) the teaching materials syntax, (2) supporting theories and components MKCBK teaching materials, and (3) the instructions for use of teaching materials MKCBK.


  1. Results of Instrument Design

There was 3 designed instrument, which instrument validity, practicality instruments, and instruments effectiveness. These three types of instruments are designed to be used in an attempt to obtain data about the process and the results of the development of teaching materials and their MKCBK learning devices by the MKCBK.


  1. Results Learning Tool Design

In this design phase, learning tools and teaching materials designed covers (1) lesson plans, (2) materials, and (3) the student activity sheets (LKS). Lesson plans designed for three meetings so that the results of this design consists of RP-1, RP-2, and RP-3. as well as Student Activity Sheet includes LKS-1, LKS-2, and LKS-3.


  1. Phase -3: Realization

The products obtained in the realization phase includes (1) textbook MKCBK, (2) the instruments MKCBK (instrument validity, instrument practicality, and instruments effectiveness) and (3) the instruments of learning appropriate to the teaching materials MKCBK, namely learning plan (RP-1, RP-2, and RP-3), student activity sheet LKS-1, LKS-2, and LKS-3, and achievement test sheet.

  1. MKCBK Teaching Material Description

  2. MKCBK Instrument Instructional Materials Description

  3. MKCBK Learning Tool Description

Products MKCBK learning device obtained in this realization phase are : (1) Lesson Plan (RP), (2) Student Activity Sheet (LKS), and (3) Textbook. The description of each product was expressed as follows:
a) Learning Plan (RP), b) Student Activity Sheet (LKS), c) Textbook
4. Phase-4 Test, Evaluation, and Revision

4.1. Instrument Development Outcomes

a). Test instrument validity, b) Practicality instruments, c). The effectiveness of the instrument. With an average value of R = 0.73 (high)

1) Learning Outcomes Test Sheet

Achievement test sheets consisting of 5 numbers and problem-shaped because the description. Once tested against 39 students of class X SMA Negeri 9 Makassar, obtained reliability coefficient R = 0.73 (high). All matter has a good sensitivity coefficients (greater or equal to 0.30), and all the questions have sufficient validity coefficient / high.

2) Observation Sheet Students Activities reliability coefficient obtained based on an assessment of 2 validators, including high category that R = 0.80.

3) Observation Sheet Capability Teachers Using Instructional Materials in Learning MKCBK of two observers analyzed and acquired the reliability coefficient R = 0.76.

4) The questionnaire response to learning MKCBK Students also developed to obtain one type of data supporting the effectiveness of teaching materials.


4.2. Validation Results Subjects

The assessment results as well as analysis of the revision of teaching materials MKCBK described below;



  1. the structure of teaching materials, image display, and color with the average value of 4.0,

  2. organization of writing; clarity and order of the material, the material accuracy KD, and the truth of the material with the average value of 3.8 (good),

  3. supporting the presentation of the material; illustration accuracy conformity with the material, presenting concrete examples from the surrounding environment, the presentation of text accompanied by a reference, a source of reference, the table identifier, and a bibliography with the average value of 4.0 (good),

  4. the language used such as spelling, suitability sentence that is easily understood by the mean value of 3.8 (good) In the aspect of assessment I to 3 votes on the structure of teaching materials mean values of 3.75 (good).

4.3. MKCBK Learning Tool Validation Results

The devices are used to support teaching materials MKCBK includes (1) Lesson Plan (RP-1 to RP 3), (2) Activity Sheet Students (BLM-1 to LKS-3) and Textbook with an average value of 3.75 (good). After revision of the devices above (RP-1, LKS-1, and Textbook), requested validation validator back in the third with the average value of the validity of the Textbook on the first validation until the validation to three increases of 2.5 (quite valid) rose to 4.50 (very valid).

a. Analysis of Results of Testing

Results of these tests the practicality and effectiveness of teaching materials at each test for each meeting on Trial I, until a trial to III and fase1 until phase 4 data obtained an average score fulfilled (T), namely: the meeting I score T = 2.69 T = 2.81 second meeting, the third meeting of T = 3.06, lesson plans



b. Student Results

By the results of the assessment of learning outcomes of students of class X SMA Negeri 9 Makassar on learning materials MKCBK who finished at 35 students, while four others did not complete because the score they obtained underscore KKM. From the research results for the classical completeness MKCBK learning outcomes in learning SMA Negeri 9 Makassar, students who completed that is equal to 93.33% of 39 students while students who did not complete, i.e., 6.67%. The percentage of students who complete study results can be seen in the figure below.


4.4. Implementation of Character Based Learning Process

The instrument used in this study is the observation sheet student's character. This instrument contains code students are expected to emerge in the learning process MKCBK, the characters are;

religious; Creative; Responsible; Honesty; Communicative; Tolerance; Valuing Diversity; Confidence; politeness; Want to know; Discipline.

To know the characters that appear during the learning MKCBK use observation sheets, then conducted direct observation in the classroom and its undertaking to do 5 minutes. The instrument used is the result of the development of assessment instruments that have the character of students through expert validation phase.


B. Discussion

The validation results of teaching materials which consist of 3 teaching materials for the meeting of 1, 2 and three meeting validated by the validator three presented in Table 5.6. On the aspects of teaching materials, the average score is 3.75 (good). For the aspects of the presentation of the material, the average value is ratings 3.8 (good). As for the areas of the language used in teaching materials mean values ​​were 3.5 (good). Similarly, the validation results in Student Activity Sheet instrument that consist of 3 LKS its average value of 3.75 (good) because the structure of the teaching material is the material in accordance with the purpose of learning, attractive teaching materials, the letter is clear, readable and contain information and a clear concept. For aspects assessment 2 (supporting innovation and the quality of teaching and learning activities), which includes the idea of questions in the LKS (Students’ Worksheet). Still within the scope of the understanding of high school students an emphasis on real world application also easy to develop students' thinking skills that support the implementation of KBM. Providing ease in carrying out an overall assessment and be able to lure the students’ curiosity their mean is 3.5 (enough 5) and need to be improved in the context of the sentence in accordance with the LKS validation results.

Validation of learning outcome test results, in the form of Test Description which is created based on Test Framework Learning Outcomes and Marking Scheme also validated by two validators. For the assessment of learning outcomes, it is composed of two aspects of assessment, namely the general aspects of assessment criteria and the assessment criteria concept, validation results expressed by two validators stating that Learning outcome test included in the good criteria and needs simplification sentences in each item test.

On the instrument validation results for student character assessment consisting of 9 Values / Character Students along with indicators of each character has been validated by two validators. This shows that for each value / character Valid students with revision / improvement in the indicator and each component value / character of students, definition is added to make more clear for the assessment of learning so that it fits between the values / character of students with the indicator.

Assessment validator 1 and 2 are different because the device must first be validated by the validator one then revised and the revised validated by validator 2. Based on the stages of development that have been followed, then produced a learning device which is then revised again. In general, the results of the validation study showed that the development of the learning device is feasible and can be used with minor revisions, of the validation results are then revised or revise the devices that have been made previously. With the revisions are done, then the device has been made relevant to be tested or used in learning in school and is also a guide for teachers on the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities.

Devices produced at the stage of development of the device which is then validated and then tested by applying it to learning SMA Negeri 9 MKCBK in Makassar. The implementation stages, it was observed that several aspects of student activities, teacher activity, the implementation of a character-based learning, learning outcomes and student interest and motivation for learning. It also looked at the students' interest and motivation.

Observation of teachers and students’ activities from the first meeting until the meeting III increasing of the meeting to the next, thus it can be concluded that the teaching of creative writing short stories based on characters can increase the activity of teachers and students, because the higher the activity of students in the higher learning results,

Based on the results of research and discussion, it can be concluded that the description of the character of students in MKCBK already evident, it can be seen from the indicators that have been appropriate. Religious character, communicative, and valuing diversity is the most dominating character on students while the character of honesty is a character that is still a bit of the students because there are many students who do not exhibit the behavior of the characters so that still need a lot of guidance from all stakeholders, including parents.



C. Unique Findings

This section researchers considers special results for this aspect is the findings from any development results in this research;

"Teaching materials needed teaching material students are writing short stories laden character value and place no limitation character values in the learning of 18-character value that exists".
V. CONCLUSIONS
Based on the analysis of data on the development of this research, can be summed up as follows:


  1. MKCBK teaching materials development Results for high school students of class X is declared good, making it feasible to use in learning. Shown in the content and aspects of language assessment by subject matter experts with an average score of each 3.92 and 4.16 in the category of "good". The presentation aspects, aspects of language, and the value of the characters that appear by a character who had a mean score of 3, 18; 3.4; and 3.36 in the category of "enough".

  2. Based on the test results of students to the legibility MKCBK in high school teaching materials, product development results have received positive responses from students as indicated by the lowest score of 3.0 in the category of "enough" and the highest score of 4.3 in the category of "very good".

  3. The results of the development of teaching materials MKCBK overall declared fit for use. It is shown from the results of expert assessment of materials and expert character value, with the assessment criteria of "good" with average ratings of 4.15 and 3.46.

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